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18. Bio-geochemistry

004: The Southern Ocean and Its Role in the Climate System: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Downes, Princeton University, sdownes@princeton.edu; Nicole Jeffery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, njeffery@lanl.gov; Joellen Russell, University of Arizona, jrussell@email.arizona.edu; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, wilbert@lanl.gov

Over the past decade, the climate dynamics, biogeochemistry and physical oceanographic communities have highlighted the Southern Ocean as a key player in the climate system. Thus, understanding the processes that shape the Southern Ocean mean state, variability, and response to external forcing is essential for our understanding of the climate system as a whole. Data collections have expanded significantly over the past decade, and modeling efforts have advanced through Earth System Model development, data assimilation solutions, and process models. These new developments require investigation of how (or whether) the representation of the Southern Ocean has been improved using a combination of model-model and model-data comparisons. The goal of this session is to present modeling and/or data efforts that investigate all aspects of the Southern Ocean, including its mixing and mesoscale processes, large-scale circulation, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-ice interactions, and biogeochemical processes. We particularly encourage analyses using models for the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and assimilated models. (2, 4, 7, 8, 18)

011: Biology, Biogeochemistry, and Bio-optics of the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Kevin R. Arrigo, Stanford University, arrigo@stanford.edu; Marcel Babin, Universite Laval, Marcel.Babin@takuvik.ulaval.ca; Don Perovich, donald.k.perovich@usace.army.mil

Rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic Ocean over the last decade are likely to markedly alter its biology and biogeochemistry. Changes have been most extreme in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, this area has received considerable scientific interest in recent years. Remote sensing studies suggest that as sea ice cover and the length of sea ice season has decreased, primary productivity in the pelagic environment has risen, particularly on continental shelves. However, associated changes within the sea ice ecosystem are not known. Unfortunately, satellite remote sensing in Arctic waters is challenging and an improved understanding of the optical characteristics of its surface waters and sea ice cover is sorely needed. The goal of this session is to present recent efforts to characterize ongoing changes in the biology and biogeochemistry in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, using both field-based and satellite-based approaches, and relate these to changes in the physical environment, including sea ice. We also welcome results from work being done to improve our ability to monitor changes in this remote and difficult to sample environment using satellite measurements of ocean color, as was done during the Malina and ICESCAPE cruises. (3, 7, 12, 18)

023:  Dissolved Organic Matter and the ‘Hidden’ Carbon Cycle: Schedule

Organizers: Andy Ridgwell, University of Bristol, andy@seao2.org; Dennis Hansell, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu; Sandra Arndt, University of Bristol, san.arndt@gmail.com; Ellen Druffel, University of California, Irvine, edruffel@uci.edu

There is sufficient dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the modern ocean to put it on par with the atmospheric and terrestrial vegetation carbon reservoirs. Recent geological interpretations have recognized the potential for changes in the DOM reservoir to drive perturbations of global carbon cycling, with isotopic (and often global warming) events in Earth history being increasingly invoked as consequences of DOM oxidation. If true, one might also question how the DOM reservoir will respond to future global environmental changes. To date, global ocean models have tended to focus on the rapid recycling of the most labile of DOM fractions; the large bulk of more refractory fractions have not been widely considered, yet they must be in play if DOM drives the larger perturbations. Are we underestimating a wider dynamical role for DOM in the ocean with potential for feedback with climate? This session will aim to unmask the nature and role of the ocean DOM cycle, and to this end, we invite submissions addressing any of DOM’s hidden facets, including: ocean observations and laboratory characterization; diagenetic, biological, and/or global models; and hypotheses regarding the potential role(s) of DOM in past, present, and future global carbon dynamics and climate. (1, 4, 8, 18)

026: Sources, Transformation, and Sinks of Black Carbon in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Rainer Lohmann, University of Rhode Island, lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Carrie Masiello, Rice University, masiello@rice.edu

Black carbon (BC), the carbonaceous aromatic residue of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, is a ubiquitous component of global carbon pools due to its refractivity. Following production, BC travels through soils and the atmosphere and eventually enters the ocean. Although BC has been detected in all marine carbon pools, its roles in marine dissolved and particulate organic carbon are poorly constrained. Major uncertainties include the size of global and regional BC fluxes to the ocean, the significance of marine biodegradation of BC (if any), and BC residence times in the oceans. If biodegradation of BC is minimal in the ocean, BC may serve as a recalcitrant tracer of terrestrial carbon, potentially providing information about ocean dynamics and about the interaction of the terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. On the other hand, in the terrestrial biosphere BC particles alter nutrient cycling, serve as a nucleus for microbial activity, and in watersheds can act as a UV screen. No information yet exists on the continuity or loss of these functions as BC enters the marine system. This session is proposed to convene practitioners from field, laboratory and modeling research to discuss latest findings and highlight on-going research needs. (4, 8, 18)

028: Comparing Physical Processes in Large Lakes and Shallow Inland/Marginal Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Dmitry Beletsky, University of Michigan, beletsky@umich.edu; Chin Wu, University of Wisconsin-Madison, chinwu@engr.wisc.edu; Cary Troy, Purdue University, troy@purdue.edu; Ram Rao, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, ram.yerubandi@ec.gc.ca

This session’s focus is on comparative analysis of physical limnology and oceanography of large lakes and shallow (less than 1000 m deep) inland and marginal seas. Papers are solicited dealing with modeling, experimental and laboratory studies of physical processes (waves, currents, turbulence, stratification, ice, sediment transport, etc.) in water bodies dynamically similar to large lakes (where Earth rotation effects are important). Examples include large lakes such as Lake Geneva, the Great Lakes, the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, etc. (2, 5, 6)

029: Sediment Transport and Deposition in Lakes, Estuaries, and Shallow Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Nathan Hawley, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, nathan.hawley@noaa.gov; Courtney K. Harris, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ckharris@vims.edu; Lawrence P. Sanford, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, lsanford@umces.edu

The physical characteristics of many lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves - relatively small volumes of water, shallow water depths, relatively long coastlines, and high loadings from rivers and shoreline sources - make them particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. In recent years human population pressures have increased demands on these regions, and in many cases have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of problems such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, excess turbidity, and high rates of sedimentation. Climate change is expected to add stressors such as increased runoff, storminess, and sea level rise. The importance of sediment transport has become increasingly recognized since not only are many nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants transported by sediments, but sediment-induced turbidity also may limit the amount of light available for photosynthesis and visual predation. Recent advances in theoretical, observational, and numerical modeling have led to increased understanding of sediment dynamics in these complex systems. The session encourages submissions covering any aspect of sediment transport and depositional processes in lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves, including field observations, laboratory experiments, and modeling studies. Studies of physical forcing, sedimentary response, different modes of transport, biogeochemical feedbacks with sediments, and particle behavior are all welcomed. (1, 2, 5, 6)

030: Gulf of Mexico Circulation & Ecosystem Numerical Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher N. K. Mooers, Portland State University, cmooers@cecs.pdx.edu; Patrick Hogan, Naval Research Laboratory, pat.hogan@nrlssc.navy.mil; Leo Oey, Princeton University, lyo@princeton.edu; Claire Paris, RSMAS/University of Miami, cparis@rsmas.miami.edu

The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico is dominated by the Loop Current and the eddies it sheds, and by the passage of intense weather systems in all seasons. The highly variable and intense circulation, together with river discharges, impacts the marine ecosystems of the Gulf. Intensive and extensive field and modeling studies have increased the understanding of the circulation and provide a basis for skill assessing numerical circulation models and prediction systems. Today, more than 20 significant models exist for the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Hence, the Gulf of Mexico has potential to serve as a modeling & observing system testbed for prediction systems. The aim of this session is to explore the skill of some of these models, especially as they apply to ecosystem models. The complex roles of the circulation on dispersion and ecosystem response in the Deepwater Horizon oil & gas gusher event, which began 20 APR 10 and ran for three months, gives new impetus (indeed, urgency) to this topic area. (2, 9, 13, 14)

031: Biogeochemical Cycles of Continental Margins: Drivers and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov; Cécile Cathalot, Netherlands Institute for Ecology - Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, C.Cathalot@nioo.knaw.nl; Marjorie Friedrichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, marjy@vims.edu; Peter Griffith, NASA GSFC, peter.c.griffith@nasa.gov; Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov

Biogeochemical cycling in the coastal zone is complex and poorly quantified, both on the mean and in terms of variability in response to a myriad of natural and anthropogenic drivers. Such complexity leads to substantial uncertainty in global and regional carbon budgets This session focuses on recent progress in understanding coastal biogeochemical cycling, with emphasis on linkages to terrestrial and global ocean cycles. Two areas of research are particularly sought: (1) impacts of climate variability, extreme events (e.g. floods, resuspension), and land-cover/land-use change on the transport and cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements to and within the coastal ocean margins; (2) synthesis and modeling work that leads to improved coastal zone carbon budgets at scales of global relevance. This special session invites investigators to present and discuss recent progress in coastal systems biogeochemistry from observational, experimental, and modeling perspectives. (5, 6, 8, 9, 18)

032: The Arctic and Subpolar North Atlantic as the Pacemakers for Climate Change: Schedule

Organizers: Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada, Igor.Yashayaev@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Dan Seidov, NOAA NODC/Ocean Climate Laboratory, USA, Dan.Seidov@noaa.gov; Dagmar Kieke, University of Bremen, Germany, dkieke@physik.uni-bremen.de; Entcho Demirov, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, entcho@mun.ca

Arctic and Subarctic oceanic processes are critically important for regulating Earth’s climate. As a part of a polar-amplification of climate change the polar areas are warming faster than most other regions of the world. The subpolar North Atlantic acts as a receptor for Arctic-driven climate variability and actively modulates and redistributes climate signals. High-latitude oceanography and climatology are now strongly enhanced by continuing oceanographic monitoring of polar and subpolar basins involving new near real-time in-situ (profiling floats, seagliders) and remote sensing technologies, and by extensive ocean and climate modeling. In conjunction with historic observations and computer simulations these programs have led to important recent advancements in polar and subpolar oceanography and thus in planetary climatology. The session offers an opportunity to discuss new oceanographic data in the Arctic and North Atlantic regions and the ongoing analysis of these data, which in many ways improve our understanding of high-latitude oceanic processes. Of interest to the session are changes in water mass formation, changes in transports and water mass propagation, variability of heat, freshwater and salt content, and changes in their forcing mechanisms. Furthermore, presentations on exchanges between the Arctic and the subpolar North Atlantic and on various aspects of integration of observations and models are highly appreciated. Ocean climate change on decadal, centennial and longer time scale and its impact on regional and global climate is also of great interest to the session. (2, 7, 8)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

034: Long Waves on Continental Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Alexander Yankovsky, University of South Carolina, ayankovsky@geol.sc.edu; Andrew Kennedy, University of Notre Dame, andrew.kennedy@nd.edu

Continental shelves cause long wave amplification, act as a waveguide for trapped wave modes, promote energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic modes, enhance long wave dissipation, and transport energy and momentum far from their generation region. We invite papers which delineate these processes on a wide range of scales including both subinertial and superinertial frequencies. Of particular interest are long waves generated by atmospheric forcing (including extreme forcing events) and tides. Ideally we would like to achieve a combination of theoretical, modeling, laboratory and observational studies. Interdisciplinary studies relating long wave dynamics with biological and geological processes are encouraged. (2, 6)

035: Using Data From Autonomous Vehicles and Drifters to Support Education and Outreach: Schedule

Organizers: James A. Yoder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, jyoder@whoi.edu; Janice McDonnell, Rutgers University, mcdonnel@marine.rutgers.edu

Measurements of physical, optical, biological, and biogeochemical ocean properties, as well as high resolution photographic, video and acoustic mapping of bottom features, collected by autonomous vehicles and drifters are now a major source of ocean data supporting research and applications. For example, ARGO drifters are the only in situ global observing system of currents, temperature and salinity; sensors on an autonomous vehicle provided the best measurements of the rate at which oil was escaping from the recent blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and also mapped the deep, subsurface oil plume; a glider recently traversed the Atlantic Ocean; autonomous vehicles are becoming the best way to locate and map bottom features; and drifters are routinely measuring profiles of oxygen and other biogeochemical properties from the Southern Ocean and other remote areas of the global ocean. Not only are autonomous vehicles and drifters providing important and interesting data, the technology is ìcoolî and exciting to students of all ages and has the potential to help learners create their own knowledge and understanding of the ocean. Our session looks for contributions from scientists and educators who are working together on education and outreach projects that utilize the data collected from autonomous platforms. Our session goal is to share effective practices and evaluation data around the application of these technologies. (10, 13)

036: COSEE:Using Evaluation to Measure the Impacts of Education/Outreach: Schedule

Organizers: Patricia Kwon, COSEE-West, pkwon@aqmd.gov; Andrea Anderson, Soundview Evaluation, andrea@soundviewevaluation.com; Diana Payne, Connecticut Sea Grant, diana.payne@uconn.edu; Shawn Rowe, Oregon State University, shawn.rowe@oregonstate.edu

COSEE (Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence) is an NSF Division of Ocean Sciences program. The COSEE network consists of 14 thematic and regional Centers across the U.S. and its mission is engaging scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. One of the unique aspects of the COSEE program is that each Center has its own evaluator—a person or team continually assessing the effectiveness and impact of education strategies and activities. This session will discuss what has been learned since the beginning of the COSEE program in 2002. During this session COSEE evaluators and scientists will present the results of a variety of studies on COSEE audiences, scientist-educator collaborations, and broader impacts and education/outreach activities. From ocean observing systems to concept mapping to models, we will showcase what weíve learned since the beginning of the COSEE program in 2002 and discuss the implications for future COSEE education strategies and evaluation efforts. (10)

037:   Operational Applications of Ocean Satellite Observations: Schedule

Organizers: Margaret Srinivasan, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory, margaret.srinivasan@jpl.nasa.gov; Dr. Robert Leben, University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, leben@colorado.edu

We invite contributions on operational applications utilizing both near real-time (NRT) and reconstructed historical ocean satellite data, in addition to ocean reanalysis and coupled models of relevant parameters. Of particular interest are studies and methods that highlight the practical uses of altimetry, scatterometry, ocean color, ocean temperature, salinity and gravity data with real-world or potential commercial applications. The combination of data between two or more sensors, or between multiple satellites producing same sensor data, can be a powerful tool in analyzing ocean circulation and climate effects, can contribute to operational optimizations, and can even have significant contributions to issues of safety at sea. Operational applications may include, but are not limited to, offshore oil and other marine operations, NRT data streams, NRT coastal monitoring, operational processing, blended satellite data for operational use, marine mammal studies, fisheries management, recreational boating, and climate/hurricane studies. We strongly encourage topics in marine forecasting and those with potential industry or commercial applications. (2, 12, 13)

038: Changing Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems in the Western North Pacific Continental Margins Under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Forcing: Schedule

Organizers: Kon-Kee Liu, National Central University, kkliu@ncu.edu.tw; Minhan Dai, Xiamen University, mdai@xmu.edu.cn; Gwo-Ching Gong, National Taiwan Ocean University, gcgong@ntou.edu.tw; Chih-Hau Hsieh, National Taiwan University, chsieh@ntu.edu.tw; Hiroaki Saito, Fisheries Research Agency, hsaito@affrc.go.jp

Continental margins in the western north Pacific are bordered by the worldís most densely populated coastal communities and receive runoffs from very large rivers. The large anthropogenic pressure threatens diverse coastal marine ecosystems, as demonstrated by the four-fold increase of Changjiang nitrogen loading in the past 30 years that possibly contributes to the increasing hypoxia in the East China Sea. On the other hand, increasing impounding of freshwater for irrigation purposes may reduce riverine load of dissolved silicate, altering discharge patterns, nutrient elemental ratios and phytoplankton community downstream. Increasing frequencies of widespread flooding since the beginning of the 20th century, which is attributable to the accelerated global hydrological cycle, may also cause marked changes in coastal oceans. As continental margins sustain arguably the most productive ecosystems and most active biogeochemical processes in the earth system, the stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large human population. Moreover, the altered biogeochemical cycles may cause many unknown feedbacks that exacerbate effects of climate change. We invite contributions on interactions between physical-biogeochemical processes and the ecosystem in the west Pacific and consequences of human perturbations on these systems, as revealed by field observations, remote sensing, or modeling studies. (6, 8, 9, 18)

039: Ocean Biogeochemistry Time-Series and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida, carib@marine.usf.edu; Matthew Church, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, mjchurch@hawaii.edu; Michael Lomas, Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, michael.lomas@bios.edu; Gordon Taylor, Stony Brook University, gtaylor@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Much of our understanding of temporal variability associated with ocean biogeochemistry derives from sustained, systematic, shipboard time-series observations. Time-series science programs provide the oceanographic community with multi-year, high-quality data needed for characterizing ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem variability. We invite contributions from studies which use ocean carbon and biogeochemistry time-series data, and especially encourage studies that examine time-series observations and datasets to elucidate changes in ocean biogeochemical processes, ecosystem structure and function, and linkages and feedbacks with the Earth’s climate system. (3, 4, 8, 18)

040: Biogeochemistry of DOM in the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Cèline Guèguen, Trent University, celinegueguen@trentu.ca; Mats Garnskog, Norwegian Polar Institute, mats.granskog@npolar.no; Colin A. Stedmon, Aarhus University, cst@dmu.dk

The major sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Arctic Ocean are riverine input, inflow from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and autochthonous production in surface waters and shelf seas. Rapid climate change in the region is currently shifting the balance of these sources. As they each supply DOM with different chemical characteristics we can expect that the turnover and fate of this material will also change. Shifts in the bioavailability will influence the role that DOM plays in Arctic marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Increased supply of colored DOM (CDOM) will affect photochemistry, underwater light penetration and quality, and heat absorption. Studying the nature, distribution and source dependency of the persistent refractory fraction of DOM offers an additional tool to assess current and future circulation patterns. This ession invitess contributions on any of these aspects of Arctic DOM biogeochemistry. (4, 7, 18)

041: Methods and Applications of Data Assimilation for Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca; Micheal Dowd, Dalhousie University, mdowd@mathstat.dal.ca; Richard Matear, CSIRO, Richard.Matear@csiro.au; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca

The quantity and diversity of data available for monitoring ocean biogeochemical variables is rapidly increasing as new sensor technologies and observational platforms are deployed. A major challenge is the development of new analysis methods for these complex spatio-temporal data types that yield information not just about the ocean state, but also the underlying dynamical processes. Model-data fusion (or Data Assimilation) algorithms provide an attractive approach to exploit these new data streams within a robust statistical framework. This session invites contributions on biogeochemical data assimilation methods and applications that characterize the biogeochemical state; provide new ways to determine biogeochemical parameters; elucidate the processes driving biogeochemical variability and changes in the ocean; or provide guidance to observing strategies for biogeochemical fields. (4, 13, 16, 18)

053: Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean: Linking the OMZ To the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Angela Knapp, RSMAS/University of Miami, aknapp@rsmas.miami.edu; Alyson Santoro, UMCES-Horn Point, asantoro@whoi.edu; Rachel Foster, MPI Bremen, rfoster@mpi-bremen.de; Sophie Bonnet, IRD, France, Sophie.Bonnet@univmed.fr

The N budget for the global ocean remains poorly constrained, with some reports suggesting that sinks exceed sources. Moreover, the disparate geographical distribution of field efforts examining N removal from the ocean (primarily via denitrification) and N additions (primarily via N2 fixation) implied that they were spatially separated. The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) Ocean provides a testbed for the recently proposed tight coupling between N inputs and losses, as well as testing linkages between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Several major US and European-sponsored cruises have recently completed field work in these regions characterized by intense oxygen minimum zones, and novel measurements have been made including: molecular investigations of N-related gene sequences, rate determinations of N and C cycling, bottle incubations with nutrient and metal additions, N isotope analyses of common and rare N species, C and N fluxes from the surface ocean as captured by shallow and deep sediment traps, and other novel export estimates. This session welcomes contributions related to the N and/or C cycles observed in either the northern or southern ETP. (3, 4, 18)

057: Biogeochemical Cycling of Micronutrient Trace Elements: Schedule

Organizers: Maeve Lohan, University of Plymouth, maeve.lohan@plymouth.ac.uk; Andrew Bowie, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC, Andrew.Bowie@utas.edu.au; Toshi Gamo, Univeristy of Toyko, gamo@aori.u-toyko.ac.jp; Greg Cutter, Old Dominion University, gcutter@odu.edu

There is growing international interest (e.g., GEOTRACES, SOLAS, IMBER) to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. This session will focus on the trace elements that serve as micronutrients (e.g., Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, etc), the availability of which influence the biogeochemical activity of marine organisms, control the structure of ocean ecosystems and hence regulate the ocean carbon cycle. We also welcome presentation of data on diagnostic trace elements (e.g., Al, Mn, rare earths, etc) and isotopes that help characterise micronutrient sources and sinks. Submissions are invited which focus on micronutrients and diagnostic tracers in different phases (dissolved, particulate, speciation) that have been studied both along ocean sections from different ocean basins and in the context of process studies. We also welcome abstracts focusing on the numerical modeling of micronutrients to quantify lateral and vertical transports, as well as biogeochemical sources and sinks. (4, 18)

060: Marine Gas Hydrate Deposits: Research, Monitoring Strategies and Present-Day Knowledge: Schedule

Organizers: Ray Highsmith, University of Mississippi, ray@olemiss.edu; Laura Lapham, Aarhus University, laura.lapham@biology.au.dk; Leonardo Macelloni, University of Mississippi, lmacello@olemiss.edu; Marta Torres, Oregon State University, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

Gas hydrates are the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. Hydrate stability is influenced by temperature and pressure fluctuations. Several deposits have been identified world-wide near the seafloor surface and represent a unique system where stability might be affected also by microbial interactions, very low seismic activity and oceanographic fluctuations (storms, currents, tides). Methane reaching the seafloor from deep reservoirs becomes an important source of carbon for diverse communities of microbes and macrofauna, making these areas ecologically important. The near-surface hydrate sites also sequester large amounts of carbon within associated carbonate deposits, which provide habitat for benthic communities. Therefore, to understand the factors that control hydrate stability or interactions with the surrounding ocean, it is critical to monitor and study the deposits over time. We seek abstracts highlighting recent results on the evolution of geological, biological, or chemical factors based at established research/monitoring stations, such as in the Gulf of Mexico or the Cascadia Margin, or at hydrate sites around the world that have been visited frequently over time. What have we learned about hydrate deposits? How dynamic are they and what are the controlling factors? What is needed for future hydrate research and monitoring? (1, 3, 4, 18)

065: Physical-Ecological Interactions in Inland Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Alfred Wuest, EAWAG, alfred.wueest@eawag.ch; Josef Daniel Ackerman, University of Guelph, ackerman@uoguelph.ca; Miki Hondzo, SAFL at UMN, mhondzo@umn.edu

Anthropogenic impacts through natural resources use and climate change place increasing stress on inland waters. Significant among these changes are those related to the physical environment and the consequences for the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic environments. This session will address physical, biogeochemical and/or ecological interactions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the pelagos and benthos of coastal and inland waters. It will focus on defining relevant spatial and temporal scales, developing relationships, and predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. (2, 3, 4, 5, 18)

085: Development of a Global Ocean Biogeochemical Observing System Based on Profiling Floats and Gliders: Schedule

Organizers: Kenneth S. Johnson, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, johnson@mbari.org; Mary Jane Perry, University of Maine, perrymj@maine.edu; Herve Claustre, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, claustre@obs-vlfr.fr

Observing changes in biogeochemical processes at a global scale in a changing ocean is one of the most pressing issues in the ocean sciences. Changing oxygen levels, increasing acidity and greater thermal stratification all have the potential to substantially alter fluxes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.  Yet there is no extant observing system capable of resolving these processes in situ at the global scale. Deployment of a global ocean observing system based on biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats and gliders is rapidly becoming feasible. In this session, we will focus on the potential for the development of such a system, which we call GLOBE (GLobal Ocean Biogeochemical Experiment). GLOBE would be modeled on the Argo system and would function as a biogeochemical Argo program (Bio-Argo) with open data access. We welcome presentations related to the development of a global network based on autonomous platforms, including the scientific need, analysis of data sets from profiling float and glider arrays, regional scale pilot-projects, development of models that would assimilate biogeochemical data sets, merging in situ and satellite data sets to obtain 3-D and 4-D views of ocean processes, and the development of additional biogeochemical sensors for this array. (13, 18)

096: The Biological Basis and Geochemical Consequences of Non-Redfield N:P Ratios in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Raymond Sambrotto, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., sambrott@ldeo.columbia.edu; John Reinfelder, Rutgers University, Environmental Sciences, reinfelder@envsci.rutgers.edu

Although the ratio of major inorganic nutrients in the oceanís main thermocline is relatively constant, the ratio of phytoplankton consumption and export from surface waters is not. For example, the existence of relatively low N:P export has been established in multiple studies from high latitude, diatom-dominated environments and high N:P consumption characterize vast areas of lower latitude oligotrophic waters. Recent numerical simulations suggest that physical mixing can blend these differences between nutrient regimes to generate the canonical values in the thermocline of the Southern Ocean. In the eastern tropical South Pacific, differences in N/P uptake between upwelling and oligotrophic communities impact the typical geochemical approaches for estimating nitrogen fixation. This session will explore the biological generation of non-Redfield N:P signals in the surface ocean as well as their effects on the chemical composition of sub-surface water masses. Topics will include the physiological, cladistic, and ecological basis for the altered nutrient signature as well as the present understanding of its ultimate impact on regional and basin-scale nutrient distributions. (3, 4, 18)

100: Linking Biogeochemical Processes to Estuarine Physical Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Sommerfield, University of Delaware, cs@udel.edu; Elizabeth Canuel, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ecanuel@vims.edu; Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Elizabeth Sikes, Rutgers University, sikes@marine.rutgers.edu

Physically mediated biogeochemical processes in estuaries play a central role in the fate of dissolved and particulate matter in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of cycling phenomena within estuarine basins is a critical component of terrestrial and ocean material budgets and has direct relevance to coastal and marine ecosystems. For example, understanding the composition, fluxes, and residence times of organic carbon is important for predicting oceanic responses to changes in past and future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, linking biogeochemical and physical dynamics is fraught with observational challenges. Indeed, with time-dependent spatial gradients in water properties and transport mechanisms, estuaries are paradoxically regions of both of rapid dispersion and trapping. Elucidating physical-biogeochemical connections thus requires observational approaches capable of identifying material sources, transport pathways, and process time scales. This may involve coordinated studies of fluid flow, radionuclide tracers, stable isotope proxies, and biomarkers, in conjunction with integrative conceptual or numerical modeling. We invite contributions that seek to link estuarine biogeochemical processes to physical dynamics on the full range of time scales. Possible topics include land-to-estuary routing of particulate organic and mineral matter, primary production, larval transport, nutrient cycling, and organic carbon dynamics. (2, 4,5,18)

106: Global Mode Waters: Physical and Biogeochemical Processes, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Young-Oh Kwon, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, yokwon@whoi.edu; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, ltalley@ucsd.edu; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, Manoa, xie@hawaii.edu; Toshio Suga, Tohoku University, suga@pol.gp.tohoku.ac.jp

Mode waters are one of most notable features in the upper ocean, ubiquitously found in every ocean basin in association with strong currents. Mode waters in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic are associated with large air-sea CO2 exchange. Recent major field programs in the Gulf Stream (CLIMODE) and Kuroshio Extension (KESS), analysis of data such as those from Argo, and advances in theory and numerical modeling, are producing steady growth of understanding various mode waters and their dynamical and biogeochemical impacts. Abstracts are welcome that address various aspects of physical and biogeochemical processes associated with mode waters throughout the global ocean, their variability, and the impact on large-scale circulation, air-sea interaction, eco-system, and climate. (2, 4, 17, 18)

108: Biogeochemical and Sedimentological Factors That Influence Physical, Geotechnical and Mechanical Properties of Cohesive Sediments in Riverine and Littoral Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Yoko Furukawa, Naval Research Laboratory, yoko.furukawa@nrlssc.navy.mil; Joseph Calantoni, Naval Research Laboratory, Joe.Calantoni@nrlssc.navy.mil; Allen H. Reed, Naval Research Laboratory, Allen.Reed@nrlssc.navy.mil; Tian-Jian Hsu, University of Delaware, tianjianhsu@gmail.com

This session aims to develop a community-wide understanding of the state-of-the-art for cohesive sediment dynamics in rivers, estuaries, and coastal zones. The physical, geotechnical and mechanical properties (e.g., fluid flow, strength, compressibility, erodibility) of cohesive sediments are profoundly affected by sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes. A quantitative understanding of how these processes interact at nano-, meso-, and field-scales and thereby govern the resulting effects is necessary in order to establish a predictive capability for littoral sediment dynamics and shoreline stability for applications such as coastal optics, engineering and environmental restoration. Topics may include but are not limited to: 1) sediment strength characterization from remotely sensed biological characteristics, 2) sediment resuspension as a function of the micrometer-scale physicochemical properties, and 3) sediment erodibility as a function of either the rapid (< seconds) flocculation pathways or the long-term (> months to hundreds of years) consolidation history. The processes span wide ranges of temporal and spatial scales, and thus abstracts from observational, theoretical, and modeling studies of different spatial and temporal scales are encouraged. The session will provide a forum for researchers to discuss and relate sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. (1, 5, 6, 18)

112: Ocean Spreading Centers: Connecting the Subseafloor with the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Sarah Bennett, NASA JPL, CalTech, saroban@gmail.com; Jason Sylvan, University of Southern California, jsylvan@usc.edu

Deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide a window into the subseafloor environment and a transport mechanism for fluids sourced deep within the earth’s crust out into the open ocean. At the interface between the seafloor and the ocean, fluids flowing from the crust provide a redox rich environment which is exploited by both micro- and macro organisms. Even up in the water column, chemistry and biology sourced from deep within the crust continues to influence the open ocean on a global scale. This session aims to bring in chemical, biological and geological studies from each of these environments, to provide our audience with perspectives from the hydrothermal system as a whole and the interconnectivities between each locality. We encourage contributions from both field and laboratory studies that investigate the influence of hydrothermal circulation on the subsurface, seafloor and open ocean, as well as how the local environment affects the fluids themselves. The combination of biogeochemical studies in extreme environments such as the hydrothermal system, will enable us understand the limits and constraints on life, which not only has important relevance for our own planet, but also for the extraterrestrial system. (1, 3, 4, 18)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

116: Recent Advances in Linking the Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Rachel Horak, University of Washington, rahorak@uw.edu; Laura Bristow, SMAST, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, lbristow@umassd.edu; Bonnie Chang, Princeton University, bonniec@princeton.edu; Loreto De Brabandere, University of Southern Denmark, loretodb@biology.sdu.dk

Oxygen deficient water columns in the marine environment (e.g. eastern tropical Pacific, Arabian Sea, Baltic Sea, Cariaco Basin) are host to a range of unique and globally significant elemental transformations. Of particular relevance in these waters are C, N, S, and metal cycles and the role microbes play in mediating and coupling these processes. The field of microbiology is evolving rapidly, and, along with advances in biogeochemical methods, has helped improve our understanding of elemental cycling in marine oxygen deficient zones. These microbially mediated redox transformations are far more complex than previously thought and we currently have only a hint of the genetic diversity and biological capabilities of the microbial assemblages in these zones. This session aims to bring together a diverse group of microbiologists, biogeochemists, and modelers to increase our understanding of marine oxygen deficient water columns and their underlying sediments. We encourage contributions that explore the microbial diversity and potential processes, biological rates, and environmental controls on microbially mediated elemental cycling in these regions. (3, 4, 18)

123: Compound-Specific Amino Acid Analysis: A Rapidly Evolving Tool for Ecology, Paleoceanography and Biogeochemical Cycle Research: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew D. McCarthy, University of California, Santa Cruz, mccarthy@pmc.ucsc.edu; Brian Popp, University of Hawaii, SOEST, popp@hawaii.edu; Marilyn Fogel, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, m.fogel@gl.ciw.edu

Rapidly accelerating work on stable isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) has demonstrated unique potential to understand food webs, track source and diagenesis of organic matter, and provide new paleoceanographic tools for unraveling past changes in the ocean’s N and C cycles. While CSI-AA has been demonstrated in earlier work to address diverse questions ranging from the origins of amino acids in meteorites to quantification of the diets of modern pigs and ancient whales, realization that this class of compounds holds distinctive information has resulted in a resurgence of interest in CSI-AA. Currently evolving approaches include the application of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopic analyses to study the ecology, diet, trophic position, and physiology of organisms ranging from microbes to metazoans. As more is unraveled in modern organism, CSI-AA is becoming a critical tool for investigation of biogeochemical cycling of detrital organic matter, paleoceanographic studies, and understanding the diagenesis of organic matter in sediments. This session will focus on advances in the applications of CSI-AA to biogeochemical, ecological and physiological problems in marine and freshwater environments. We encourage submissions that focus on new techniques and approaches, as well as specific environmental applications. (3, 4, 13, 18)

137: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry and Ecology: Establishing Linkages Between Molecular Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Schedule

Organizers: Zackary Johnson, Duke University, zij@duke.edu; Maureen Coleman, University of Chicago, mlcoleman@uchicago.edu

With molecular, taxonomic, ecological and biogeochemical aspects, the term “biodiversity” broadly captures the breadth of organisms and their functioning within ecosystems. Technological advances have lead to substantial progress in describing the molecular and genomic diversity of marine organisms and additional progress has been made using meta-analyses of large geospatially-explicit datasets. More recent efforts have sought to leverage these advances and link them to functional ecology (e.g. biogeochemistry) or to conservation and ecosystem management. Major programs including the Census of Marine Life, US NSF Dimensions of Biodiversity, the Gordon and Betty Moore Marine Microbiology Initiative and others have provided alternate frameworks for characterizing this biodiversity. Further, both observational and modeling efforts have emphasized the importance of the linking various metrics of biodiversity and in using data assimilation and theoretical approaches to characterize marine biodiversity. The goal of this session is to highlight recent progress and future opportunities in broadly describing the biodiversity of microbial to macrofaunal organisms using a variety of approaches at a range of scales. In particular, we encourage participation across multiple size scales of organisms and in using novel techniques to provide connections (or identify disconnects) across scales and different aspects of biodiversity. (3, 9, 18)

147: Infusing Biogeochemistry with Ecosystem Science: Schedule

Organizers: Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University, susanne.neuer@asu.edu; Raleigh Hood, University of Maryland, rhood@umces.edu

The cycling and transport of organic carbon and energy in the ocean is mostly mediated by organisms. But biogeochemical studies often insufficiently consider ecological aspects, despite the apparent need to find a synergy between both when investigating and predicting flux of carbon and other elements in a changing ocean. For example, the community composition of primary producers influences the biological carbon pump, and higher trophic levels are important in their utilization, remineralisation and transport of organic matter to depth. In this special session we invite presentations of biogeochemical studies that consider aspects of organism and ecosystem dynamics, both from observational and modeling perspectives. (3, 4, 9, 18)

151: Low Latitude Riverine Influence and Impact on Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Will Berelson, University of Southern California, berelson@usc.edu; Ajit Subramaniam, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, ajit@ldeo.columbia.edu

The influence of riverine discharge on oceanic ecosystems, chemical cycles and sedimentation extends well beyond the continental margins. Low latitude rivers may enter ocean ecosystems that have been primed by coastal and/or equatorial upwelling but more often, discharge into oceanic margins of the oligotrophic gyres.  We welcome submittals on topicsrelated to riverine discharge and oceanic biogeochemical interactions including: benthic-pelagic coupling, new measures of productivity and export in these systems, fluxes and elemental budgets, carbon sequestration, reverse weathering and biogeochemical/ecological interactions.(4, 5, 6, 18)

158: Shedding Light on the Dark Ocean: Advances in Linking Physical and Microbial Oceanography to Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Gerhard J. Herndl, Dept. Marine Biology, University of Vienna, gerhard.herndl@univie.ac.at; Alexander B. Bochdansky, Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Old Dominion University, ABochdan@odu.edu; Javier Aristegui, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, jaristegui@dbio.ulpgc.es; Dennis Hansell, RSMAS/MAC, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu

In terms of volume, the dark ocean represents the largest oceanic subsystem. Long considered a rather homogeneous environment, new facts have emerged that demonstrate that the dark ocean harbors a similar diversity of microbes as the sunlit surface waters. Microbes with novel metabolic pathways have been identified both in meso- and bathypelagic waters. Albeit the metabolic activity of the dark oceanís biota is generally low, the sheer volume of the dark ocean results in major uncertainties on its role in the oceanic carbon cycling. Major research initiatives have been launched recently to link physical oceanography, marine biogeochemistry and microbial oceanography, and to specifically address major enigmas regarding the significance of the dark ocean in the global element cycling. This session invites contributions from all oceanographic disciplines that address all aspects of the dark ocean in the biogeochemical cycling of elements including particle formation, flux and utilization in the deep ocean. Welcome are also contributions linking microbial community dynamics to biogeochemical fluxes using innovative approaches. (3, 4, 18)