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17. Air-Sea Interactions

001: Gases as Tracers of Oceanic Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Roberta Hamme, University of Victoria, rhamme@uvic.ca; David Ho, University of Hawaii Manoa, ho@hawaii.edu

This session seeks to bring together the gas tracer community to exchange knowledge regarding new observations, applications, and/or modeling of gases as tracers for understanding oceanic physical and biogeochemical processes. We welcome abstracts on a variety of topics including distributions of natural and anthropogenic gases and their isotopes in the ocean, atmospheric measurements as they relate to ocean processes, tracer release experiments, and process studies of air-sea transfer mechanisms. Presentations on observations, method development, modeling, and data synthesis and interpretation are all encouraged. (2, 4, 17)

022: Air-Sea Interactions of Typhoons in the Western North Pacific Ocean and Neighboring Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Hans C. Graber, CSTARS-University of Miami, hgraber@rsmas.miami.edu; I.-I. Lin, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, iilin@as.ntu.edu.tw; Eric D’Asaro, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, USA, dasaro@apl.washington.edu; David Tweng-Yung Tang, Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, tyt@ntu.edu.tw

Western North Pacific Ocean and the neighboring seas are among the world oceans where tropical cyclones (typhoons) are both ubiquitous and intense. These typhoons impose direct threat to the half-billion people living near the Asian coasts. However, current typhoon intensity forecast skills remain poor and one of the identified major reasons for such discrepancy is the lack of understanding on the complex interactions between ocean and typhoons. For one, a more accurate knowledge of the marine fluxes and energy budgets from measurements inside the boundary layer of typhoons is critical to improving coupled ocean-atmosphere models to better predict storm track and intensity. These complex physical and biogeochemical interactions also include the role of ocean currents and mesoscale ocean eddies in the typhoon’s intensification, accurate characterization of air-sea momentum and energy exchanges between cyclone and ocean under extreme typhoon (and super-typhoon) wind conditions, as well as interactions between typhoon, sea state, ocean wave breaking, sea spray, and the ocean. In the summer 2010, a large field campaign (Impact of Typhoon On Pacific, ITOP) comprising aircrafts, research vessels, in-situ ocean observational platforms (buoys, drifters and floats), and satellite observations, was conducted in the western North Pacific ocean to explore the above-mentioned complex issues. This session welcomes submissions from both observational and modeling efforts and is not limited to specific ocean basins. Specifically observations of air-sea interaction from buoys, floats and drifters are of great interest to obtain better estimates of the winds and waves at the air-water interface during typhoon conditions. Submissions under the broad discipline of cyclone-ocean physical and biogeochemical interactions are also very welcomed. (2, 17)

048: Ocean Surface Boundary Layers: Schedule

Organizers: Baylor Fox-Kemper, University of Colorado, bfk@colorado.edu; Stephen Belcher, University of Reading, s.e.belcher@reading.ac.uk; Eric D’Asaro, University of Washington, dasaro@apl.washington.edu; Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, acng@noc.soton.ac.uk

The upper ocean is a turbulent environment with control over the air-sea exchange of momentum and gasses. This session will include observations, modeling, theory, and parameterizations of near-surface processes. Primary topics of interest include:   Generation of turbulence through surface wave interactions and dissipation; turbulence scaling in models and observations; remote and in situ observation; wave process simulations; submesoscale phenomena in the surface layer; roles of the surface layer in the larger climate system; and wave-wind-mixing-current interactions. (2, 17)

066: Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Air-Sea Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Fan Wang, Insititute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, fwang@qdio.ac.cn; Kentaro Ando, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, andouk@jamstec.go.jp; Dongchull Jeon, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, dcjeon@kordi.re.kr; Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, jsprintall@ucsd.edu; Sophie Cravatte, LEGOS/IRD, Toulouse, France, sophie.cravatte@ird.fr

The western Pacific (WP) features a complicated ocean circulation system with intensive multi-scale air-sea interactions. As the origin or fate of several major currents, the WP strongly interacts with the ambient oceans and marginal seas, and participates in the recharge-discharge process of the western Pacific warm pool. The changes in the WP can highly influence the heat and freshwater budget and hence the atmospheric deep convection over the warm pool, thereby playing a key role in modulating ENSO cycles and the East Asian Monsoon, as well as in the development and evolution of the tropical cyclones. This session seeks contributions with topics including the WP circulation and its variability of both hemispheres, interactions with the mid-latitudes and maritime continents, and roles in the warm pool maintenance and variability, interactions between western boundary currents, equatorial currents and mesoscale processes, upper ocean processes, barrier layer and salt budget of the warm pool, and air-sea interactions associated with the warm pool, the ITCZ and the SPCZ, etc. This session would like to promote a forum for coordinating on-going and planned observational and modeling efforts relating to climate variations in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. (2, 17)

068: Air-Sea Interactions in Western Boundary Current Systems and Marginal Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Hisashi Nakamura, RCAST, University of Tokyo, hisashi@atmos.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hisashi Nakamura, University of Tokyo, hisashi@atmos.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Meghan F. Cronin, NOAA PMEL, Meghan.F.Cronin@noaa.gov; Shoshiro Minobe, Hokkaido University, minobe@mail.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, xie@hawaii.edu

This session focuses on extratropical air-sea interactions in western boundary current (WBC) systems and marginal seas, where huge amounts of heat and moisture are supplied from the ocean to the atmosphere. Particular emphasis is placed on atmospheric and oceanic processes, occurring over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, that are involved in the air-sea interactions within those ìhot spotsî and that may play a role in the climate system and its variability. Contributions based on observational, diagnostic, modeling and theoretical studies are invited on a range of topics including, but not limited to, the processes affecting the oceanic fronts and distribution of heat within the WBC systems and marginal seas, the influence of WBCs and associated oceanic fontal zones on wind distribution, cloud formation, organization of precipitation systems, cyclone development, the formation of storm tracks and jet streams, their variability and modulations on interannual and decadal scales, and their feedbacks/influences on ocean currents/jets and their interactions with meso-scale eddies, mode water formation, and marine ecosystems. Contributions on air-sea interactions over marginal seas are also invited, including strong seasonality, bathymetric effects, sea-ice formation, and continental influences through atmospheric processes and river discharge, and interactions with open oceans. (2, 17)

087: Ocean-Atmosphere Processes of Monsoon Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Hemantha Wijesekera, Naval Research Laboratory, hemantha.wijesekera@nrlssc.navy.mil; Harindra Joseph Fernando, University of Notre Dame, Harindra.J.Fernando.10@nd.edu; Raghu Murtugudde, Univ of MD, College Park, ragu@essic.umd.edu; Debasis Sengupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, dsen@caos.iisc.ernet.in

Monsoons dominate the regional climate of the tropics oceans and are themselves driven by land-ocean temperature differentials resulting from the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. The most striking and intense of all are the African-Asian-Australian monsoons (AAAM) centered on the Indian Ocean. These monsoons are not only intimately related to each other but also interact with the Indian Ocean on diurnal, subseasonal, seasonal-to-interannual and longer time-scales. AAAMs are not only rich in physical processes but also drastically affect the livelihoods of nearly half of the World’s denizens, who depend on fisheries and food production based on timely monsoon rainfall. The Indian Ocean is an indicator of global warming due to its rapid warming that has outpaced the other oceans over the last several decades. Thus it is a natural laboratory for more intense studies of the air-sea interactions and exchange processes with the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Air-sea interactions over the subregions such as the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the equatorial and the southern tropical strips offer unique contrasts at diurnal to decadal time-scales. The surface and subsurface processes, buoyancy forcing, local and remote forcing at submesoscale to synoptic scales offer a rich spectrum of ocean-atmosphere processes that play a role in regional climate variability and change via monsoon dynamics. This session is devoted to papers on atmospheric-oceanic dynamics covering a range of space-time scales with the hope of discussing current state of the science and identifying knowledge gaps that will help design of future research programs. (2, 8, 17)

091: Direct Measurement of Air-Sea Fluxes, Surface Waves and Oceanic Boundary Layer Turbulence (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Doug Vandemark, Univ. of New Hamphsire, doug.vandemark@unh.edu; Will Drennan, Univ. of Miami, wdrennan@rsmas.miami.edu; Jim Edson, Univ, of Connecticut, james.edson@uconn.edu; J. Tom Farrar, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The in situ measurement of turbulence and scalars associated with air-sea fluxes are continually improving thanks to rapidly expanding capabilities in ocean observing platforms and sensors as well as refinement in observational techniques. Moreover, it is now feasible and increasingly common to collect data over long periods of time and over a wider range of ocean-atmosphere forcing conditions such that a new level of certainty in air-sea flux estimation appears achievable. This session is aimed at fostering discussion of latest techniques and results surrounding the field measurement of mass, momentum and heat fluxes near the air-sea interface and within both ocean and atmospheric boundary layers as well as surface wave observations supporting these investigations. While the intended emphasis is on field observations and extended time series observations, activities related to modeling and remote measurements of fluxes and ocean surface waves are also encouraged. (2, 17)

094: Oceanic Impacts of Orographic Flows: Emphasizing Two-Way Coupling and Feedback Mechanisms: Schedule

Organizers: Rui M. A. Caldeira, CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, rcaldeira@ciimar.up.pt; Julie Pullen, Maritime Security Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology, julie@theworldisyourocean.net; Vanda Grubisic, University of Vienna, Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, vanda.grubisic@univie.ac.at

Several processes occur between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the ocean surface, these processes mediate the exchange of momentum, heat and gas, with important environmental and/or climate impacts. Islands and mountainous coastal regions perturb the atmospheric (orographic) flows inducing strong impacts to the oceanís surface. Such regions function as ideal ëhot-spotsí to study the coupled system, bringing together atmosphere and ocean scientists alike. On the other hand, extreme weather events such as hurricanes have also been used as case studies to further explore the air-sea coupling system. In this session, we propose to discuss studies, which contribute to improve our understanding of the dynamics occurring at the interface between the sea surface and the ABL, including observations, numerical modeling and/or laboratory studies. To further improve the current state-of-the-art, we encourage the discussion of studies emphasizing two-way coupling and feedback mechanisms, which contribute to the improvement of monitoring and forecasting systems. (2, 17)

099: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sea Surface: Schedule

Temperature Variability and its Impacts on Air-Sea Interactions, Weather, and Climate

Organizers: Gary A. Wick, NOAA ESRL, gary.a.wick@noaa.gov; Chelle Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems, gentemann@remss.com; Andrew T. Jessup, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, jessup@apl.washington.edu; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University, clayson@met.fsu.edu

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is important for the generation of satellite SST products and the understanding and interpretation of oceanic and interfacial processes. Important processes that lead to SST variability include diurnal warming, fronts, and wind effects. SST products are increasingly generated from the combination of observations at different times and spatial scales. Progress is being made in characterizing and accounting for the variability, but challenges remain in quantifying its impact on the SST uncertainty budget. Spatial variability further influences scaling process observations to different resolutions, which requires assumptions about dependence of the structure of the process at several scales simultaneously. Current studies are exploring the impact of incorporating SST estimates with sub-pixel variability and improved resolution of the diurnal cycle on air-sea interactions and lower-frequency weather and climate variability. This session seeks to bring together those attempting to describe SST variability with those studying its impacts. Contributions are invited on all aspects of spatial and temporal SST variability, both observations and models, and studies on how this variability impacts air-sea interactions. Additionally, contributions that address the impact of variability on estimates of errors for observations are solicited. (2, 8, 17)

104: Improvements in Understanding Tropical Atlantic Climate Variability and Predictability: Past Behavior, Observations and Climate Models: Schedule

Organizers: Salil Mahajan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, mahajans@ornl.gov; Takeshi Doi, Princeton University/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Takeshi.Doi@noaa.gov; Ernesto Munoz, New Mexico Consortium, emunoz@newmexicoconsortium.org; Kelly H Kilbourne, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, kilbourn@umces.edu

Climate variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean influences the climate of its surrounding regions by way of ITCZ variability, the Atlantic Meridional Mode, Atlantic Nino, Benguela Nino, the Atlantic warm pools and tropical cyclogenesis. The tropical Atlantic Ocean itself is influenced by remote forcings such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Recent years have seen a strong improvement in our understanding of tropical Atlantic variability and predictability via paleoclimate and modern observations, high resolution coupled climate modeling and statistical modeling on seasonal to decadal time-scales. However, strong biases still exist in climate models over the tropical Atlantic. The goal of this session is to collectively discuss the current state of knowledge of tropical Atlantic climate variability and identify the research questions critical to a better understanding and prediction of its climate. Abstracts that discuss the variability of the tropical Atlantic, its response to natural and anthropogenic forcings and its influence on the global climate from either a modern or paleo-perspective are encouraged for this session. (2, 8, 17)

106: Global Mode Waters: Physical and Biogeochemical Processes, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Young-Oh Kwon, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, yokwon@whoi.edu; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, ltalley@ucsd.edu; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, Manoa, xie@hawaii.edu; Toshio Suga, Tohoku University, suga@pol.gp.tohoku.ac.jp

Mode waters are one of most notable features in the upper ocean, ubiquitously found in every ocean basin in association with strong currents. Mode waters in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic are associated with large air-sea CO2 exchange. Recent major field programs in the Gulf Stream (CLIMODE) and Kuroshio Extension (KESS), analysis of data such as those from Argo, and advances in theory and numerical modeling, are producing steady growth of understanding various mode waters and their dynamical and biogeochemical impacts. Abstracts are welcome that address various aspects of physical and biogeochemical processes associated with mode waters throughout the global ocean, their variability, and the impact on large-scale circulation, air-sea interaction, eco-system, and climate. (2, 4, 17, 18)

118: Upper Ocean Turbulence and Its Impact on Air-Sea Fluxes: Schedule

Organizers: Brian Ward, University College Galway, Ireland, bward@nuigalway.ie; Ann Gargett, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, gargettann@gmail.com; Kai Christensen, Meteorological Institute, Norway, kaihc@met.no

The air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, gas, water, and aerosols have been parameterised by atmospheric processes, primarily wind speed.However upper ocean proceses such as turbulence plays an important role. This session invites contributions on topics primarily related to observations such as:- Surface wave induced drift and mixing- Upper ocean turbulence and waves- Langmuir circulations/turbulence- Wave induced momentum and energy fluxes- DNS/LES modeling related to observations. (2, 17)

173: Ocean Surface Waves and Interactions with Currents and Winds: Schedule

Organizers: William Perrie, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, william.perrie@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ryan Mulligan, Queens University, mulliganr@civil.queensu.ca

This session will encompass observations, theory and model studies of surface waves, and their interactions with the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, in coastal and open ocean environments over different spatial and temporal scales. We encourage studies that compare model results to in situ and remotely sensed data. When winds blow over the ocean, they generate surface waves and wind-driven currents; in turn, the currents and waves modulate the winds and the atmospheric boundary layer. In high winds, viz. hurricanes, the wind-generated waves have large amplitudes, and currents can be very strong. Large waves have strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions. These interactions affect momentum and energy fluxes and play a role in the evolution of waves during storms. Parameterization of the energy and momentum transferred to waves from the wind, and dissipated to the upper ocean, remain unresolved issues to this day. Exchanges are large during hurricanes, may reflect asymmetries of spatial variations of the wind and wave fields during the generation and development of given storms , which in turn may affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and heat. This session will explore the fluxes between the upper ocean, surface waves, subsurface currents and the wind. (2, 17)

175: Exploitations of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Winds, Waves and Data Assimilation: Schedule

Organizers: Hans C. Graber, CSTARS - University of Miami, hgraber@rsmas.miami.edu; Theresa Paluszkiewicz, Office of Naval Research, terri.paluszkiewicz@navy.mil

Satellite-based radars are capable to observe the winds and waves on the ocean with higher resolution than any other satellite sensor. With radars operating both day and night and in all weather measurements of winds, waves and currents in tropical cyclones and storms are possible.New algorithms enable the generation of high detail wind and wave fields which are suitable for assimilation into coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Of interest are results of new algorithms capable of deriving high wind speeds and sea state in hurricanes and typhoons and modeling results when SAR data was assimilated into coupled models. (2, 12, 17)