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16. Data Management

041: Methods and Applications of Data Assimilation for Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca; Micheal Dowd, Dalhousie University, mdowd@mathstat.dal.ca; Richard Matear, CSIRO, Richard.Matear@csiro.au; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca

The quantity and diversity of data available for monitoring ocean biogeochemical variables is rapidly increasing as new sensor technologies and observational platforms are deployed. A major challenge is the development of new analysis methods for these complex spatio-temporal data types that yield information not just about the ocean state, but also the underlying dynamical processes. Model-data fusion (or Data Assimilation) algorithms provide an attractive approach to exploit these new data streams within a robust statistical framework. This session invites contributions on biogeochemical data assimilation methods and applications that characterize the biogeochemical state; provide new ways to determine biogeochemical parameters; elucidate the processes driving biogeochemical variability and changes in the ocean; or provide guidance to observing strategies for biogeochemical fields. (4, 13, 16, 18)

058: Integrated Observational and Modeling Studies of Marine Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Bradley Penta, Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center, penta@nrlssc.navy.mil; Francisco Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, chfr@mbari.org

New and emerging technologies are allowing unprecedentedly comprehensive views of marine ecosystems. Observations by shipboard, towed, fixed, remote, and autonomous platforms equipped with complementary sensors and informed by simulation models are providing new insights into fundamental ecosystem processes. This session will focus on multi-disciplinary, multi-platform process and modeling studies of plankton blooms in marine ecosystems. Presentations are solicited that highlight results from interdisciplinary studies (e.g., BloomEx, BIOSPACE, AOSN, COAST, MUSE, NAB) and recent advances in observational, data processing, and modeling techniques. Contributions are welcome on the subjects of coordination and control of observational assets, adaptive sampling, and mission planning (decision support). Submissions on modeling and data assimilation methods are also within the scope of this session. (3, 9, 13, 16)

059: Ocean Climate Data Records: Schedule

Organizers: Kenneth S. Casey, NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, kenneth.casey@noaa.gov; Edward Kearns, NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Ed.Kearns@noaa.gov; Carig Donlon, European Space Agency, craig.donlon@esa.int

The National Research Council (2004) defines a Climate Data Record (CDR) as a time series of sufficient duration, quality, and continuity to accurately determine climate variability and change. For satellite-based CDRs, GCOS provides requirements in the form of essential climate variables (ECV) that share several characteristics including being long-term, consistently processed, highly accurate, and produced with associated uncertainties using systems that combine sustained, ongoing capacity with the latest community consensus science knowledge and best practices. Both satellite and in situ-based CDRs support a wide range of applications including climate change monitoring and numerical prediction, coral bleaching and disease, the oceans and human disease outbreaks, ocean circulation, and sea level change. Educational and operational applications involving interpretation of real-time information are also enabled and improved by the climatological context provided by CDRs. Presentations are welcomed that describe methods for Fundamental CDR production; the development and production of Thematic CDRs; the status of existing CDRs for the ocean and overlying atmosphere; the integration of CDRs into ocean and climate modeling activities; the challenges associated with determining CDR uncertainties; and results from the analyses of CDRs. The CDRs may be those derived from in situ, remotely-sensed, or a combination of methods, and include those related to any oceanographic discipline. (8, 16)

074: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: Data Syntheses, Analyses and Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Nicolas Gruber, ETH Zurich, nicolas.gruber@env.ethz.ch; Dorothee Bakker, University of East Anglia, Norwich, D.Bakker@uea.ac.uk; Chris Sabine, NOAA PMEL, Seattle, Chris.Sabine@noaa.gov; Toste Tanhua, IfM-Geomar, Kiel, ttanhua@ifm-geomar.de

The ocean carbon cycle is changing at a rate whose magnitude and pattern we are only beginning to document, quantify, and understand. The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, climate fluctuations as well as long-term trends in ocean circulation and biology have led already to substantial changes in the ocean carbon cycle, with potentially larger changes looming ahead. In the last decade, substantial efforts have been undertaken to measure these changes, and a number of projects are underway to synthesize them and to put them into the context of climate variability and change (e.g. international synthesis activities associated with the SOLAS-IMBER carbon working groups and IOCCP, including SOCAT, CARINA and PACIFICA, for example, but also those undertaken in the context of RECCAP). This session aims to bring together the scientists working on these synthesis projects, but is open to all other scientists who are interested in developing an integrated view of how the ocean carbon cycle has changed in the recent decades. Of interest are data syntheses, analyses and modeling studies focusing on air-sea CO2 fluxes, changes in ocean surface and interior carbon properties, and how the changes in these realms are connected to each other. (4, 8, 16)

077: Data Systems that Support the US National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Coasts, and Great Lakes: Schedule

Organizers: Cynthia L. Chandler, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, cchandler@whoi.edu; Matthew K. Howard, Texas A&M University, mkhoward@tamu.edu

The research disciplines of oceanography and limnology generate a vast amount of data, vast in scope and volume. The session chairs welcome contributions describing the full range of strategies and solutions at our disposal to meet the challenges presented by such diverse research disciplines. Contributions are encouraged that describe existing pragmatic systems for data stewardship and delivery as well as those describing visions of systems designed to support the complex challenges presented by Ecosystem Based Management and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning requirements. The recommendations described in the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force report released in July 2010 will require access to data, access beyond data discovery, access to knowledge. Data systems capable of supporting the new National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes will require ‘data to knowledge’ capabilities. While these systems may still be in the vision or developmental stages, they presume a foundation of curated data systems buoyed by effective data management practices. The session chairs encourage contributions that address the data management challenges and opportunities presented by the Task Force recommendations for better stewardship of the ocean, our coastal regions, and the Great Lakes. (11, 16)

083: Using Satellite and In Situ Data Public Archives for Ocean Biology Research: Schedule

Organizers: Watson Gregg, NASA/GSFC/GMAO, watson.gregg@nasa.gov; Margarita Gregg, NOAA/NODC, margarita.gregg@noaa.gov

National and international public data archives for ocean biological variables are now extensive. The plethora of these data, including satellite ocean color data products, in situ chlorophyll and nutrients, and others, can improve our understanding of biological dynamics from local to global scales, and days to decades. Combined with physical and chemical observations, the data archives enable us to assess the potential effects of natural variability and human activities on ocean biology. Ocean biological data also support modeling efforts, with data assimilation a new research focus. In this session we seek research efforts that utilize these public archives in data analysis, modeling, and data assimilation, as well as analyses that suggest new areas for improving the richness and diversity of these data holdings. (13, 16)

119: Advances in Monitoring the Ocean’s Heat and Salt Balance: Schedule

Organizers: Simon Good, Met Office, simon.good@metoffice.gov.uk; Sydney Levitus, NODC, Sydney.Levitus@noaa.gov

The Argo array of profiling floats has dramatically increased data coverage for temperature and salinity for the global oceans in the last 7 years. The calculation of global and regional heat and salt content changes have accordingly become more reliable, but the change in the ocean observing system has come with the challenge of systematic bias in the different parts of the ocean observing system both at present and historically. Presentations on advances in monitoring the ocean’s heat and salt balance on regional and global scales, on quantifying uncertainties in these quantities and whether these place any limitations on our understanding of past changes, and challenges and solutions to biases introduced by different components of the ocean observing system are solicited for this session. (2, 8, 13, 16)

128: Sensitivity Analysis, Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification in Ocean Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Ibrahim Hoteit, King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology, ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa; Bruce Cornuelle, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, bdc@ucsd.edu; Mohamed Iskandarani, Rosenstiel Schoold of Marine Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, miskandarani@rsmas.miami.edu

Quantifying uncertainties in ocean models and reducing them through data assimilation are essential steps towards accurate and dependable oceanic simulations and forecasts. Challenges in this area are numerous due to the non-linear interaction of multiple spatio-temporal scales, and due to uncertainties in physical processes, and various parameters and inputs. The problem is compounded by the paucity of data in space and time compared to the relevant dynamical scales, and by the presence of irreducible errors that need to be quantified and represented. This session will focus on new developments in  Sensitivity analysis in ocean models  Forward propagation of model uncertainty  New data assimilation and uncertainty reduction techniques and applications  Quantifying uncertainties in ocean models simulations and data assimilation products. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers working in the areas of ocean data assimilation, ocean model sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, with the goal of discussing new technical developments and recent applications. We invite contributions dealing with all theoretical and practical aspects of data assimilation and uncertainty quantification in ocean models. (2, 13, 16)

139: Governing Across Scales—Innovative Stewardship of Earth Systems: Creating a Global Large Marine Ecosystem Knowledge Network: Schedule

Organizers: Harold P. Batchelder, Oregon State University, hbatchelder@coas.oregonstate.edu; Peter Fox, Renseselaer Polytechnic Institute, pfox@rpi.edu; Suzanne Lawrence, Independent, suzanne@suzannelawrence.net; Oran Young, Univ. California, Santa Barbara, oran.young@gmail.com

Overfishing, marine pollution, habitat loss and climate change are contributing to the degradation in the world’s marine ecosystems. Prompt and potentially significant changes in the use of ocean resources are needed to overcome the negative consequences of human exploitation. Climate change has added new urgency to efforts to sustainably govern Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) as well as the accelerated recognition that ocean ecosystems not only affect climate processes, but are also substantially impacted by climate change. Investments in LME programs worldwide require implementation plans that are effective and efficient. What is presently lacking is a process to bring together existing knowledge networks to identify, review, and synthesize the best assessment and management practices among the community of LME practitioners dedicated to facilitating exchange of lessons learned. This session is designed to create a forum for sharing of information (e.g., data, lessons learned and best management practices) developed through various LME project processes among the global marine science community. The session will benefit all members of the ocean science community interested in building and maintaining a global knowledge network of policymakers and scientists committed to moving ecosystem based management and coastal and marine spatial planning from paper to practice. (3, 9, 11, 16)

141: Improving the Representation of Plankton Ecology in Earth System Models: Schedule

Organizers: Irina Marinov, University of Pennsylvania, imarinov@sas.upenn.edu; Zhi-Ping Mei, Horn Point Laboratory, Univ. of Maryland, zmei@umces.edu; Tihomir Kostadinov, University of California Santa Barbara, tiho@eri.ucsb.edu; Anand Gnanadesikan, Johns Hopkins University, gnanades@jhu.edu

Since phytoplankton contribute 50% of total global carbon fixation, it is critical to understand through Earth System Models how climate change will affect primary production and ocean carbon cycling, and the potential feedbacks on climate. However, there is a gap between the increasingly detailed knowledge of phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their simplified representation in Earth System Models. This session intends to provide an avenue for observationalists, theoreticians and modelers to present recent advances in in-situ and remote sensing based observations of phytoplankton physiology and ecology, and their representation in regional to global ocean models. Relevant questions include: What are the recent advances and new challenges in modeling ocean ecology in Earth System Models? Which are the important advances in observational (including remote sensing) and theoretical phytoplankton ecology, such as light, macro-and trace nutrient (co)limitations, elemental stoichiometry, size-scaling and size-structure, different tradeoffs among ecological traits, that might be critical for ocean carbon and nutrient cycling and storage, and thus need to make their way in the next generation of global climate models? How sensitive are the predicted biogeochemical cycles on the time scale of climate change to new ecological formulations and increased complexity of the Earth System models? (2, 3, 8, 9, 16)

144: Recent Advances and Challenges in Using Adaptive Sampling to Quantify Process and Test Oceanographic Hypothesis: Schedule

Organizers: Percy Donaghay, Graduate School Of Oceanography, donaghay@gso.uri.edu; James H. Churnside, ESRL, NOAA Boulder, james.h.churnside@esrl.noaa.gov

There has been a growing recognition over the last 20 years that the biological, biogeochemical, and optical dynamics of marine systems are frequently dominated by episodic events or by processes that are spatially concentrated in regions of strong gradients such as those observed in chemoclines, thin layers and fronts. Although much of the progress in this are has been dominated by the use of adaptive sampling to guide the collection of discrete samples from ships for laboratory analysis, recent advances in sensors, deployment systems and near-real time data analysis has opened the door for the autonomous collection and analysis of these samples in situ. We are looking for papers in this secession that either (1) illustrate the use of adaptive sampling for quantifying critical processes and testing hypothesis, and/or (2) illustrate potential solutions to the challenges in increasing the use of adaptive sampling from ocean observing systems. (13, 16)

171: Acoustical Applications for Ocean Observing Systems: Schedule

Organizers: Bruce Howe, University of Hawaii at Manoa, bhowe@hawaii.edu; Sue Moore, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, sue.moore@noaa.gov; Brandon Southall, Southall Environmental Associates, Inc., Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net

The oceans are largely transparent to sound, hence oceanographic, biological, and signal processing acoustic techniques are primary tools for ocean observation and engineering. The opportunities and value of acoustical observations and techniques within the integrated ocean observing systems are boundless, yet incorporation of these techniques within these systems has been opportunistic and ad hoc. Both regional and international coordination of acoustical applications is essential.  Common passive or active acoustical systems can serve several multidisciplinary scientific and educational purposes, using the power and communications capabilities provided by the observing systems. The costs of acoustical components can be minimized by taking advantage of ongoing implementation and maintenance activities of the ocean observing systems. The enormous challenges of planning, implementing and data management specific to acoustics must be faced to bring acoustical tools to fruition for ocean observing systems. This topical session solicits papers relating to any of the wide-ranging applications of acoustics within the observing systems: engineering, biological, or remote sensing. One aim is to identify common acoustical elements shared by several disciplines, hence to identify those elements that may have priority for immediate deployment. Papers addressing “Data Managment and Communications; “ (DMAC) issues are particularly encouraged. (12, 13, 16)