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13. Observatories, Operational Oceanography, New Technology

006: Advances in Coastal Ocean Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction: Schedule

Organizers: Villy Kourafalou, University of Miami/RSMAS, vkourafalou@rsmas.miami.edu; Pierre De Mey, LEGOS - Laboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, demey-redir@neyak.org; Ruoying He, North Carolina State University, rhe@ncsu.edu; Alex Kurapov, Oregon State University, kurapov@coas.oregonstate.edu

Downscaling and extending predictability in coastal and shelf seas are two of the objectives of the GODAE OceanView (GOV) initiative through its Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team (COSSTT). Broad participation and international coordination of interdisciplinary coastal and shelf models nested in data assimilative large scale models is a COSSTT priority. This session will provide a forum for multi-scale hydrodynamic modeling and observational studies that aim toward scientific validation, prediction and operational applications of numerical models in coastal and shelf seas, leading to new understanding of multiscale nonlinear ocean processes. Applications of nested models, such as the influence of physical processes on ecosystem dynamics and interdisciplinary coastal predictions are also welcome. The session will promote the discussion of methodologies that lead to reliable coastal forecasts (such as data assimilation, error analysis, influence of nesting, resolution and forcing), Observing System Simulation Experiments and the impact of sustainable, integrated modeling and observational networks that connect local, regional and global scales. Applications on lessons learned from prediction and/or hindcasts during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 tsunami in Japan are particularly welcome. (2, 6, 13, 14)

009: Ocean Observing: Sensors and Platforms (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Mike DeGrandpre, University of Montana, michael.degrandpre@umontana.edu; Todd Martz, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, trmartz@ucsd.edu

Our methods for studying the ocean are constantly evolving, driven by the need to improve sensitivity, measurement frequency, and spatial coverage, and to achieve these objectives at lower cost. Autonomous sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past decade in response to these demands. This session focuses specifically on new autonomous carbon cycle sensors, recent studies that have used these sensors, and descriptions of deployment strategies. Analysis of data from in situ, autonomous shipboard or remote, e.g. satellite, measurements of any carbon-related parameters are welcomed. We also encourage posters that discuss strategies to most effectively utilize existing (e.g. Argo) and future (e.g. Ocean Observatory Initiative) autonomous platforms. (4, 13)

010: Ocean Observing Systems: Regional and Global: Schedule

Organizers: Michael S. Tomlinson, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, tomlinson86@q.com; Eric Heinen De Carlo, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, edecarlo@soest.hawaii.edu; James T. Potemra, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, jimp@hawaii.edu, Albert Fischer, IOC/UNESCO, a.fischer@unesco.org, Eric Lindstrom, NASA, eric.j.lindstrom@nasa.gov, Ru Morrison, NERACOOS, Ru.Morrison@neracoos.org, Suzanne Skelley, U.S. IOOS Program Office, Suzanne.Skelley@noaa.gov, Harvey Seim, University of North Carolina, hseim@email.unc.edu

It has been 7 years since the first of eleven Regional Associations of Ocean Observing Systems (OOSs) in the United States came online and started providing data and information to their stakeholders and the general public. These OOSs provide valuable real-time, high-resolution data and information in support of environmental protection, ocean safety, and ocean economic benefits. In addition, the OOSs provide ocean scientists with access to large, multivariable, high temporal and spatial resolution datasets which enable us to better understand atmosphere-land-ocean interactions; the effects of extreme events (e.g., tsunamis, storms, spills); and larger scale phenomena such as ENSO, PDO, and important issues such as ocean acidification. In this session, we envision a combination of oral and poster presentations that focus on some of the most important findings obtained from OOS data across the nation to date, although we also encourage submissions from international colleagues involved in ocean observing efforts elsewhere. We want to emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the OOS and the data collected and how these large data sets allow us to examine specific phenomena and resolve the effects of these phenomena spatially and temporally in detail that heretofore was not possible on such a large scale. (8, 13)

030: Gulf of Mexico Circulation & Ecosystem Numerical Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher N. K. Mooers, Portland State University, cmooers@cecs.pdx.edu; Patrick Hogan, Naval Research Laboratory, pat.hogan@nrlssc.navy.mil; Leo Oey, Princeton University, lyo@princeton.edu; Claire Paris, RSMAS/University of Miami, cparis@rsmas.miami.edu

The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico is dominated by the Loop Current and the eddies it sheds, and by the passage of intense weather systems in all seasons. The highly variable and intense circulation, together with river discharges, impacts the marine ecosystems of the Gulf. Intensive and extensive field and modeling studies have increased the understanding of the circulation and provide a basis for skill assessing numerical circulation models and prediction systems. Today, more than 20 significant models exist for the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Hence, the Gulf of Mexico has potential to serve as a modeling & observing system testbed for prediction systems. The aim of this session is to explore the skill of some of these models, especially as they apply to ecosystem models. The complex roles of the circulation on dispersion and ecosystem response in the Deepwater Horizon oil & gas gusher event, which began 20 APR 10 and ran for three months, gives new impetus (indeed, urgency) to this topic area. (2, 9, 13, 14)

035: Using Data From Autonomous Vehicles and Drifters to Support Education and Outreach: Schedule

Organizers: James A. Yoder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, jyoder@whoi.edu; Janice McDonnell, Rutgers University, mcdonnel@marine.rutgers.edu

Measurements of physical, optical, biological, and biogeochemical ocean properties, as well as high resolution photographic, video and acoustic mapping of bottom features, collected by autonomous vehicles and drifters are now a major source of ocean data supporting research and applications. For example, ARGO drifters are the only in situ global observing system of currents, temperature and salinity; sensors on an autonomous vehicle provided the best measurements of the rate at which oil was escaping from the recent blowout in the Gulf of Mexico and also mapped the deep, subsurface oil plume; a glider recently traversed the Atlantic Ocean; autonomous vehicles are becoming the best way to locate and map bottom features; and drifters are routinely measuring profiles of oxygen and other biogeochemical properties from the Southern Ocean and other remote areas of the global ocean. Not only are autonomous vehicles and drifters providing important and interesting data, the technology is ìcoolî and exciting to students of all ages and has the potential to help learners create their own knowledge and understanding of the ocean. Our session looks for contributions from scientists and educators who are working together on education and outreach projects that utilize the data collected from autonomous platforms. Our session goal is to share effective practices and evaluation data around the application of these technologies. (10, 13)

037:   Operational Applications of Ocean Satellite Observations: Schedule

Organizers: Margaret Srinivasan, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory, margaret.srinivasan@jpl.nasa.gov; Dr. Robert Leben, University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, leben@colorado.edu

We invite contributions on operational applications utilizing both near real-time (NRT) and reconstructed historical ocean satellite data, in addition to ocean reanalysis and coupled models of relevant parameters. Of particular interest are studies and methods that highlight the practical uses of altimetry, scatterometry, ocean color, ocean temperature, salinity and gravity data with real-world or potential commercial applications. The combination of data between two or more sensors, or between multiple satellites producing same sensor data, can be a powerful tool in analyzing ocean circulation and climate effects, can contribute to operational optimizations, and can even have significant contributions to issues of safety at sea. Operational applications may include, but are not limited to, offshore oil and other marine operations, NRT data streams, NRT coastal monitoring, operational processing, blended satellite data for operational use, marine mammal studies, fisheries management, recreational boating, and climate/hurricane studies. We strongly encourage topics in marine forecasting and those with potential industry or commercial applications. (2, 12, 13)

041: Methods and Applications of Data Assimilation for Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca; Micheal Dowd, Dalhousie University, mdowd@mathstat.dal.ca; Richard Matear, CSIRO, Richard.Matear@csiro.au; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca

The quantity and diversity of data available for monitoring ocean biogeochemical variables is rapidly increasing as new sensor technologies and observational platforms are deployed. A major challenge is the development of new analysis methods for these complex spatio-temporal data types that yield information not just about the ocean state, but also the underlying dynamical processes. Model-data fusion (or Data Assimilation) algorithms provide an attractive approach to exploit these new data streams within a robust statistical framework. This session invites contributions on biogeochemical data assimilation methods and applications that characterize the biogeochemical state; provide new ways to determine biogeochemical parameters; elucidate the processes driving biogeochemical variability and changes in the ocean; or provide guidance to observing strategies for biogeochemical fields. (4, 13, 16, 18)

042: Eddy Correlation and New Impending Approaches for Measuring Fluxes in the Aquatic Environment: Schedule

Organizers: Peter Berg, University of Virginia,  pb8n@virginia.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu

Eddy correlation is becoming a commonly-used approach for measuring oxygen exchange between benthic communities and the overlying water. The technique allows direct measurements of this flux, and can be used where other traditional methods would fail, e.g. densely-vegetated sediments, highly permeable sands and gravel beds, and hard surfaces such coral reefs and mussel beds. Eddy correlation measurements are done under true in situ conditions with minimal disturbances of the natural light and hydrodynamic conditions, and incorporate a much larger bottom area than traditional flux methods. Other new approaches for measuring benthic fluxes with similar advantages are currently being presented including the flux ratio approach, where fluxes are derived from vertical concentration gradients and eddy diffusivities in the bottom water. In this session, we invite users of the eddy correlation technique and other new flux methods to present their results and experiences. We stress that this session is not only focused on benthic oxygen fluxes, but on all scalar fluxes in the aquatic environment. We also encourage contributions introducing new methods for flux measurements in aquatic environments that are still under development. (2, 4, 13)

047: Integrative Power of Ocean Observatories: Recent Insights and Future Directions: Schedule

Organizers: Steven G. Ackleson, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, sackleson@oceanleadership.org; Steven G. Ackleson, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, sackleson@oceanleadership.org; Mairi Best, NEPTUNE Canada, mmrbest@uvic.ca; Emmanuel Boss, University of Maine, emmanuel.boss@maine.edu; Richard Dewey, VENUS, Ocean Networks Canada, rdewey@uvic.ca

Ocean observing system technology (sensors, platforms, communications, and data management) has advanced significantly in recent years, integrating complex hardware, software, and people networks and employing fixed, drifting, and mobile components. These advances have provided ocean and earth scientists with springboards for new and novel research enabled by increasingly interactive access to persistent, real-time, high-frequency, multi-disciplinary data representing even the most extreme environmental conditions from the coast to the deep sea. Combined with traditional ship-based and remote sensing observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad scope of earth-ocean scales including global and regional circulation, ecosystem and carbon dynamics, air-sea interaction, ocean acidification, and ocean floor substrate-fluid processes. This session offers a forum to highlight discoveries and insights that have emerged during the past decade of ocean observatory data, examine recent scientific findings and discuss future research needs and challenges. Oral presentations of data analyses that advance knowledge of interdisciplinary oceanographic processes are encouraged. Poster presentations that discuss infrastructure, ongoing observatory operations and planned observing activities are also encouraged. (12,13)

058: Integrated Observational and Modeling Studies of Marine Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Bradley Penta, Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center, penta@nrlssc.navy.mil; Francisco Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, chfr@mbari.org

New and emerging technologies are allowing unprecedentedly comprehensive views of marine ecosystems. Observations by shipboard, towed, fixed, remote, and autonomous platforms equipped with complementary sensors and informed by simulation models are providing new insights into fundamental ecosystem processes. This session will focus on multi-disciplinary, multi-platform process and modeling studies of plankton blooms in marine ecosystems. Presentations are solicited that highlight results from interdisciplinary studies (e.g., BloomEx, BIOSPACE, AOSN, COAST, MUSE, NAB) and recent advances in observational, data processing, and modeling techniques. Contributions are welcome on the subjects of coordination and control of observational assets, adaptive sampling, and mission planning (decision support). Submissions on modeling and data assimilation methods are also within the scope of this session. (3, 9, 13, 16)

061: Coastal Oceanography through Integrated Data Analysis: Schedule

Organizers: Yonggang Liu, University of South Florida, yliu@marine.usf.edu; Ryan M. McCabe, University of Washington, rmccabe@ocean.washington.edu

With increasing coastal ocean observation systems and independent projects collecting various data streams, our understanding of continental shelf processes has advanced significantly in recent years. This special session is an opportunity to showcase new scientific results obtained from these sustained or process-oriented coastal observations including, for example, moored current meters, HF radars, AUVs, gliders, drifters, profilers, tide gauges, C-MAN stations, satellites, and other remotely-sensed data. Progress on a variety of coastal topics such as along- and cross-shelf circulation and exchange, upwelling and downwelling dynamics, buoyancy fluxes, local and remote forcing, estuary-plume-shelf systems, offshore current/eddy intrusions, topographic influences, and their downstream impacts are all encouraged. Noting that no single instrument is enough to fully capture dynamic coastal ocean processes, new insights from integrated data analyses covering multiple scales by combing two or more types of data are particularly encouraged. Numerical model-assisted data analyses and accompanying insights are also welcome. (2, 6, 13)

063: Ocean Exploration: Schedule

Organizers: Nicolas Alvarado, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration & Research, nicolas.alvarado@noaa.gov; Reginald Beach, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration & Research, Reginald.Beach@noaa.gov

With 95% of the ocean unknown or little known, ocean exploration is an emerging (or re-emerging) discipline in oceanography that is interdisciplinary and global in scope. Data and observations resulting from ocean exploration activities often result in new discoveries, new insight, new knowledge and new frontiers and can lead to the revision of existing paradigms or the formulation of new paradigms in the oceans poorly known and unknown regions. This session will highlight the technology, science and expeditions that explore ocean, coastal and Great Lakes environments. Results can be from any branchof marine science or technology and may includeserendipitous observations from any platform,including, but not limited to, unmanned systems,animal-borne-sensors, moorings, fixed platforms,research cruises, remote sensing or designated exploration activities. (13, 15)

064: Oceanography in 2030: Schedule

Organizers: Peter Cornillon, University of Rhode Island, pcornillon@me.com; Peter Cornillon, University of Rhode Island, pcornillon@me.com; Mark Abbott, Oregon State University, mark@coas.oregonstate.edu

New and evolving technologies will have a dramatic impact on all aspects of our lives over the next 20 years. This session will explore the likely technological advances relevant to oceanography in the 10 to 20 year timeframe and the anticipated impacts of these advances on the oceanography that will be undertaken. It will also examine the impact of technology as well as other pressures on the institutional infrastructure of oceanography itself. Specifically, what will oceanography the science and oceanography the discipline look like in 2030? (11, 13)

083: Using Satellite and In Situ Data Public Archives for Ocean Biology Research: Schedule

Organizers: Watson Gregg, NASA/GSFC/GMAO, watson.gregg@nasa.gov; Margarita Gregg, NOAA/NODC, margarita.gregg@noaa.gov

National and international public data archives for ocean biological variables are now extensive. The plethora of these data, including satellite ocean color data products, in situ chlorophyll and nutrients, and others, can improve our understanding of biological dynamics from local to global scales, and days to decades. Combined with physical and chemical observations, the data archives enable us to assess the potential effects of natural variability and human activities on ocean biology. Ocean biological data also support modeling efforts, with data assimilation a new research focus. In this session we seek research efforts that utilize these public archives in data analysis, modeling, and data assimilation, as well as analyses that suggest new areas for improving the richness and diversity of these data holdings. (13, 16)

084: Advances in Flow-Topography Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Andrew Thompson, California Institute of Technology, aft26@cam.ac.uk; Igor Kamenkovich, University of Miami, ikamenkovich@rsmas.miami.edu; Stephanie Waterman, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, stephanie.n.waterman@gmail.com

The importance of both large-scale and small-scale topographic features on moderating the ocean’s large-scale circulation have long been appreciated. Improvements in the spatial coverage of observations, especially in polar regions, as well as improved resolution of numerical models have recently identified many dynamical processes that have modified our understanding of how topography feeds back on ocean circulation and Earth’s climate. These processes include, but are not limited to, modulation of Rossby wave propagation speeds, influence on the dynamics of large-scale currents and mesoscale eddies, control of material transport and mixing, eddy generation along boundary currents in marginal seas and water mass and tracer exchange across the continental shelves and slopes. Observational, modeling and theoretical studies are invited covering all aspect of topography-flow interactions, including control of topography on the large-scale circulation, interactions between topography and coherent eddies and jets, generation and modification of linear and non-linear waves, continental shelf/slope processes. (2)

085: Development of a Global Ocean Biogeochemical Observing System Based on Profiling Floats and Gliders: Schedule

Organizers: Kenneth S. Johnson, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, johnson@mbari.org; Mary Jane Perry, University of Maine, perrymj@maine.edu; Herve Claustre, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, claustre@obs-vlfr.fr

Observing changes in biogeochemical processes at a global scale in a changing ocean is one of the most pressing issues in the ocean sciences. Changing oxygen levels, increasing acidity and greater thermal stratification all have the potential to substantially alter fluxes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.  Yet there is no extant observing system capable of resolving these processes in situ at the global scale. Deployment of a global ocean observing system based on biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats and gliders is rapidly becoming feasible. In this session, we will focus on the potential for the development of such a system, which we call GLOBE (GLobal Ocean Biogeochemical Experiment). GLOBE would be modeled on the Argo system and would function as a biogeochemical Argo program (Bio-Argo) with open data access. We welcome presentations related to the development of a global network based on autonomous platforms, including the scientific need, analysis of data sets from profiling float and glider arrays, regional scale pilot-projects, development of models that would assimilate biogeochemical data sets, merging in situ and satellite data sets to obtain 3-D and 4-D views of ocean processes, and the development of additional biogeochemical sensors for this array. (13, 18)

119: Advances in Monitoring the Ocean’s Heat and Salt Balance: Schedule

Organizers: Simon Good, Met Office, simon.good@metoffice.gov.uk; Sydney Levitus, NODC, Sydney.Levitus@noaa.gov

The Argo array of profiling floats has dramatically increased data coverage for temperature and salinity for the global oceans in the last 7 years. The calculation of global and regional heat and salt content changes have accordingly become more reliable, but the change in the ocean observing system has come with the challenge of systematic bias in the different parts of the ocean observing system both at present and historically. Presentations on advances in monitoring the ocean’s heat and salt balance on regional and global scales, on quantifying uncertainties in these quantities and whether these place any limitations on our understanding of past changes, and challenges and solutions to biases introduced by different components of the ocean observing system are solicited for this session. (2, 8, 13, 16)

123: Compound-Specific Amino Acid Analysis: A Rapidly Evolving Tool for Ecology, Paleoceanography and Biogeochemical Cycle Research: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew D. McCarthy, University of California, Santa Cruz, mccarthy@pmc.ucsc.edu; Brian Popp, University of Hawaii, SOEST, popp@hawaii.edu; Marilyn Fogel, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, m.fogel@gl.ciw.edu

Rapidly accelerating work on stable isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) has demonstrated unique potential to understand food webs, track source and diagenesis of organic matter, and provide new paleoceanographic tools for unraveling past changes in the ocean’s N and C cycles. While CSI-AA has been demonstrated in earlier work to address diverse questions ranging from the origins of amino acids in meteorites to quantification of the diets of modern pigs and ancient whales, realization that this class of compounds holds distinctive information has resulted in a resurgence of interest in CSI-AA. Currently evolving approaches include the application of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopic analyses to study the ecology, diet, trophic position, and physiology of organisms ranging from microbes to metazoans. As more is unraveled in modern organism, CSI-AA is becoming a critical tool for investigation of biogeochemical cycling of detrital organic matter, paleoceanographic studies, and understanding the diagenesis of organic matter in sediments. This session will focus on advances in the applications of CSI-AA to biogeochemical, ecological and physiological problems in marine and freshwater environments. We encourage submissions that focus on new techniques and approaches, as well as specific environmental applications. (3, 4, 13, 18)

127: Phytoplankton Fluorescence: Filling the Gap between Observations and Understanding: Schedule

Organizers: Alexander Chekalyuk, LDEO of Columbia University, chekaluk@ldeo.columbia.edu; Yannick Huot, Département de Géomatique Appliquée, Université de Sherbrooke, yannick.huot@usherbrooke.ca

Measuring in vivo fluorescence from phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments can provide information regarding their biomass, physiology, photosynthetic rates, and community structure. Such measurements are highly sensitive, non-intrusive, rapid, and easy to carry out, which make them an attractive alternative to traditional techniques. However, the interpretation of fluorescence data remains challenging: applying insights gained in the laboratory to measurements taken in natural aquatic environments is difficult, and understanding the sources of variability observed in the field is complex. Nevertheless, from satellites to flow cytometers, from emission-excitation spectra to time-resolved measurements, a broad array of tools and protocols have been developed and utilized to address specific scientific questions. Recent advances in autonomous platform technology and the development of more informative and sophisticated instruments and techniques provide new unique observational and analytical capabilities. Yet, there seems to be a growing gap between our ability to make observations using the available technology and our capacity to interpret these observations for improved characterizations of the natural aquatic environments. To address this issue and to review recent advances, we invite submissions on all aspects of phytoplankton fluorescence with an emphasis on the interpretation and better understanding of in vivo and in situ field measurements. (3, 13)

128: Sensitivity Analysis, Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification in Ocean Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Ibrahim Hoteit, King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology, ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa; Bruce Cornuelle, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, bdc@ucsd.edu; Mohamed Iskandarani, Rosenstiel Schoold of Marine Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, miskandarani@rsmas.miami.edu

Quantifying uncertainties in ocean models and reducing them through data assimilation are essential steps towards accurate and dependable oceanic simulations and forecasts. Challenges in this area are numerous due to the non-linear interaction of multiple spatio-temporal scales, and due to uncertainties in physical processes, and various parameters and inputs. The problem is compounded by the paucity of data in space and time compared to the relevant dynamical scales, and by the presence of irreducible errors that need to be quantified and represented. This session will focus on new developments in sensitivity analysis in ocean models, forward propagation of model uncertainty, new data assimilation and uncertainty reduction techniques and applications, and quantifying uncertainties in ocean models simulations and data assimilation products. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers working in the areas of ocean data assimilation, ocean model sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, with the goal of discussing new technical developments and recent applications. We invite contributions dealing with all theoretical and practical aspects of data assimilation and uncertainty quantification in ocean models.

131: Research Needs for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Schedule

Organizers: James Ammerman, Stony Brook University, New York Sea Grant, james.ammerman@stonybrook.edu; Barry Costa-Pierce, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island Sea Grant, bcp@gso.uri.edu

Implementing Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) is an important part of the National Ocean Policy mandated by a Presidential Executive Order. While there is a much background data available for many coastal areas to help with CMSP, in many cases the available data needed for specific planning actions is inadequate to the task at hand. Rhode Island and Massachusetts are among the national leaders in this area, with the Rhode Island Ocean SAMP (Special Area Management Plan) a potential model for an overall planning framework that included approximately $10 million of new ocean research, extensive stakeholder processes, and adaptive management plans. This session will address the needs for increased research, the types of research needed to support the implementation of CMSP, provide examples of such research, and also discuss ways to facilitate and support additional research for adaptive management. It will provide important information to researchers interested in directing their research to be more useful for CMSP. Submissions are encouraged from all involved with research to support CMSP, researchers, managers, and others. (9, 11, 13)

135: Imaging the Ocean Interior: From Seismics to Optics: Schedule

Organizers: Robert Pinkel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, rpinkel@ucsd.edu; Steven Holbrook, University of Wyoming, SteveH@uwyo.edu

As time progresses, more sensing systems are able to capture multi-dimensional data that can be displayed as two, three or four-dimensional images. The different views of the ocean obtained with these systems reflect specific properties being sensed as well as the space-time slice of reality that is sampled. In this session we compare, contrast and enjoy the differing views of the ocean obtained from acoustic forward- and back-scattering devices, optical systems, and tomographic arrays, as well as from point sensors on drifting-float arrays, moving profilers, AUVs, and gliders. The focus is not on ìimage processingî, rather on the extraction of scientific information:   what is seen and what is missed by the various approaches. (2, 12, 13)

143: Modeling Oceanic Pollutant Transport: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher H Barker, NOAA Emergency Response Division, Chris.Barker@noaa.gov; Amy MacFadyen, NOAA Emergency Response Division, Amy.Macfadyen@noaa.gov; Peter Murphy, NOAA, Peter.Murphy@noaa.gov

Ocean circulation modeling is a field of study with many diverse applications. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, modeling of oil surface oil transport has been a particularly newsworthy application. Advances continue to be made in surface oil spill models, but their use is now comparatively well developed. By contrast, application of circulation models to the movement and dispersion of other pollutants, including marine debris, non-petroleum chemical releases, and unexploded ordnance, has not been developed or discussed to the same level. The need for understanding of these pollutants, including their movement and their impacts, has been underscored by recent events ranging from use of dispersant at depth in the Deepwater Horizon response to the marine debris and radioactive contaminant releases caused by the tsunami that struck Japan in 2011. Scientists across disciplines are exploring new approaches as well as new applications for existing techniques to address these issues and others. This session will highlight ongoing work and recent advances in data collection and assimilation, considerations of 3D modeling, and new applications of existing ocean circulation models to the varying problems of oceanic pollutant transport modeling. (2, 13, 14)

144: Recent Advances and Challenges in Using Adaptive Sampling to Quantify Process and Test Oceanographic Hypothesis: Schedule

Organizers: Percy Donaghay, Graduate School Of Oceanography, donaghay@gso.uri.edu; James H. Churnside, ESRL, NOAA Boulder, james.h.churnside@esrl.noaa.gov

There has been a growing recognition over the last 20 years that the biological, biogeochemical, and optical dynamics of marine systems are frequently dominated by episodic events or by processes that are spatially concentrated in regions of strong gradients such as those observed in chemoclines, thin layers and fronts. Although much of the progress in this are has been dominated by the use of adaptive sampling to guide the collection of discrete samples from ships for laboratory analysis, recent advances in sensors, deployment systems and near-real time data analysis has opened the door for the autonomous collection and analysis of these samples in situ. We are looking for papers in this secession that either (1) illustrate the use of adaptive sampling for quantifying critical processes and testing hypothesis, and/or (2) illustrate potential solutions to the challenges in increasing the use of adaptive sampling from ocean observing systems. (13, 16)

148: Recent Advances in In Situ Chemical and Biological Measurements in Marine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Martial Taillefert, Georgia Institute of Technology, mtaillef@eas.gatech.edu; Brian Glazer, University of Hawaii, glazer@hawaii.edu

Oceanographic measurements are essential to study, preserve, and manage the oceans. Despite the rapid advances in oceanographic technology, chemical and biological measurements obtained in these environments rely largely on sampling and ex situ analyses of water, sediment, and mineral substrates, compared to the in situ capabilities of physical oceanographic measurements. To improve our understanding of the biogeochemical processes regulating the distribution and flux of elements between the seafloor, water column, and the atmosphere, it is necessary to monitor the geochemical and biological composition of marine environments continuously with high spatial and/or temporal resolution. The recent technological advances in instrument electronics, power generation, nanotechnology, and communication have boosted the development of in situ monitoring systems, and the new network observatory initiatives in the oceanographic community are in need of new instruments with in situ capabilities, chemical and biological sensors, and microbial incubation devices for a variety of applications. This session will regroup scientists interested in sharing their recent development in instrumentation or chemical and/or biological sensors for in situ measurements or automated sampling in a variety of marine environments, including hydrothermal systems, water columns, and sediments. (3, 4, 13)

161: Characterizing the Variability of the Coastal Ocean and Its Implications: Schedule

Organizers: Sung Yong Kim, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, syongkim@mpl.ucsd.edu; Anthony Kirincich, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, akirincich@whoi.edu

The rapid advancement of coastal ocean observational programs has enhanced our capability to capture the dynamics of coastal circulation. Coupled with this observational infrastructure, new satellite data products and advanced numerical modeling efforts allow us to investigate coastal processes including shelf, estuarine, and river flows at an unprecedented range of spatial and temporal scales, document their variability, and begin to investigate their implications. This session invites contributions that describe and interpret the dynamic nature of coastal circulation spanning from submesoscale to mesoscale and from episodic events to climate change. Presentations on observational and theoretical studies of circulation variability are recommended as are reports from recent process studies addressing individual dynamical aspects. Results from interdisciplinary studies on biological implications related to coastal dynamics at these scales are also encouraged. (2, 6, 13)

170: Adaptive Sampling of Coastal Waters Using Gliders and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs): Novel Integration of Oceanography and Engineering Research: Schedule

Organizers: Catherine Edwards, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, catherine.edwards@skio.usg.edu; Fumin Zhang, Georgia Tech-Savannah, fumin@gatech.edu

Gliders and other autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are valuable tools for coastal ocean research, and engineering applications of vehicle control strategies can significantly improve the scientific value of the data collected. Innovative use of gliders calls for new research in development and application of control algorithms based on real-time inputs such as vehicle position, physical and/or bio-optical data collected by mobile and stationary assets, and operational circulation and ecosystem model forecasts. This session encourages presentations on novel research that explores new ideas in AUV navigation, control, and adaptive sampling for coastal applications, with seamless integration of oceanography and engineering effort for glider and AUV missions. Submissions should contain ideas and results that are significant for both disciplines. (6, 13)

171: Acoustical Applications for Ocean Observing Systems: Schedule

Organizers: Bruce Howe, University of Hawaii at Manoa, bhowe@hawaii.edu; Sue Moore, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, sue.moore@noaa.gov; Brandon Southall, Southall Environmental Associates, Inc., Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net

The oceans are largely transparent to sound, hence oceanographic, biological, and signal processing acoustic techniques are primary tools for ocean observation and engineering. The opportunities and value of acoustical observations and techniques within the integrated ocean observing systems are boundless, yet incorporation of these techniques within these systems has been opportunistic and ad hoc. Both regional and international coordination of acoustical applications is essential.  Common passive or active acoustical systems can serve several multidisciplinary scientific and educational purposes, using the power and communications capabilities provided by the observing systems. The costs of acoustical components can be minimized by taking advantage of ongoing implementation and maintenance activities of the ocean observing systems. The enormous challenges of planning, implementing and data management specific to acoustics must be faced to bring acoustical tools to fruition for ocean observing systems. This topical session solicits papers relating to any of the wide-ranging applications of acoustics within the observing systems: engineering, biological, or remote sensing. One aim is to identify common acoustical elements shared by several disciplines, hence to identify those elements that may have priority for immediate deployment. Papers addressing “Data Managment and Communications; “ (DMAC) issues are particularly encouraged. (12, 13, 16)