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12. Optics, Acoustics, Remote Sensing

011: Biology, Biogeochemistry, and Bio-optics of the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Kevin R. Arrigo, Stanford University, arrigo@stanford.edu; Marcel Babin, Universite Laval, Marcel.Babin@takuvik.ulaval.ca; Don Perovich, donald.k.perovich@usace.army.mil

Rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic Ocean over the last decade are likely to markedly alter its biology and biogeochemistry. Changes have been most extreme in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, this area has received considerable scientific interest in recent years. Remote sensing studies suggest that as sea ice cover and the length of sea ice season has decreased, primary productivity in the pelagic environment has risen, particularly on continental shelves. However, associated changes within the sea ice ecosystem are not known. Unfortunately, satellite remote sensing in Arctic waters is challenging and an improved understanding of the optical characteristics of its surface waters and sea ice cover is sorely needed. The goal of this session is to present recent efforts to characterize ongoing changes in the biology and biogeochemistry in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, using both field-based and satellite-based approaches, and relate these to changes in the physical environment, including sea ice. We also welcome results from work being done to improve our ability to monitor changes in this remote and difficult to sample environment using satellite measurements of ocean color, as was done during the Malina and ICESCAPE cruises. (3, 7, 12, 18)

020: Theory, Modelling, and Observations of Remote-sensed Propagating Waves and Eddies: Schedule

Organizers: Dr. Subrahmanyam Bulusu, University of South Carolina, sbulusu@geol.sc.edu; Dr. Remi Tailleux, University of Reading, R.G.J.Tailleux@reading.ac.uk

Westward propagating Rossby waves and eddies are the most dominant feature of sea-surface height (SSH) variability on seasonal to decadal time scales, butother propagating waves such as Kelvin-waves or barotropic Rossby waves are also present, as well as observable in other remote-sensed products, such as sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll, and even sea-surface salinity (SSS). Waves and other propagating features are of fundamental importance for the large-scale circulation owing to their role: 1) in the adjustment of the oceans to changes in the buoyancy and wind forcing, 2) in significantly contributing to the meridional transport of heat, salt, and nutrients. As a result, it is essential to represent such signals in numerical ocean general circulation models used for climate change studies. For this to be successful, however, much remain to be understood about the formation, propagation, decay, dynamics, and vertical structure of such signals. This session encourages contributions using Remote Sensing observations (altimetry, SST, and ocean color) and in-situ data (e.g., ARGO floats), as well as theoretical and modelling work, that can help refine the description and understanding of such waves and eddies, and how the surface signature of such signals relate to their vertical structure. (2, 12)

037:   Operational Applications of Ocean Satellite Observations: Schedule

Organizers: Margaret Srinivasan, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory, margaret.srinivasan@jpl.nasa.gov; Dr. Robert Leben, University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, leben@colorado.edu

We invite contributions on operational applications utilizing both near real-time (NRT) and reconstructed historical ocean satellite data, in addition to ocean reanalysis and coupled models of relevant parameters. Of particular interest are studies and methods that highlight the practical uses of altimetry, scatterometry, ocean color, ocean temperature, salinity and gravity data with real-world or potential commercial applications. The combination of data between two or more sensors, or between multiple satellites producing same sensor data, can be a powerful tool in analyzing ocean circulation and climate effects, can contribute to operational optimizations, and can even have significant contributions to issues of safety at sea. Operational applications may include, but are not limited to, offshore oil and other marine operations, NRT data streams, NRT coastal monitoring, operational processing, blended satellite data for operational use, marine mammal studies, fisheries management, recreational boating, and climate/hurricane studies. We strongly encourage topics in marine forecasting and those with potential industry or commercial applications. (2, 12, 13)

042: Eddy Correlation and New Impending Approaches for Measuring Fluxes in the Aquatic Environment: Schedule

Organizers: Peter Berg, University of Virginia,  pb8n@virginia.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu

Eddy correlation is becoming a commonly-used approach for measuring oxygen exchange between benthic communities and the overlying water. The technique allows direct measurements of this flux, and can be used where other traditional methods would fail, e.g. densely-vegetated sediments, highly permeable sands and gravel beds, and hard surfaces such coral reefs and mussel beds. Eddy correlation measurements are done under true in situ conditions with minimal disturbances of the natural light and hydrodynamic conditions, and incorporate a much larger bottom area than traditional flux methods. Other new approaches for measuring benthic fluxes with similar advantages are currently being presented including the flux ratio approach, where fluxes are derived from vertical concentration gradients and eddy diffusivities in the bottom water. In this session, we invite users of the eddy correlation technique and other new flux methods to present their results and experiences. We stress that this session is not only focused on benthic oxygen fluxes, but on all scalar fluxes in the aquatic environment. We also encourage contributions introducing new methods for flux measurements in aquatic environments that are still under development. (2, 4, 13)

044: Advancing Satellite Ocean Color Science for Global and Coastal Research: Schedule

Organizers: Bryan A. Franz, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA), bryan.a.franz@nasa.gov; Vincent Vantrepotte, Laboratoire d’Océanologie et Géosciences (CRNS-France), Vincent.Vantrepotte@univ-littoral.fr; Fréderic Mélin, European Commission on Joint Research Centre (Italy), frederic.melin@jrc.ec.europa.eu; Stéphane Maritorena, Earth Research Institute, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara (USA), stephane@eri.ucsb.edu

Ocean color satellites provide daily global synoptic views of marine optical and biogeochemical properties. These properties describe the contents of the upper ocean mixed layer, information critical to furthering scientific understanding of ocean processes such as carbon exchanges, phytoplankton dynamics, and responses to climatic disturbances. The international community has invested significant effort in improving the quality and maintaining the continuity of satellite-derived marine optical properties, and in developing innovative approaches to study marine biogeochemical processes in both coastal and open ocean environments. In 2012, the continuous record of satellite ocean color enters its 16th year, with multiple ocean color sensors from several space agencies contributing to the time-series and a host of international research institutions contributing algorithms and field measurements. This session aims to take stock of a fast-evolving field through presentations addressing the state-of-the-art in advanced ocean color products, methods, and research applications that enhance our understanding of marine ecosystems and regional to global carbon cycle dynamics. (3, 12)

047: Integrative Power of Ocean Observatories: Recent Insights and Future Directions: Schedule

Organizers: Steven G. Ackleson, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, sackleson@oceanleadership.org; Steven G. Ackleson, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, sackleson@oceanleadership.org; Mairi Best, NEPTUNE Canada, mmrbest@uvic.ca; Emmanuel Boss, University of Maine, emmanuel.boss@maine.edu; Richard Dewey, VENUS, Ocean Networks Canada, rdewey@uvic.ca

Ocean observing system technology (sensors, platforms, communications, and data management) has advanced significantly in recent years, integrating complex hardware, software, and people networks and employing fixed, drifting, and mobile components. These advances have provided ocean and earth scientists with springboards for new and novel research enabled by increasingly interactive access to persistent, real-time, high-frequency, multi-disciplinary data representing even the most extreme environmental conditions from the coast to the deep sea. Combined with traditional ship-based and remote sensing observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad scope of earth-ocean scales including global and regional circulation, ecosystem and carbon dynamics, air-sea interaction, ocean acidification, and ocean floor substrate-fluid processes. This session offers a forum to highlight discoveries and insights that have emerged during the past decade of ocean observatory data, examine recent scientific findings and discuss future research needs and challenges. Oral presentations of data analyses that advance knowledge of interdisciplinary oceanographic processes are encouraged. Poster presentations that discuss infrastructure, ongoing observatory operations and planned observing activities are also encouraged. (12,13)

050: Linking the Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Osburn, North Carolina State University, closburn@ncsu.edu; Colin Stedmon, Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, cst@dmu.dk; Robert G.M. Spencer, Woods Hole Research Center, rspencer@whrc.org

A paradigm in chemical oceanography is the remarkable similarity in the optical and chemical properties of both marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and substantially degraded riverine DOM. Recently, in the oceanographic literature, a number of articles have reported on using combined optical and chemical techniques to investigate the sources and cycling of DOM in the coastal and open ocean water columns and in sedimentary pore waters. However, studies that calibrate the optical properties of DOM with geochemical measurements are few and far between in the literature. In addition, studies that attempt to resolve these properties with respect to rates of riverine DOM photochemical and biological degradation are also lacking. This session will provide a forum for scientists to exchange ideas and demonstrate progress in linking data-rich spectroscopic techniques, such as excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs) and spectral absorption, to geochemical measurements of DOM, such as elemental ratios, nutrients, stable isotopes, biomarkers, and structural characterizations arising from new developments in analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (4, 6, 12)

054: Mapping and Characterizing the Seafloor Using Acoustics: Bringing Spatial Data Up from the Depths (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Miles G. Logsdon, University of Washington, School of Oceanography, mlog@u.washington.edu; Leslie R. Sautter, College of Charleston, Dept. of Geology and Env. Geosciences, sautterl@cofc.edu

Advances in acoustic techniques along with increased availability of high resolution bathymetric data have resulted in significant contributions by academia, government and industry toward better documentation and understanding of the ocean’s floor. The techniques and technologies associated with bathymetric mapping, ground-truthing, habitat characterization, seafloor morphology, and geospatial pattern analysis now enable exploration and experimentation of ocean processes at spatial and temporal resolutions never before possible. With opportunities such as these, comes the responsibility to understand error and precision as well as provide explanation regarding the legacy of the data. Beginning with survey design through the visualization and quantitative assessment of form, mapping and characterization of the seafloor using acoustics requires attention to numerous processes which may influence the use of resulting data. This poster session will showcase studies that utilize multibeam and sidescan sonar along with other acoustic techniques that characterize shallow and deep water settings, as well as work which reviews current research in the acquisition, processing and application of the data. (1, 12)

121: Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean Using Hyperspectral and Geostationary Satellite Imagers: Schedule

Organizers: Curtiss Davis, Oregon State University, cdavis@coas.oregonstate.edu; Yu-Hwan Ahn, KORDI, yhahn@kordi.re.kr; Jeffrey Bowles, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., jeffrey.bowles@nrl.navy.mil; Robert Arnone, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS, robert.arnone@nrlssc.navy.mil

The coastal ocean is one of the most valuable and over-utilized resources on the earth. Over a quarter of the World population live in the coastal zone and the coastal ocean is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, overfishing, transportation, oil and gas production and many other uses. The coastal ocean is also optically complex with plankton blooms and coastal runoff and highly dynamic driven by tides and diurnal winds. Two new approaches are now available to address these issues; hyperspectral imaging to resolve the optical complexity of the coastal ocean and imaging from geostationary satellites to resolve the temporal dynamics. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) was launched in September 2009 and operates on the International Space Station. The first geostationary ocean color radiometer the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) was launched in June of 2010. This session invites presentations on the processing and analysis of HICO and GOCI data, on science conducted in preparation for future hyperspectral or geostationary imagers and on plans and designs for those instruments. (6, 12)

135: Imaging the Ocean Interior: From Seismics to Optics: Schedule

Organizers: Robert Pinkel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, rpinkel@ucsd.edu; Steven Holbrook, University of Wyoming, SteveH@uwyo.edu

As time progresses, more sensing systems are able to capture multi-dimensional data that can be displayed as two, three or four-dimensional images. The different views of the ocean obtained with these systems reflect specific properties being sensed as well as the space-time slice of reality that is sampled. In this session we compare, contrast and enjoy the differing views of the ocean obtained from acoustic forward- and back-scattering devices, optical systems, and tomographic arrays, as well as from point sensors on drifting-float arrays, moving profilers, AUVs, and gliders. The focus is not on ìimage processingî, rather on the extraction of scientific information:   what is seen and what is missed by the various approaches. (2, 12, 13)

156:   Satellite Remote Sensing of the Physical and Biogeochemical Processes of the Ocean and Their Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Samantha Lavender, ARGANS Ltd, samantha.lavender@argans.co.uk; Tim Liu, NASA, w.t.liu@jpl.nasa.gov

This session is held in conjunction with the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) WG VIII/9 Oceans. The aim is to highlight research that utilises satellite data to understand the changes and interaction amongst the biological, chemical and energy/water cycles in the ocean together with their influence on terrestrial and cryospheric changes. This reflects the increasing number of parameters that can be derived from space (e.g. salinity from the 2009 launched ESA MIRAS SMOS mission and near future NASA / CONAE Aquarius SAC-D mission; wind vector from the scatterometer on ISRO Oceansat-2) and the practical cross-discipline usage of them to understand oceanographic variabilities. (12)

171: Acoustical Applications for Ocean Observing Systems: Schedule

Organizers: Bruce Howe, University of Hawaii at Manoa, bhowe@hawaii.edu; Sue Moore, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, sue.moore@noaa.gov; Brandon Southall, Southall Environmental Associates, Inc., Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net

The oceans are largely transparent to sound, hence oceanographic, biological, and signal processing acoustic techniques are primary tools for ocean observation and engineering. The opportunities and value of acoustical observations and techniques within the integrated ocean observing systems are boundless, yet incorporation of these techniques within these systems has been opportunistic and ad hoc. Both regional and international coordination of acoustical applications is essential.  Common passive or active acoustical systems can serve several multidisciplinary scientific and educational purposes, using the power and communications capabilities provided by the observing systems. The costs of acoustical components can be minimized by taking advantage of ongoing implementation and maintenance activities of the ocean observing systems. The enormous challenges of planning, implementing and data management specific to acoustics must be faced to bring acoustical tools to fruition for ocean observing systems. This topical session solicits papers relating to any of the wide-ranging applications of acoustics within the observing systems: engineering, biological, or remote sensing. One aim is to identify common acoustical elements shared by several disciplines, hence to identify those elements that may have priority for immediate deployment. Papers addressing “Data Managment and Communications; “ (DMAC) issues are particularly encouraged. (12, 13, 16)

175: Exploitations of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Winds, Waves and Data Assimilation: Schedule

Organizers: Hans C. Graber, CSTARS - University of Miami, hgraber@rsmas.miami.edu; Theresa Paluszkiewicz, Office of Naval Research, terri.paluszkiewicz@navy.mil

Satellite-based radars are capable to observe the winds and waves on the ocean with higher resolution than any other satellite sensor. With radars operating both day and night and in all weather measurements of winds, waves and currents in tropical cyclones and storms are possible.New algorithms enable the generation of high detail wind and wave fields which are suitable for assimilation into coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Of interest are results of new algorithms capable of deriving high wind speeds and sea state in hurricanes and typhoons and modeling results when SAR data was assimilated into coupled models. (2, 12, 17)