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09. Ecosystems: Processes, Assessment, and Management

014: Ocean Deoxygenation and Coastal Hypoxia in a Changing World: Schedule

Organizers: Nancy N. Rabalais, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, nrabalais@lumcon.edu; Daniel Conley, GeoBiosphere Centre, Department of Geology, Lund University, daniel.conley@geol.lu.se; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu

The interaction of ocean warming and human activities in watersheds is increasing the occurrence, frequency and severity of oxygen deficiency in oceanic and coastal waters. Climate change is warming ocean waters and thereby reducing the solubility of oxygen and its availability to aerobic organisms. Human alterations to hydrology and nutrient flux further aggravate oxygen depletion in coastal waters. These interactions may in fact result in positive influences to aquatic ecosystems, but the overall result is expected to be negative impacts for oceanic waters, including expansion of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. In addition, indications are that increases in deoxygenation will exacerbate ocean acidification. There is little doubt that deoxygenation is increasing around the globe, but these observations result primarily from new reports of oxygen deficiency in the literature. The long-term records for ocean deoxygenation and coastal hypoxia are limited, but these data with correlative information can tell us much about changing conditions and changes in oxygen concentrations in marine waters. This session focuses on long-term data for changing oxygen dynamics in marine waters, both hydrographic data sets and paleoindicators for decreasing oxygen concentrations with their ancillary data that point to causal relationships. (4 ,6, 8, 9)

030: Gulf of Mexico Circulation & Ecosystem Numerical Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher N. K. Mooers, Portland State University, cmooers@cecs.pdx.edu; Patrick Hogan, Naval Research Laboratory, pat.hogan@nrlssc.navy.mil; Leo Oey, Princeton University, lyo@princeton.edu; Claire Paris, RSMAS/University of Miami, cparis@rsmas.miami.edu

The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico is dominated by the Loop Current and the eddies it sheds, and by the passage of intense weather systems in all seasons. The highly variable and intense circulation, together with river discharges, impacts the marine ecosystems of the Gulf. Intensive and extensive field and modeling studies have increased the understanding of the circulation and provide a basis for skill assessing numerical circulation models and prediction systems. Today, more than 20 significant models exist for the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Hence, the Gulf of Mexico has potential to serve as a modeling & observing system testbed for prediction systems. The aim of this session is to explore the skill of some of these models, especially as they apply to ecosystem models. The complex roles of the circulation on dispersion and ecosystem response in the Deepwater Horizon oil & gas gusher event, which began 20 APR 10 and ran for three months, gives new impetus (indeed, urgency) to this topic area. (2, 9, 13, 14)

031: Biogeochemical Cycles of Continental Margins: Drivers and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov; Cécile Cathalot, Netherlands Institute for Ecology - Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, C.Cathalot@nioo.knaw.nl; Marjorie Friedrichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, marjy@vims.edu; Peter Griffith, NASA GSFC, peter.c.griffith@nasa.gov; Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov

Biogeochemical cycling in the coastal zone is complex and poorly quantified, both on the mean and in terms of variability in response to a myriad of natural and anthropogenic drivers. Such complexity leads to substantial uncertainty in global and regional carbon budgets This session focuses on recent progress in understanding coastal biogeochemical cycling, with emphasis on linkages to terrestrial and global ocean cycles. Two areas of research are particularly sought: (1) impacts of climate variability, extreme events (e.g. floods, resuspension), and land-cover/land-use change on the transport and cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements to and within the coastal ocean margins; (2) synthesis and modeling work that leads to improved coastal zone carbon budgets at scales of global relevance. This special session invites investigators to present and discuss recent progress in coastal systems biogeochemistry from observational, experimental, and modeling perspectives. (5, 6, 8, 9, 18)

038: Changing Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems in the Western North Pacific Continental Margins Under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Forcing: Schedule

Organizers: Kon-Kee Liu, National Central University, kkliu@ncu.edu.tw; Minhan Dai, Xiamen University, mdai@xmu.edu.cn; Gwo-Ching Gong, National Taiwan Ocean University, gcgong@ntou.edu.tw; Chih-Hau Hsieh, National Taiwan University, chsieh@ntu.edu.tw; Hiroaki Saito, Fisheries Research Agency, hsaito@affrc.go.jp

Continental margins in the western north Pacific are bordered by the worldís most densely populated coastal communities and receive runoffs from very large rivers. The large anthropogenic pressure threatens diverse coastal marine ecosystems, as demonstrated by the four-fold increase of Changjiang nitrogen loading in the past 30 years that possibly contributes to the increasing hypoxia in the East China Sea. On the other hand, increasing impounding of freshwater for irrigation purposes may reduce riverine load of dissolved silicate, altering discharge patterns, nutrient elemental ratios and phytoplankton community downstream. Increasing frequencies of widespread flooding since the beginning of the 20th century, which is attributable to the accelerated global hydrological cycle, may also cause marked changes in coastal oceans. As continental margins sustain arguably the most productive ecosystems and most active biogeochemical processes in the earth system, the stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large human population. Moreover, the altered biogeochemical cycles may cause many unknown feedbacks that exacerbate effects of climate change. We invite contributions on interactions between physical-biogeochemical processes and the ecosystem in the west Pacific and consequences of human perturbations on these systems, as revealed by field observations, remote sensing, or modeling studies. (6, 8, 9, 18)

058: Integrated Observational and Modeling Studies of Marine Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Bradley Penta, Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center, penta@nrlssc.navy.mil; Francisco Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, chfr@mbari.org

New and emerging technologies are allowing unprecedentedly comprehensive views of marine ecosystems. Observations by shipboard, towed, fixed, remote, and autonomous platforms equipped with complementary sensors and informed by simulation models are providing new insights into fundamental ecosystem processes. This session will focus on multi-disciplinary, multi-platform process and modeling studies of plankton blooms in marine ecosystems. Presentations are solicited that highlight results from interdisciplinary studies (e.g., BloomEx, BIOSPACE, AOSN, COAST, MUSE, NAB) and recent advances in observational, data processing, and modeling techniques. Contributions are welcome on the subjects of coordination and control of observational assets, adaptive sampling, and mission planning (decision support). Submissions on modeling and data assimilation methods are also within the scope of this session. (3, 9, 13, 16)

067: Altered Estuaries: Processes, Restoration, and Management: Schedule

Organizers: Guan-hong Lee, Inha University, ghlee@inha.ac.kr; Guan-hong Lee, Inha University, ghlee@inha.ac.kr; Aswani K. Volety, Florida Gulf Coast University, avolety@fgcu.edu; Timothy M. Dellapenna, Texas A&M University, dellapet@tamug.edu

Estuaries provide valuable ecological services such as nursery habitat for recreationally and commercially important fin and shell fisheries; feeding grounds for birds, recreational needs of humans, and filtration and treatment of numerous chemical and microbiological contaminants, etc. At the same time, estuaries lie within the watersheds of the most heavily populated areas with about 60% of the world population living along estuaries and coasts. Over the last century estuaries have been altered by various human activities, including sedimentation from soil erosion; overgrazing and other poor farming practices; drainage and filling of wetlands; eutrophication due to excessive nutrients; and diking or damming for flood control or water diversion;. Efforts have been made in recent decades to understand the nature of altered estuaries and the natural response to these modifications, with the intention of restoration and/or best management practices of estuaries. This session will provide a venue to share our increased knowledge of the comprehensive nature of physical, chemical, geological and biological processes of altered estuaries, as well as our experience on their restoration and adaptive management practices. Our knowledge will help to establish operational tools for environmental management of altered estuaries in supporting a policy of global management of the estuaries. (5, 9, 11)

071: Deep-Sea Conservation Imperatives in the 21st Century: Schedule

Organizers: Lisa A. Levin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, llevin@ucsd.edu; Cindy Van Dover, Duke University Marine Laboratory, clv3@duke.edu; Jeff Ardron, Marine Conservation Institute, Jeff.Ardron@Marine-Conservation.org; Craig R. Smith, University of Hawaii at Manoa, craigsmi@hawaii.edu

The deep waters and seabed of the world ocean constitute the largest biosphere on this planet, supporting a wealth of species and habitat diversity, performing key ecosystem functions and providing valuable food and energy resources. Once considered pristine, the deep sea (from 200-11,000 m) is under increasing pressure from potentially destructive extraction activities such as fishing, oil and gas exploitation and minerals mining, as well as waste and contaminant disposal, bioprospecting, and scientific research. CO2-driven climate change is also altering deep-sea species distributions and ecosystem processes with attendant effects on services and functions. In addressing these issues, EEZs and international waters face different regulatory landscapes. We invite talks that address conservation issues in pelagic and benthic realms of the slope, abyss and trenches. Topics of interest include but are not limited to human and climate-change impacts in the deep-sea, current conservation science issues and needs, marine policy instruments, management options, and global challenges. Presentations are welcome from science, industry, government and NGOs. (3 ,9, 11)

072: Plankton Phenology: Drivers, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Henson, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, S.Henson@noc.ac.uk; Rubao Ji, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rji@whoi.edu; Martin Edwards, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, maed@sahfos.ac.uk; Marie-Fanny Racault, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, mfrt@pml.ac.uk

The timing of seasonal events in plankton populations affect survival rates of their predators with knock-on effects on carbon cycling and higher trophic levels. Characterising plankton phenology is challenging because time series of data with relatively high temporal resolution are required. However, advances in our understanding of phenology have come from satellite ocean colour data, Continuous Plankton Recorder data and time series stations. Growing evidence shows that climate-related changes in forcing are driving shifts in plankton phenology, which are hypothesised to continue changing with projected global warming. In this session, we invite contributions that examine phenology in phytoplankton or zooplankton populations, environmental controls on variability on seasonal to decadal timescales and impacts of changes in phenology on higher trophic levels. Contributions based on in situ datasets, satellite data or model studies are all welcome. (3, 8, 9)

080: Coastal Connections: Advances in the Understanding of the Interaction of Fluvial and Marine Systems: Schedule

Organizers: Katie Farnsworth, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, kfarns@iup.edu; Paul Liu, North Carolina State University, jpliu@ncsu.edu; Kehui Xu, Coastal Carolina University, kxu@coastal.edu; James Syvitski, University of Colorado at Boulder, james.syvitski@colorado.edu

Understanding the complex interactions in the coastal zone requires a focus on atmospheric, fluvial and marine processes as well as increasing anthropogenic influences. There has been tremendous growth in our understanding of the flux and fate of water, sediment and dissolved solids from land into the coastal ocean due to an emphasis on collaborative work between both modelers and field researchers. Much exciting and challenging work remains to link the sediment (both siliciclastic and carbonate) origin, transport and depositional processes and the responses at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In this session we hope to bring together researchers in terrestrial and marine sciences studying the coastal zone in diverse regions around the world. Study areas are broadly defined, including rivers, deltas, estuaries, continental shelves and others in the entire source-to-sink system. (1, 6)

086: Climate Change Impacts on Living Marine Resources: Schedule

Organizers: Vincent Saba, Princeton University, vsaba@princeton.edu; Charles Stock, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, charles.stock@noaa.gov; Anne Hollowed, NOAA NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Anne.Hollowed@noaa.gov

We invite abstracts investigating the response of Living Marine Resources (LMRs) to anthropogenic climate change. A wide range of LMRs will be considered, including fish, mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. Studies focused on the detection and attribution of past climate change impacts on LMRs as well as those focused on assessing future impacts will be considered. We are particularly interested in contributions that explore the mechanistic linkages between climate-driven changes in physical properties and the eventual LMR response. These linkages can be challenging to diagnose because they occur across a broad range of spatiotemporal scales and be modulated by interactions throughout the marine food web. Uncovering these linkages, however, is essential for improving projections of the impact of climate change on LMRs. (3, 8, 9)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

124: New Insights into the Early Life Stages and Reproductive Dynamics of Large Marine Vertebrates: Schedule

Organizers: Joel Llopiz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, jllopiz@whoi.edu; Barbara Muhling, University of Miami Rosenstiel School Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science, barbara.muhling@noaa.gov; Kate Mansfield, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA/NMFS, kate.mansfield@noaa.gov; Lesley Thorne, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, lesley.thorne@duke.edu

Large marine vertebrates, whether bony fishes, sharks, mammals, sea turtles, or birds, play critical roles in the functioning of marine ecosystems. Since the maintenance or rebuilding of large marine vertebrate populations is highly dependent upon successful reproductive events and the survival of the early life stages, the understanding of these processes is critical for effective management and conservation efforts. For many of these long-lived species, the ‘lost years’ during the early life stages (part or all of the juvenile stage, and including the larval stage for bony fishes) have been distinctly understudied. Yet, a recent increase in efforts is shedding new light on the early life stages of large marine vertebrates, as well as their reproduction. Examples of such research include the mapping of reproductive areas in relation to oceanographic conditions, understanding the processes influencing reproductive output, and investigating how the survival and behavior of early life stages vary with biotic and abiotic conditions. The comparative approach of bringing together knowledge and perspectives gained from studying this taxonomically broad but important group of organisms should provide greater insight into general patterns and processes influencing the survival and conservation of the world’s large marine vertebrates. (3, 8, 9)

131: Research Needs for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Schedule

Organizers: James Ammerman, Stony Brook University, New York Sea Grant, james.ammerman@stonybrook.edu; Barry Costa-Pierce, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island Sea Grant, bcp@gso.uri.edu

Implementing Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) is an important part of the National Ocean Policy mandated by a Presidential Executive Order. While there is a much background data available for many coastal areas to help with CMSP, in many cases the available data needed for specific planning actions is inadequate to the task at hand. Rhode Island and Massachusetts are among the national leaders in this area, with the Rhode Island Ocean SAMP (Special Area Management Plan) a potential model for an overall planning framework that included approximately $10 million of new ocean research, extensive stakeholder processes, and adaptive management plans. This session will address the needs for increased research, the types of research needed to support the implementation of CMSP, provide examples of such research, and also discuss ways to facilitate and support additional research for adaptive management. It will provide important information to researchers interested in directing their research to be more useful for CMSP. Submissions are encouraged from all involved with research to support CMSP, researchers, managers, and others. (9, 11, 13)

137: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry and Ecology: Establishing Linkages Between Molecular Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Schedule

Organizers: Zackary Johnson, Duke University, zij@duke.edu; Maureen Coleman, University of Chicago, mlcoleman@uchicago.edu

With molecular, taxonomic, ecological and biogeochemical aspects, the term “biodiversity” broadly captures the breadth of organisms and their functioning within ecosystems. Technological advances have lead to substantial progress in describing the molecular and genomic diversity of marine organisms and additional progress has been made using meta-analyses of large geospatially-explicit datasets. More recent efforts have sought to leverage these advances and link them to functional ecology (e.g. biogeochemistry) or to conservation and ecosystem management. Major programs including the Census of Marine Life, US NSF Dimensions of Biodiversity, the Gordon and Betty Moore Marine Microbiology Initiative and others have provided alternate frameworks for characterizing this biodiversity. Further, both observational and modeling efforts have emphasized the importance of the linking various metrics of biodiversity and in using data assimilation and theoretical approaches to characterize marine biodiversity. The goal of this session is to highlight recent progress and future opportunities in broadly describing the biodiversity of microbial to macrofaunal organisms using a variety of approaches at a range of scales. In particular, we encourage participation across multiple size scales of organisms and in using novel techniques to provide connections (or identify disconnects) across scales and different aspects of biodiversity. (3, 9, 18)

139: Governing Across Scales—Innovative Stewardship of Earth Systems: Creating a Global Large Marine Ecosystem Knowledge Network: Schedule

Organizers: Harold P. Batchelder, Oregon State University, hbatchelder@coas.oregonstate.edu; Peter Fox, Renseselaer Polytechnic Institute, pfox@rpi.edu; Suzanne Lawrence, Independent, suzanne@suzannelawrence.net; Oran Young, Univ. California, Santa Barbara, oran.young@gmail.com

Overfishing, marine pollution, habitat loss and climate change are contributing to the degradation in the world’s marine ecosystems. Prompt and potentially significant changes in the use of ocean resources are needed to overcome the negative consequences of human exploitation. Climate change has added new urgency to efforts to sustainably govern Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) as well as the accelerated recognition that ocean ecosystems not only affect climate processes, but are also substantially impacted by climate change. Investments in LME programs worldwide require implementation plans that are effective and efficient. What is presently lacking is a process to bring together existing knowledge networks to identify, review, and synthesize the best assessment and management practices among the community of LME practitioners dedicated to facilitating exchange of lessons learned. This session is designed to create a forum for sharing of information (e.g., data, lessons learned and best management practices) developed through various LME project processes among the global marine science community. The session will benefit all members of the ocean science community interested in building and maintaining a global knowledge network of policymakers and scientists committed to moving ecosystem based management and coastal and marine spatial planning from paper to practice. (3, 9, 11, 16)

141: Improving the Representation of Plankton Ecology in Earth System Models: Schedule

Organizers: Irina Marinov, University of Pennsylvania, imarinov@sas.upenn.edu; Zhi-Ping Mei, Horn Point Laboratory, Univ. of Maryland, zmei@umces.edu; Tihomir Kostadinov, University of California Santa Barbara, tiho@eri.ucsb.edu; Anand Gnanadesikan, Johns Hopkins University, gnanades@jhu.edu

Since phytoplankton contribute 50% of total global carbon fixation, it is critical to understand through Earth System Models how climate change will affect primary production and ocean carbon cycling, and the potential feedbacks on climate. However, there is a gap between the increasingly detailed knowledge of phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their simplified representation in Earth System Models. This session intends to provide an avenue for observationalists, theoreticians and modelers to present recent advances in in-situ and remote sensing based observations of phytoplankton physiology and ecology, and their representation in regional to global ocean models. Relevant questions include: What are the recent advances and new challenges in modeling ocean ecology in Earth System Models? Which are the important advances in observational (including remote sensing) and theoretical phytoplankton ecology, such as light, macro-and trace nutrient (co)limitations, elemental stoichiometry, size-scaling and size-structure, different tradeoffs among ecological traits, that might be critical for ocean carbon and nutrient cycling and storage, and thus need to make their way in the next generation of global climate models? How sensitive are the predicted biogeochemical cycles on the time scale of climate change to new ecological formulations and increased complexity of the Earth System models? (2, 3, 8, 9, 16)

147: Infusing Biogeochemistry with Ecosystem Science: Schedule

Organizers: Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University, susanne.neuer@asu.edu; Raleigh Hood, University of Maryland, rhood@umces.edu

The cycling and transport of organic carbon and energy in the ocean is mostly mediated by organisms. But biogeochemical studies often insufficiently consider ecological aspects, despite the apparent need to find a synergy between both when investigating and predicting flux of carbon and other elements in a changing ocean. For example, the community composition of primary producers influences the biological carbon pump, and higher trophic levels are important in their utilization, remineralisation and transport of organic matter to depth. In this special session we invite presentations of biogeochemical studies that consider aspects of organism and ecosystem dynamics, both from observational and modeling perspectives. (3, 4, 9, 18)

162: Advances in Phylogeography and Connectivity of Marine Metazoans: Schedule

Organizers: Ann Bucklin, University of Connecticut, ann.bucklin@uconn.edu; Timothy Shank, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, tshank@whoi.edu

Marine phylogeography (the study of geographical distributions of genetic lineages of a population or species) has advanced rapidly in recent years. Analysis of connectivity of marine animal populations, communities, and ecosystems has become a central focus in ocean science, with broad-reaching implications including: understanding of past future impacts climate change, management and conservation of marine resources, and spatial planning. Technological breakthroughs in genomics, metagenomics, and environmental DNA sequencing have provided access to a vastly expanded repertoire of molecular makers for non-model animal populations; statistical and analytical approaches have allowed integrated analysis of multiple characters; models have been developed to explore migration and gene flow of organisms over a range of ecologically- and oceanographically-relevant scales. This session will include analysis and modeling of the phylogeography of marine metazoans living in diverse environments (coasts and deep sea, benthic and pelagic, coral reefs and vents) over a range of temporal and spatial scales and patterns (local to global, cosmopolitan and endemic). (3, 9)

167: Bridging the Gap Between Pure Aquatic Science and Environmental Assessment: Schedule

Organizers: Michael Teasdale, AMEC Earth and Environmental, michael.teasdale@amec.com; Sebastien Donnet, AMEC Earth and Environmental, sebastien.donnet @amec.com

Environmental monitoring/assessment and aquatic sciences have typically followed divergent paths. Regulators and environmental consultants do not necessarily follow the most up to date techniques with regards to aquatic environmental monitoring and environmental assessment. Paradigm shifts in the aquatic sciences continue to happen and be covered in the scientific journals and conferences but are not necessarily incorporated or known about in the applied sciences. This session hopes to recruit presentations of case studies where aquatic ecologists and environmental assessors have worked in conjunction to ensure that the techniques recently developed in academia have been successfully applied to an environmental issue. (9, 11)

173: Ocean Surface Waves and Interactions with Currents and Winds: Schedule

Organizers: William Perrie, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, william.perrie@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ryan Mulligan, Queens University, mulliganr@civil.queensu.ca

This session will encompass observations, theory and model studies of surface waves, and their interactions with the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, in coastal and open ocean environments over different spatial and temporal scales. We encourage studies that compare model results to in situ and remotely sensed data. When winds blow over the ocean, they generate surface waves and wind-driven currents; in turn, the currents and waves modulate the winds and the atmospheric boundary layer. In high winds, viz. hurricanes, the wind-generated waves have large amplitudes, and currents can be very strong. Large waves have strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions. These interactions affect momentum and energy fluxes and play a role in the evolution of waves during storms. Parameterization of the energy and momentum transferred to waves from the wind, and dissipated to the upper ocean, remain unresolved issues to this day. Exchanges are large during hurricanes, may reflect asymmetries of spatial variations of the wind and wave fields during the generation and development of given storms , which in turn may affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and heat. This session will explore the fluxes between the upper ocean, surface waves, subsurface currents and the wind. (2, 17)

174: Ecosystem Science in the Gulf of Mexico: Knowledge Gaps, Science Needs, and Long-Term Plans for the Future: Schedule

Organizers: Alan P. Leonardi, NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, alan.leonardi@noaa.gov; Rebecca E. Green, BOEM, Environmental Sciences Section, rebecca.green@boemre.gov

The Gulf of Mexico coastal and marine ecosystems provide a host of ecosystem services, including fisheries, global nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and tourism and recreation. Recent events such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the 2011 Mississippi River flooding are dramatic examples of anthropogenic and natural stressors that are influencing this large marine ecosystem and that have exposed the limits of our knowledge of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. This session will explore these gaps in knowledge, examine the research and science needs to support a long-term adaptive ecosystem approach to understanding and predicting changes to the Gulfís natural and human-based components, and propose the framework(s) and activities required to meet these needs and close our knowledge gaps in the future. (3, 9, 14)

177: Gelatinous Plankton: Ecology, Physiology and Economic Impact in the Changing World Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Anthony Moss, Auburn University, mossant@auburn.edu; Jamie Seymour, James Cook University, jamie.seymour@jcu.edu.au,

“Jellyfish,” as defined by Haddock (2011 ASLO Aquatic Sciences, Puerto Rico)— i.e. all forms of gelatinous body marine animals - are becoming increasingly obvious as both highly adaptable keystone predators — such as key members of the Ctenophora and Cnidaria, or, in the case of the Thaliacea, critical, sensitive primary grazers in highly partitioned regions of the world ocean. A great deal of hyperbole has developed around these still-enigmatic animals, and local governments and management groups are left uncertain as to their actual ecological and economic impact. This session will bring together plankton experts conversant on many areas of the ocean: coastal, shelf and blue-water open ocean, to attempt to accurately depict the current status of the gelatinous plankton in the changing world ocean. (3, 9)