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08. Climate Change, Environmental Change, Ocean Acidifcation

003: The Response of Marine Calcifiers to Global Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Schedule

Organizers: Nick Kamenos, University of Glasgow, nick.kamenos@glasgow.ac.uk; Maggie Cusack, University of Glasgow, maggie.cusack@glasgow.ac.uk; J. Murray Roberts, Heriot-Watt University, J.M.Roberts@hw.ac.uk

Recent research has highlighted the large variability of responses by calcifying marine biota to changes in their physical environment. Critically, those calcifiers provide important ecosystem services and in addition, studies using novel environmental proxies from cold-water carbonates are helping form our understanding of environmental variability and responses to past periods of rapid climate change This session will promote a more complete understanding of how mid- to high-latitude biomineralizing organisms including corals, coralline algae, bryozoans and mussels respond to environmental changes such as rapid climate change, ocean acidification, hypoxia, etc. The session will include sub-organism to ecosystem level processes, evidence for acclimation and geochemical proxy records. It will combine palaeo aspects with research investigating present-day biotic and physical adaptations and the responses of services provided by biogenic habitats. The aim is to provide the holistic approach required to further our understanding of mid and high-latitude calcifier responses to global change. (1, 3, 7, 8)

004: The Southern Ocean and Its Role in the Climate System: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Downes, Princeton University, sdownes@princeton.edu; Nicole Jeffery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, njeffery@lanl.gov; Joellen Russell, University of Arizona, jrussell@email.arizona.edu; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, wilbert@lanl.gov

Over the past decade, the climate dynamics, biogeochemistry and physical oceanographic communities have highlighted the Southern Ocean as a key player in the climate system. Thus, understanding the processes that shape the Southern Ocean mean state, variability, and response to external forcing is essential for our understanding of the climate system as a whole. Data collections have expanded significantly over the past decade, and modeling efforts have advanced through Earth System Model development, data assimilation solutions, and process models. These new developments require investigation of how (or whether) the representation of the Southern Ocean has been improved using a combination of model-model and model-data comparisons. The goal of this session is to present modeling and/or data efforts that investigate all aspects of the Southern Ocean, including its mixing and mesoscale processes, large-scale circulation, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-ice interactions, and biogeochemical processes

We particularly encourage analyses using models for the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and assimilated models. (2, 4, 7, 8, 18)

007: High-Resolution Geochemical Proxies of Global Change: Progress, Problems, and Utility: Schedule

Organizers: Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Iowa State University, adw@iastate.edu; David P. Gillikin, Union College, gillikid@union.edu

Knowledge of climate and environmental change throughout geological time is derived from deep-sea and terrestrial records representing long time scales. However, while records of climate and environmental changes at long time scales are essential, high-resolution marine-based records at seasonal, annual, and decadal scales are equally important and under-represented in the literature. Much of what we know about past environments is based on the geochemical signature in various proxy archives. While substantial progress continues to be made in this area, specific obstacles and problems do exist. We encourage papers presenting geochemical records of global change, including calibration/validation studies, in biologic or inorganic carbonates and highly resolved (decadal resolution) sediments. Geochemical studies highlighting recent progress, problems, or utility are especially welcome. (1, 4, 8)

010: Ocean Observing Systems: Regional and Global: Schedule

Organizers: Michael S. Tomlinson, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, tomlinson86@q.com; Eric Heinen De Carlo, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, edecarlo@soest.hawaii.edu; James T. Potemra, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, jimp@hawaii.edu, Albert Fischer, IOC/UNESCO, a.fischer@unesco.org, Eric Lindstrom, NASA, eric.j.lindstrom@nasa.gov, Ru Morrison, NERACOOS, Ru.Morrison@neracoos.org, Suzanne Skelley, U.S. IOOS Program Office, Suzanne.Skelley@noaa.gov, Harvey Seim, University of North Carolina, hseim@email.unc.edu

It has been 7 years since the first of eleven Regional Associations of Ocean Observing Systems (OOSs) in the United States came online and started providing data and information to their stakeholders and the general public. These OOSs provide valuable real-time, high-resolution data and information in support of environmental protection, ocean safety, and ocean economic benefits. In addition, the OOSs provide ocean scientists with access to large, multivariable, high temporal and spatial resolution datasets which enable us to better understand atmosphere-land-ocean interactions; the effects of extreme events (e.g., tsunamis, storms, spills); and larger scale phenomena such as ENSO, PDO, and important issues such as ocean acidification. In this session, we envision a combination of oral and poster presentations that focus on some of the most important findings obtained from OOS data across the nation to date, although we also encourage submissions from international colleagues involved in ocean observing efforts elsewhere. We want to emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the OOS and the data collected and how these large data sets allow us to examine specific phenomena and resolve the effects of these phenomena spatially and temporally in detail that heretofore was not possible on such a large scale. (8, 13)

012: The Chukchi Sea Region: Rapid Changes in the Pacific Gateway to the Arctic: Schedule

Organizers: Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, jgrebmei@umces.edu; Russell R. Hopcroft, University of Alaska Fairbanks, hopcroft@ims.uaf.edu; Robert S. Pickart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rpickart@whoi.edu; Bill Williams, Institute of Ocean Sciences, DFO Canada, bill.williams@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Sue E. Moore, NOAA Fisheries, sue.moore@noaa.gov

Over the last decade the Chukchi Sea has warmed significantly, experienced major reductions in seasonal sea ice cover, and responded to shifts in atmospheric forcing. These changes demonstrate the seaís vulnerability to climate perturbations and its interconnectivity to the Arctic and global oceans. Numerous scientific programs are underway with support from state and US government agencies, private industry, and via international efforts based in Canada, China, Japan, Korea, and Russia. These programs are rapidly increasing our understanding of the Pacific gateway to the Arctic and promise better system-level understanding. This session invites contributions on emerging results from field and modeling studies that implicate key ocean-atmosphere interactions, including sea ice dynamics, physical and biogeochemical processes in the water column, and biological response throughout the marine food web. Data on changes to external forcing that may promote marine species shifts or evidence of major ecosystem reorganizations are also welcome. This multidisciplinary and international session will provide a state of the art evaluation of the environmental status and trends of the Arcticís Pacific sector, including physical forcing, biogeochemical cycling, biological response, modeling and social-economic interactions. (2, 7, 8)

013: Oceanic Uptake of Heat and Greenhouse Gases: Dynamic and Thermodynamic Controls and Inferences from Tracers: Schedule

Organizers: Geoffrey (Jake) Gebbie, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, ggebbie@whoi.edu; Mark Holzer, University of New South Wales, mholzer@unsw.edu.au; William Smethie, LDEO, Columbia University, bsmeth@ldeo.columbia.edu; Laure Zanna, University of Oxford, zanna@atm.ox.ac.uk

The oceans play a major role in climate, because they are a sink for heat and carbon capable of delaying the climatic response to forcing and thus affecting climate on all space and time scales. This session aims to further our understanding of how, when, and where the properties of the interior ocean are changing with a focus on the controls exerted by ocean dynamics and the constraints provided by observed transient and steady tracers. A key theme of the session is how tracers can inform inform us about the role of the oceans in climate variability and change. Contributions are solicited that present observational, theoretical, and/or modeling results from either of two general areas: (i) the role of ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in governing the uptake of heat, carbon and other tracers, including the relation to climate variability and change, and (ii) new observations of traditional and emerging trace species, novel diagnostic techniques, and forward and inverse modeling approaches to use tracers to constrain dynamical and biogeochemical processes. (2, 4, 8)

014: Ocean Deoxygenation and Coastal Hypoxia in a Changing World: Schedule

Organizers: Nancy N. Rabalais, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, nrabalais@lumcon.edu; Daniel Conley, GeoBiosphere Centre, Department of Geology, Lund University, daniel.conley@geol.lu.se; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu

The interaction of ocean warming and human activities in watersheds is increasing the occurrence, frequency and severity of oxygen deficiency in oceanic and coastal waters. Climate change is warming ocean waters and thereby reducing the solubility of oxygen and its availability to aerobic organisms. Human alterations to hydrology and nutrient flux further aggravate oxygen depletion in coastal waters. These interactions may in fact result in positive influences to aquatic ecosystems, but the overall result is expected to be negative impacts for oceanic waters, including expansion of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. In addition, indications are that increases in deoxygenation will exacerbate ocean acidification. There is little doubt that deoxygenation is increasing around the globe, but these observations result primarily from new reports of oxygen deficiency in the literature. The long-term records for ocean deoxygenation and coastal hypoxia are limited, but these data with correlative information can tell us much about changing conditions and changes in oxygen concentrations in marine waters. This session focuses on long-term data for changing oxygen dynamics in marine waters, both hydrographic data sets and paleoindicators for decreasing oxygen concentrations with their ancillary data that point to causal relationships. (4 ,6, 8, 9)

023:  Dissolved Organic Matter and the ‘Hidden’ Carbon Cycle: Schedule

Organizers: Andy Ridgwell, University of Bristol, UK, andy@seao2.org; Dennis Hansell, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu; Sandra Arndt, University of Bristol, san.arndt@gmail.com; Ellen Druffel, University of California, Irvine, edruffel@uci.edu

There is sufficient dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the modern ocean to put it on par with the atmospheric and terrestrial vegetation carbon reservoirs. Recent geological interpretations have recognized the potential for changes in the DOM reservoir to drive perturbations of global carbon cycling, with isotopic (and often global warming) events in Earth history being increasingly invoked as consequences of DOM oxidation. If true, one might also question how the DOM reservoir will respond to future global environmental changes. To date, global ocean models have tended to focus on the rapid recycling of the most labile of DOM fractions; the large bulk of more refractory fractions have not been widely considered, yet they must be in play if DOM drives the larger perturbations. Are we underestimating a wider dynamical role for DOM in the ocean with potential for feedback with climate? This session will aim to unmask the nature and role of the ocean DOM cycle, and to this end, we invite submissions addressing any of DOM’s hidden facets, including: ocean observations and laboratory characterization; diagenetic, biological, and/or global models; and hypotheses regarding the potential role(s) of DOM in past, present, and future global carbon dynamics and climate. (1, 4, 8, 18)

026: Sources, Transformation, and Sinks of Black Carbon in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Rainer Lohmann, University of Rhode Island, lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Carrie Masiello, Rice University, masiello@rice.edu

Black carbon (BC), the carbonaceous aromatic residue of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, is a ubiquitous component of global carbon pools due to its refractivity. Following production, BC travels through soils and the atmosphere and eventually enters the ocean. Although BC has been detected in all marine carbon pools, its roles in marine dissolved and particulate organic carbon are poorly constrained. Major uncertainties include the size of global and regional BC fluxes to the ocean, the significance of marine biodegradation of BC (if any), and BC residence times in the oceans. If biodegradation of BC is minimal in the ocean, BC may serve as a recalcitrant tracer of terrestrial carbon, potentially providing information about ocean dynamics and about the interaction of the terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. On the other hand, in the terrestrial biosphere BC particles alter nutrient cycling, serve as a nucleus for microbial activity, and in watersheds can act as a UV screen. No information yet exists on the continuity or loss of these functions as BC enters the marine system. This session is proposed to convene practitioners from field, laboratory and modeling research to discuss latest findings and highlight on-going research needs. (4, 8, 18)

031: Biogeochemical Cycles of Continental Margins: Drivers and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov; Cécile Cathalot, Netherlands Institute for Ecology - Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, C.Cathalot@nioo.knaw.nl; Marjorie Friedrichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, marjy@vims.edu; Peter Griffith, NASA GSFC, peter.c.griffith@nasa.gov; Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov

Biogeochemical cycling in the coastal zone is complex and poorly quantified, both on the mean and in terms of variability in response to a myriad of natural and anthropogenic drivers. Such complexity leads to substantial uncertainty in global and regional carbon budgets This session focuses on recent progress in understanding coastal biogeochemical cycling, with emphasis on linkages to terrestrial and global ocean cycles. Two areas of research are particularly sought: (1) impacts of climate variability, extreme events (e.g. floods, resuspension), and land-cover/land-use change on the transport and cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements to and within the coastal ocean margins; (2) synthesis and modeling work that leads to improved coastal zone carbon budgets at scales of global relevance. This special session invites investigators to present and discuss recent progress in coastal systems biogeochemistry from observational, experimental, and modeling perspectives. (5, 6, 8, 9, 18)

032: The Arctic and Subpolar North Atlantic as the Pacemakers for Climate Change: Schedule

Organizers: Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada, Igor.Yashayaev@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Dan Seidov, NOAA NODC/Ocean Climate Laboratory, USA, Dan.Seidov@noaa.gov; Dagmar Kieke, University of Bremen, Germany, dkieke@physik.uni-bremen.de; Entcho Demirov, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, entcho@mun.ca

Arctic and Subarctic oceanic processes are critically important for regulating Earth’s climate. As a part of a polar-amplification of climate change the polar areas are warming faster than most other regions of the world. The subpolar North Atlantic acts as a receptor for Arctic-driven climate variability and actively modulates and redistributes climate signals. High-latitude oceanography and climatology are now strongly enhanced by continuing oceanographic monitoring of polar and subpolar basins involving new near real-time in-situ (profiling floats, seagliders) and remote sensing technologies, and by extensive ocean and climate modeling. In conjunction with historic observations and computer simulations these programs have led to important recent advancements in polar and subpolar oceanography and thus in planetary climatology. The session offers an opportunity to discuss new oceanographic data in the Arctic and North Atlantic regions and the ongoing analysis of these data, which in many ways improve our understanding of high-latitude oceanic processes. Of interest to the session are changes in water mass formation, changes in transports and water mass propagation, variability of heat, freshwater and salt content, and changes in their forcing mechanisms. Furthermore, presentations on exchanges between the Arctic and the subpolar North Atlantic and on various aspects of integration of observations and models are highly appreciated. Ocean climate change on decadal, centennial and longer time scale and its impact on regional and global climate is also of great interest to the session. (2, 7, 8)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

038: Changing Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems in the Western North Pacific Continental Margins Under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Forcing: Schedule

Organizers: Kon-Kee Liu, National Central University, kkliu@ncu.edu.tw; Minhan Dai, Xiamen University, mdai@xmu.edu.cn; Gwo-Ching Gong, National Taiwan Ocean University, gcgong@ntou.edu.tw; Chih-Hau Hsieh, National Taiwan University, chsieh@ntu.edu.tw; Hiroaki Saito, Fisheries Research Agency, hsaito@affrc.go.jp

Continental margins in the western north Pacific are bordered by the worldís most densely populated coastal communities and receive runoffs from very large rivers. The large anthropogenic pressure threatens diverse coastal marine ecosystems, as demonstrated by the four-fold increase of Changjiang nitrogen loading in the past 30 years that possibly contributes to the increasing hypoxia in the East China Sea. On the other hand, increasing impounding of freshwater for irrigation purposes may reduce riverine load of dissolved silicate, altering discharge patterns, nutrient elemental ratios and phytoplankton community downstream. Increasing frequencies of widespread flooding since the beginning of the 20th century, which is attributable to the accelerated global hydrological cycle, may also cause marked changes in coastal oceans. As continental margins sustain arguably the most productive ecosystems and most active biogeochemical processes in the earth system, the stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large human population. Moreover, the altered biogeochemical cycles may cause many unknown feedbacks that exacerbate effects of climate change. We invite contributions on interactions between physical-biogeochemical processes and the ecosystem in the west Pacific and consequences of human perturbations on these systems, as revealed by field observations, remote sensing, or modeling studies. (6, 8, 9, 18)

039: Ocean Biogeochemistry Time-Series and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida, carib@marine.usf.edu; Matthew Church, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, mjchurch@hawaii.edu; Michael Lomas, Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, michael.lomas@bios.edu; Gordon Taylor, Stony Brook University, gtaylor@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Much of our understanding of temporal variability associated with ocean biogeochemistry derives from sustained, systematic, shipboard time-series observations. Time-series science programs provide the oceanographic community with multi-year, high-quality data needed for characterizing ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem variability. We invite contributions from studies which use ocean carbon and biogeochemistry time-series data, and especially encourage studies that examine time-series observations and datasets to elucidate changes in ocean biogeochemical processes, ecosystem structure and function, and linkages and feedbacks with the Earth’s climate system. (3, 4, 8, 18)

045: Oceanic Oxygen Content: Observed Physical and Chemical Processes and Climate Related Changes in the Past, Present and Future: Schedule

Organizers: Lothar Stramma, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany, lstramma@ifm-geomar.de; Sabine Mecking, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, smecking@apl.washington.edu; Denis Gilbert, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Quebec, Canada, Denis.Gilbert@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Ca, USA, rkeeling@ucsd.edu

In the past few years, changes in dissolved oxygen content have become a focal point of oceanic research, due to their large impacts on ecosystems, water column chemistry and sedimentary feedbacks. In the open ocean, the oxygen content appears to be decreasing in most (but not all) areas, especially in the oxygen minimum zones. At the same time, low oxygen areas have spread in the coastal oceans during recent decades. The understanding of physical processes, such as advective oxygen supply or vertical mixing, and chemical processes, such as the interaction between critical oxygen levels and nutrient cycling that cause or are impacted by the observed oxygen changes is limited. The focus of this session is to enhance the understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling the ocean’s oxygen content, the changes in oxygen and their link to climate trends, atmospheric oxygen variations and decadal variability in ocean ventilation, the expansion of oceanic oxygen minimum zones, and the interaction between the open ocean and the shelf. Submissions of abstracts on observations e.g. from the WOCE, CLIVAR or Argo measurement programs or from time series stations as well as on model results illustrating past, present and future oxygen changes are welcomed. (2, 4, 8)

046: Understanding the Biological Consequences of Ocean Acidification in a Holistic Global Change Context: Schedule

Organizers: David Hutchins, University of Southern California, dahutch@usc.edu; Philip Boyd, University of Otago, New Zealand, Pboyd@chemistry.otago.ac.nz; Shannon Meseck, National Marine Fisheries Service, smeseck@clam.mi.nmfs.gov; Adina Paytan, University of California Santa Cruz, apaytan@ucsc.edu

Ocean acidification is happening in concert with a complex matrix of other ocean global change variables, including sea surface warming, stratification and mixed-layer shoaling, altered irradiance regimes, changes in major and micronutrient supplies, sea-ice retreat, increased hypoxia, and consequent novel trophic and competitive interactions due to biogeography shifts. Each of these factors individually will have impacts on the structure and function of biological communities, but the interactions between them may often be more influential on the physiology and ecology of marine organisms than the effect(s) of any one variable alone. Ocean acidification and other global change variables can sometimes interact in highly nonlinear ways, including both synergistically and antagonistically. We therefore encourage presentations featuring experimental, observational, and/or modeling work on the biological consequences of these types of multivariate environmental stressors. Research findings that offer insights into the ability of marine organisms to acclimatize or adapt to long-term changes in multiple environmental stressors are particularly welcome. This session is intended to foster a holistic consideration of biological ocean acidification impacts in the context of complex ecosystem changes, including the capacity for organisms to respond to simultaneous shifts in multiple environmental factors through either phenotypic plasticity or evolution. (3, 4, 8)

056: Biology and Chemistry in a High CO2 World: Schedule

Organizers: Alexandra Rao, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a.rao@nioo.knaw.nl; Christian Wild, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), christian.wild@zmt-bremen.de; Matthew Charette, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, mcharette@whoi.edu, Frank Melzner, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, fmelzner@ifm-geomar.de, Sam Dupont, University of Gˆteborg, Sweden, sam.dupont@marecol.gu.se, Rainer Kiko, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, rkiko@ifm-geomar.de, Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, USA, seibel@uri.edu

Recent research has demonstrated that the release of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere leads to ocean acidification, which is predicted to have a strong adverse effect on marine ecosystems. At the same time, our perceptions of the benthic boundary layer continue to evolve, encompassing a complex interplay of physical, chemical and biological processes in sediments. The links between sediments and ocean acidification are not unidirectional, and the emerging model suggests that numerous feedbacks may impact future changes in ocean chemistry and benthic ecosystems on multiple time scales. Key players include (i) biological communities, from coral reefs to microorganisms and macrofauna in deep and shallow sediments, whose activities have wide-ranging implications for benthic ecology, elemental cycling, and commercial fisheries, (ii) transport and reaction in deep sea and continental margin sediments, including the impact of tides, waves, and bottom currents in permeable sands, and (iii) submarine groundwater discharge, carbonate and pH dynamics in subterranean estuaries. This session aims to bring together experts in measurements and modeling of ocean acidification and benthic processes to address methodological and conceptual challenges pertaining to studies at the frontier between these disciplines. We encourage multi-disciplinary contributions. (3, 4, 6, 8)

059: Ocean Climate Data Records: Schedule

Organizers: Kenneth S. Casey, NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, kenneth.casey@noaa.gov; Edward Kearns, NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Ed.Kearns@noaa.gov; Carig Donlon, European Space Agency, craig.donlon@esa.int

The National Research Council (2004) defines a Climate Data Record (CDR) as a time series of sufficient duration, quality, and continuity to accurately determine climate variability and change. For satellite-based CDRs, GCOS provides requirements in the form of essential climate variables (ECV) that share several characteristics including being long-term, consistently processed, highly accurate, and produced with associated uncertainties using systems that combine sustained, ongoing capacity with the latest community consensus science knowledge and best practices. Both satellite and in situ-based CDRs support a wide range of applications including climate change monitoring and numerical prediction, coral bleaching and disease, the oceans and human disease outbreaks, ocean circulation, and sea level change. Educational and operational applications involving interpretation of real-time information are also enabled and improved by the climatological context provided by CDRs. Presentations are welcomed that describe methods for Fundamental CDR production; the development and production of Thematic CDRs; the status of existing CDRs for the ocean and overlying atmosphere; the integration of CDRs into ocean and climate modeling activities; the challenges associated with determining CDR uncertainties; and results from the analyses of CDRs. The CDRs may be those derived from in situ, remotely-sensed, or a combination of methods, and include those related to any oceanographic discipline. (8, 16)

069: Processes, Preservation, and Potential of High-Resolution Paleoclimate Signals in Marginal Basins: Schedule

Organizers: Gert J. De Lange, University of Utrecht, gdelange@geo.uu.nl; Francisca Martinez-Ruiz, CSIC-University of Granada, fmruiz@ugr.es; Stefano Bernasconi, ETH Z¸rich, stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch

High-resolution climate records that are continuous and with sufficient time resolution are needed to detect high-frequency variations in paleo-climate. Such records are rare but vital for our understanding of causes and consequences of climate and environmental change at decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast to most deep basin pelagic sediments, near-coastal high sedimentation rate sediments or marginal basins with restricted circulation appear to have great potential for recording and preserving high resolution paleoclimate signals of Global importance. Examples of such basins are Cariaco trench, Californian borderland basins, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Baltic, fjords. In this session we welcome contributions on high resolution climate records that form the basis for the discussion on anthropogenic versus natural factors for short term climate variations in sub-recent and past. In addition, we welcome contributions that discuss processes that lead to preserved paleoclimate records, including residence time, productivity versus preservation, land-, and atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal contrast, and forcings/associations with solar- and Milankovitch cycles. Furthermore, we invite contributions on proxies calibration and validation and multi-proxy interpretation in these high-resolution paleo-climate archives. (1, 8)

072: Plankton Phenology: Drivers, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Henson, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, S.Henson@noc.ac.uk; Rubao Ji, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rji@whoi.edu; Martin Edwards, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, maed@sahfos.ac.uk; Marie-Fanny Racault, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, mfrt@pml.ac.uk

The timing of seasonal events in plankton populations affect survival rates of their predators with knock-on effects on carbon cycling and higher trophic levels. Characterising plankton phenology is challenging because time series of data with relatively high temporal resolution are required. However, advances in our understanding of phenology have come from satellite ocean colour data, Continuous Plankton Recorder data and time series stations. Growing evidence shows that climate-related changes in forcing are driving shifts in plankton phenology, which are hypothesised to continue changing with projected global warming. In this session, we invite contributions that examine phenology in phytoplankton or zooplankton populations, environmental controls on variability on seasonal to decadal timescales and impacts of changes in phenology on higher trophic levels. Contributions based on in situ datasets, satellite data or model studies are all welcome. (3, 8, 9)

074: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: Data Syntheses, Analyses and Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Nicolas Gruber, ETH Zurich, nicolas.gruber@env.ethz.ch; Dorothee Bakker, University of East Anglia, Norwich, D.Bakker@uea.ac.uk; Chris Sabine, NOAA PMEL, Seattle, Chris.Sabine@noaa.gov; Toste Tanhua, IfM-Geomar, Kiel, ttanhua@ifm-geomar.de

The ocean carbon cycle is changing at a rate whose magnitude and pattern we are only beginning to document, quantify, and understand. The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, climate fluctuations as well as long-term trends in ocean circulation and biology have led already to substantial changes in the ocean carbon cycle, with potentially larger changes looming ahead. In the last decade, substantial efforts have been undertaken to measure these changes, and a number of projects are underway to synthesize them and to put them into the context of climate variability and change (e.g. international synthesis activities associated with the SOLAS-IMBER carbon working groups and IOCCP, including SOCAT, CARINA and PACIFICA, for example, but also those undertaken in the context of RECCAP). This session aims to bring together the scientists working on these synthesis projects, but is open to all other scientists who are interested in developing an integrated view of how the ocean carbon cycle has changed in the recent decades. Of interest are data syntheses, analyses and modeling studies focusing on air-sea CO2 fluxes, changes in ocean surface and interior carbon properties, and how the changes in these realms are connected to each other. (4, 8, 16)

086: Climate Change Impacts on Living Marine Resources: Schedule

Organizers: Vincent Saba, Princeton University, vsaba@princeton.edu; Charles Stock, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, charles.stock@noaa.gov; Anne Hollowed, NOAA NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Anne.Hollowed@noaa.gov

We invite abstracts investigating the response of Living Marine Resources (LMRs) to anthropogenic climate change. A wide range of LMRs will be considered, including fish, mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. Studies focused on the detection and attribution of past climate change impacts on LMRs as well as those focused on assessing future impacts will be considered. We are particularly interested in contributions that explore the mechanistic linkages between climate-driven changes in physical properties and the eventual LMR response. These linkages can be challenging to diagnose because they occur across a broad range of spatiotemporal scales and be modulated by interactions throughout the marine food web. Uncovering these linkages, however, is essential for improving projections of the impact of climate change on LMRs. (3, 8, 9)

087: Ocean-Atmosphere Processes of Monsoon Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Hemantha Wijesekera, Naval Research Laboratory, hemantha.wijesekera@nrlssc.navy.mil; Harindra Joseph Fernando, University of Notre Dame, Harindra.J.Fernando.10@nd.edu; Raghu Murtugudde, Univ of MD, College Park, ragu@essic.umd.edu; Debasis Sengupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, dsen@caos.iisc.ernet.in

Monsoons dominate the regional climate of the tropics oceans and are themselves driven by land-ocean temperature differentials resulting from the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. The most striking and intense of all are the African-Asian-Australian monsoons (AAAM) centered on the Indian Ocean. These monsoons are not only intimately related to each other but also interact with the Indian Ocean on diurnal, subseasonal, seasonal-to-interannual and longer time-scales. AAAMs are not only rich in physical processes but also drastically affect the livelihoods of nearly half of the World’s denizens, who depend on fisheries and food production based on timely monsoon rainfall. The Indian Ocean is an indicator of global warming due to its rapid warming that has outpaced the other oceans over the last several decades. Thus it is a natural laboratory for more intense studies of the air-sea interactions and exchange processes with the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Air-sea interactions over the subregions such as the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the equatorial and the southern tropical strips offer unique contrasts at diurnal to decadal time-scales. The surface and subsurface processes, buoyancy forcing, local and remote forcing at submesoscale to synoptic scales offer a rich spectrum of ocean-atmosphere processes that play a role in regional climate variability and change via monsoon dynamics. This session is devoted to papers on atmospheric-oceanic dynamics covering a range of space-time scales with the hope of discussing current state of the science and identifying knowledge gaps that will help design of future research programs. (2, 8, 17)

099: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sea Surface Temperature Variability and its Impacts on Air-Sea Interactions, Weather, and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Gary A. Wick, NOAA ESRL, gary.a.wick@noaa.gov; Chelle Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems, gentemann@remss.com; Andrew T. Jessup, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, jessup@apl.washington.edu; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University, clayson@met.fsu.edu

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is important for the generation of satellite SST products and the understanding and interpretation of oceanic and interfacial processes. Important processes that lead to SST variability include diurnal warming, fronts, and wind effects. SST products are increasingly generated from the combination of observations at different times and spatial scales. Progress is being made in characterizing and accounting for the variability, but challenges remain in quantifying its impact on the SST uncertainty budget. Spatial variability further influences scaling process observations to different resolutions, which requires assumptions about dependence of the structure of the process at several scales simultaneously. Current studies are exploring the impact of incorporating SST estimates with sub-pixel variability and improved resolution of the diurnal cycle on air-sea interactions and lower-frequency weather and climate variability. This session seeks to bring together those attempting to describe SST variability with those studying its impacts. Contributions are invited on all aspects of spatial and temporal SST variability, both observations and models, and studies on how this variability impacts air-sea interactions. Additionally, contributions that address the impact of variability on estimates of errors for observations are solicited. (2, 8, 17)

104: Improvements in Understanding Tropical Atlantic Climate Variability and Predictability: Past Behavior, Observations and Climate Models: Schedule

Organizers: Salil Mahajan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, mahajans@ornl.gov; Takeshi Doi, Princeton University/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Takeshi.Doi@noaa.gov; Ernesto Munoz, New Mexico Consortium, emunoz@newmexicoconsortium.org; Kelly H Kilbourne, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, kilbourn@umces.edu

Climate variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean influences the climate of its surrounding regions by way of ITCZ variability, the Atlantic Meridional Mode, Atlantic Nino, Benguela Nino, the Atlantic warm pools and tropical cyclogenesis. The tropical Atlantic Ocean itself is influenced by remote forcings such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Recent years have seen a strong improvement in our understanding of tropical Atlantic variability and predictability via paleoclimate and modern observations, high resolution coupled climate modeling and statistical modeling on seasonal to decadal time-scales. However, strong biases still exist in climate models over the tropical Atlantic. The goal of this session is to collectively discuss the current state of knowledge of tropical Atlantic climate variability and identify the research questions critical to a better understanding and prediction of its climate. Abstracts that discuss the variability of the tropical Atlantic, its response to natural and anthropogenic forcings and its influence on the global climate from either a modern or paleo-perspective are encouraged for this session. (2, 8, 17)

109: Integrating Oceanography and Animal Tracking - The Ocean Tracking Network: Schedule

Organizers: Sara Iverson, Dalhousie University, Sara.Iverson@Dal.Ca; John Kocik, NOAA Fisheries Maine Field Station, jkocik@mercury.wh.whoi.edu; David Welch, Kintama Research Services, david.welch@kintama.com; Daniela Turk, Dalhousie University, daniela.turk@Dal.Ca

Climate variability, change, and anthropogenic activities affect the distribution, abundance and behavior of marine organisms. Newly available acoustic tracking observations and closer collaboration between oceanography and marine biology research is needed to address how changing ocean dynamics impact ocean ecosystems, animal ecology, and ocean resources.This session aims to bring together both marine biology and oceanography researchers to improve our understanding of the linkages between physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions and the population structure, dynamics, movement, and critical habitat of key marine organisms (from eels to whales). We invite contributions from modeling and observation studies, and those which are planning to use, or could benefit from acoustic tracking and co-located oceanographic data from the Ocean Tracking Network. (2, 3, 8, 13)

122: Climate Change Impacts on the High-Latitude Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: John Crusius, U.S. Geological Survey, Univ. of Washington, jcrusius@usgs.gov; Rob Campbell, Prince William Sound Science Center, rcampbell@pwssc.org; Andrew Schroth, US Geological Survey, Woods Hole, aschroth@usgs.gov

Climate change is most pronounced at high latitudes, yet these are among the most remote regions of the ocean and therefore often understudied. For this session we welcome contributions that examine possible impacts of climate change on high-latitude regions of the ocean, with particular emphasis on coastal systems. Perturbations to such systems might include changes in ice melt, stratification, ocean pH, nutrient supply, and in the spatial and temporal variability in nutrient limitation, among other possible impacts. We welcome presentations that provide new insight into biological, chemical and physical processes that are important in the high-latitude ocean, including presentations that discuss new data as well as modeling. (6, 7, 8)

124: New Insights into the Early Life Stages and Reproductive Dynamics of Large Marine Vertebrates: Schedule

Organizers: Joel Llopiz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, jllopiz@whoi.edu; Barbara Muhling, University of Miami Rosenstiel School Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science, barbara.muhling@noaa.gov; Kate Mansfield, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA/NMFS, kate.mansfield@noaa.gov; Lesley Thorne, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, lesley.thorne@duke.edu

Large marine vertebrates, whether bony fishes, sharks, mammals, sea turtles, or birds, play critical roles in the functioning of marine ecosystems. Since the maintenance or rebuilding of large marine vertebrate populations is highly dependent upon successful reproductive events and the survival of the early life stages, the understanding of these processes is critical for effective management and conservation efforts. For many of these long-lived species, the ‘lost years’ during the early life stages (part or all of the juvenile stage, and including the larval stage for bony fishes) have been distinctly understudied. Yet, a recent increase in efforts is shedding new light on the early life stages of large marine vertebrates, as well as their reproduction. Examples of such research include the mapping of reproductive areas in relation to oceanographic conditions, understanding the processes influencing reproductive output, and investigating how the survival and behavior of early life stages vary with biotic and abiotic conditions. The comparative approach of bringing together knowledge and perspectives gained from studying this taxonomically broad but important group of organisms should provide greater insight into general patterns and processes influencing the survival and conservation of the world’s large marine vertebrates. (3, 8, 9)

125:   Ocean Acidification in Coastal and Estuarine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Simone Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, simone.r.alin@noaa.gov; Adrienne Sutton, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, adrienne.sutton@noaa.gov; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu; George Waldbusser, Oregon State University, waldbuss@coas.oregonstate.edu

Globally, anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving significant changes in ocean carbon chemistry, including declines in pH and carbonate saturation states. In estuaries and coastal oceans, ocean acidification (OA) is occurring in the context of other natural and anthropogenic biogeochemical processes that may accentuate or mitigate the magnitude and impacts of OA. Understanding of how OA is progressing in these environments is critical to managing coastal and estuarine resources in a changing world. Because oceanic carbon chemistry changes can only be stabilized over centennial time-scales, identifying processes that can be managed to ameliorate the present and future impacts of OA will be particularly important. Creative interdisciplinary research is needed to examine the role of ocean acidification in coastal and estuarine ecosystems already altered by other biogeochemical processes. This session seeks to showcase research that explores ocean acidification patterns and impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Submissions with a focus on biological, chemical, geological, or modeling aspects of OA along the continental margins are welcome. We particularly encourage submissions that address interactions between OA and other stressors, such as eutrophication, hypoxia, climate change, and pollution. (4, 5, 6, 8)

141: Improving the Representation of Plankton Ecology in Earth System Models: Schedule

Organizers: Irina Marinov, University of Pennsylvania, imarinov@sas.upenn.edu; Zhi-Ping Mei, Horn Point Laboratory, Univ. of Maryland, zmei@umces.edu; Tihomir Kostadinov, University of California Santa Barbara, tiho@eri.ucsb.edu; Anand Gnanadesikan, Johns Hopkins University, gnanades@jhu.edu

Since phytoplankton contribute 50% of total global carbon fixation, it is critical to understand through Earth System Models how climate change will affect primary production and ocean carbon cycling, and the potential feedbacks on climate. However, there is a gap between the increasingly detailed knowledge of phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their simplified representation in Earth System Models. This session intends to provide an avenue for observationalists, theoreticians and modelers to present recent advances in in-situ and remote sensing based observations of phytoplankton physiology and ecology, and their representation in regional to global ocean models. Relevant questions include: What are the recent advances and new challenges in modeling ocean ecology in Earth System Models? Which are the important advances in observational (including remote sensing) and theoretical phytoplankton ecology, such as light, macro-and trace nutrient (co)limitations, elemental stoichiometry, size-scaling and size-structure, different tradeoffs among ecological traits, that might be critical for ocean carbon and nutrient cycling and storage, and thus need to make their way in the next generation of global climate models? How sensitive are the predicted biogeochemical cycles on the time scale of climate change to new ecological formulations and increased complexity of the Earth System models? (2, 3, 8, 9, 16)

153: Chemical Signals That Mediate Interactions of Free Living Organisms and Host Associated Microbes: Schedule

Organizers: Karla B. Heidelberg, University of Southern California, USA, kheidelb@usc.edu; Torston Thomas, University of New South Wales, AUS, t.thomas@unsw.edu.au

The effect of environmental change on marine systems has gained great interest. Prime examples include the observation that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide alters the ocean’s carbonate buffer system, which in turn has a dramatic impact on macroorganisms with carbonate structure (e.g. corals, shells). Those and other macroorganisms live and interact with a great diversity of microorganisms, forming a holobiont. Environmental change may alter those host-microbes interactions and hence may impact host health. This session explores topics related to various effects of environmental change on macroorganisms and their associated microbial diversity. (3, 8)

156:   Satellite Remote Sensing of the Physical and Biogeochemical Processes of the Ocean and Their Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Dr. Samantha Lavender, ARGANS Ltd, samantha.lavender@argans.co.uk; Prof. Tim Liu, NASA, w.t.liu@jpl.nasa.gov

This session is held in conjunction with the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) WG VIII/9 Oceans. The aim is to highlight research that utilises satellite data to understand the changes and interaction amongst the biological, chemical and energy/water cycles in the ocean together with their influence on terrestrial and cryospheric changes. This reflects the increasing number of parameters that can be derived from space (e.g. salinity from the 2009 launched ESA MIRAS SMOS mission and near future NASA / CONAE Aquarius SAC-D mission; wind vector from the scatterometer on ISRO Oceansat-2) and the practical cross-discipline usage of them to understand oceanographic variabilities. (12)

157: Understanding Plankton Biogeography By Putting Functional Traits on the Map: Schedule

Organizers: Andrew D. Barton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, adbarton@mit.edu; Elena Litchman, W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, litchman@msu.edu; Andrew J. Pershing, University of Maine & Gulf of Maine Research Institute, andrew.pershing@maine.edu

What determines plankton biogeography? The abundance of each species in a community is thought to be regulated by the interplay of its functional traits, biotic interactions, and the environment. The environment varies on spatial and temporal scales ranging from short-lived, small-scale fluid turbulence to long-term climate change through Earth history and in future warming scenarios, and is instrumental in driving the biogeography and community ecology of aquatic species. Much has been learned about the physical, chemical, and biological regulation of plankton biogeography from ecosystem modeling, concerted plankton surveys (e.g., the Continuous Plankton Recorder and Atlantic Meridional Transect), the fossil record, and more recently, molecular and genomic techniques, yet many unknowns remain. Here we ask where and when, and why, are certain species with known functional traits successful in marine and fresh waters? Specifically, we invite laboratory, field, bioinformatic, and modeling submissions that seek to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton taxa, broadly defined as zooplankton, phytoplankton, and bacterioplankton, by considering how their functional traits vary along environmental gradients at all spatial and temporal scales. We encourage submissions that seek to build enhanced, mechanistic understanding of plankton biogeography, with an eye toward “putting plankton functional traits on the map.” (3)

165: Climate Change Impacts on the Bering Sea and Related Polar Seas: From Observation to Prediction: Schedule

Organizers: Thomas Van Pelt, North Pacific Research Board, tvanpelt@nprb.org; Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Michael.Lomas@bios.edu; Mike Sigler, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, mike.sigler@noaa.gov

Bering Sea and related polar oceans have experienced recent changes in ice and climate, ocean dynamics, biotic community structure and ecosystem function. Several large research programs have been working to provide the fundamental observations and information needed for vertically-integrated syntheses of climate-mediated oceanographic drivers and trophic interactions in polar marginal seas. Collaborating modelers are using these empirical data to model and predict the impacts of changing seasonal ice cover on ecosystem dynamics, commercial fisheries, and subsistence harvest. This session will provide a forum to discuss field observations gained from ongoing programs, the application of these data to prognostic models, and their linkages to other polar oceans in pursuit of improved stewardship of marine resources in the 21st century. (3, 7, 8)

180: Arctic-Subarctic Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Ken Drinkwater, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, ken.drinkwater@imr.no; Tom Haine, Johns Hopkins University

The Arctic and the Subarctic are intrinsically linked, not only through exchange of water but also in the fluxes and movement of flora and fauna between the two regions. Both regions are experiencing profound changes under present warming and are predicted to be even more highly impacted under future global change. To understand how climate variability and change affect will affect these marine ecosystems, it is essential to understand the role of physical and biological fluxes between the Arctic and Subarctic as well as the mechanisms that link the physical characteristics and biological systems of these ocean areas. This session will focus on the links between the Subarctic and Arctic regions in both the Pacific and the Atlantic, building upon ongoing studies and recent IPY results. Evidence is sought on role of the cold Arctic outflows on the physical conditions in the Subarctic and their subsequent effect on the biology and the influence of the warmer Subarctic inflows on the Arctic basin and shelves. Papers linking multiple trophic levels or biology and physics are especially relevant with interest in all taxonomic groups from bacteria to whales. Comparative papers between the Atlantic and Pacific exchanges are especially desired. (2, 3, 7, 8)