Home Page | Help | Contact | Log In | Search | Follow us: Official 2012 OSM Twitter Feed Official OSM 2012 Facebook Page

07. High Latitude Studies

003: The Response of Marine Calcifiers to Global Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Schedule

Organizers: Nick Kamenos, University of Glasgow, nick.kamenos@glasgow.ac.uk; Maggie Cusack, University of Glasgow, maggie.cusack@glasgow.ac.uk; J. Murray Roberts, Heriot-Watt University, J.M.Roberts@hw.ac.uk

Recent research has highlighted the large variability of responses by calcifying marine biota to changes in their physical environment. Critically, those calcifiers provide important ecosystem services and in addition, studies using novel environmental proxies from cold-water carbonates are helping form our understanding of environmental variability and responses to past periods of rapid climate change This session will promote a more complete understanding of how mid- to high-latitude biomineralizing organisms including corals, coralline algae, bryozoans and mussels respond to environmental changes such as rapid climate change, ocean acidification, hypoxia, etc. The session will include sub-organism to ecosystem level processes, evidence for acclimation and geochemical proxy records. It will combine palaeo aspects with research investigating present-day biotic and physical adaptations and the responses of services provided by biogenic habitats. The aim is to provide the holistic approach required to further our understanding of mid and high-latitude calcifier responses to global change. (1, 3, 7, 8)

004: The Southern Ocean and Its Role in the Climate System: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Downes, Princeton University, sdownes@princeton.edu; Nicole Jeffery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, njeffery@lanl.gov; Joellen Russell, University of Arizona, jrussell@email.arizona.edu; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, wilbert@lanl.gov

Over the past decade, the climate dynamics, biogeochemistry and physical oceanographic communities have highlighted the Southern Ocean as a key player in the climate system. Thus, understanding the processes that shape the Southern Ocean mean state, variability, and response to external forcing is essential for our understanding of the climate system as a whole. Data collections have expanded significantly over the past decade, and modeling efforts have advanced through Earth System Model development, data assimilation solutions, and process models. These new developments require investigation of how (or whether) the representation of the Southern Ocean has been improved using a combination of model-model and model-data comparisons. The goal of this session is to present modeling and/or data efforts that investigate all aspects of the Southern Ocean, including its mixing and mesoscale processes, large-scale circulation, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-ice interactions, and biogeochemical processes. We particularly encourage analyses using models for the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and assimilated models. (2, 4, 7, 8, 18)

007: High-Resolution Geochemical Proxies of Global Change: Progress, Problems, and Utility: Schedule

Organizers: Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Iowa State University, adw@iastate.edu; David P. Gillikin, Union College, gillikid@union.edu

Knowledge of climate and environmental change throughout geological time is derived from deep-sea and terrestrial records representing long time scales. However, while records of climate and environmental changes at long time scales are essential, high-resolution marine-based records at seasonal, annual, and decadal scales are equally important and under-represented in the literature. Much of what we know about past environments is based on the geochemical signature in various proxy archives. While substantial progress continues to be made in this area, specific obstacles and problems do exist. We encourage papers presenting geochemical records of global change, including calibration/validation studies, in biologic or inorganic carbonates and highly resolved (decadal resolution) sediments. Geochemical studies highlighting recent progress, problems, or utility are especially welcome. (1, 4, 8)

008: Arctic Ocean Boundary Currents: Observations, Theory and Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Mary-Louise Timmermans, Yale University, mary-louise.timmermans@yale.edu; Sheldon Bacon, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, s.bacon@noc.ac.uk; Robert Pickart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rpickart@whoi.edu

Arctic Ocean boundary currents are central to the heat, freshwater and geochemical budgets of the Arctic system and can rapidly propagate and modify high-latitude climate signals. Their scales range from the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, extending thousands of kilometers around the perimeter of the basin, to regional shelfbreak jets, such as those adjacent to the Chukchi, Beaufort, and Barents Seas. This session explores all aspects of Arctic basin boundary flows, including, but not limited to: seasonal and longer-term water-mass changes; governing dynamics; exchange processes linking the continental shelf and slope to the deep central basins, such as eddies, dense water flows and wind-forced circulation; and exchanges between Arctic boundary currents and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and coastal Arctic seas. We invite contributions that bring new insights into the system of boundary currents of the Arctic Ocean through observational, theoretical and modeling studies. (2, 7)

011: Biology, Biogeochemistry, and Bio-optics of the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Kevin R. Arrigo, Stanford University, arrigo@stanford.edu; Marcel Babin, Universite Laval, Marcel.Babin@takuvik.ulaval.ca; Don Perovich, donald.k.perovich@usace.army.mil

Rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic Ocean over the last decade are likely to markedly alter its biology and biogeochemistry. Changes have been most extreme in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, this area has received considerable scientific interest in recent years. Remote sensing studies suggest that as sea ice cover and the length of sea ice season has decreased, primary productivity in the pelagic environment has risen, particularly on continental shelves. However, associated changes within the sea ice ecosystem are not known. Unfortunately, satellite remote sensing in Arctic waters is challenging and an improved understanding of the optical characteristics of its surface waters and sea ice cover is sorely needed. The goal of this session is to present recent efforts to characterize ongoing changes in the biology and biogeochemistry in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, using both field-based and satellite-based approaches, and relate these to changes in the physical environment, including sea ice. We also welcome results from work being done to improve our ability to monitor changes in this remote and difficult to sample environment using satellite measurements of ocean color, as was done during the Malina and ICESCAPE cruises. (3, 7, 12, 18)

012: The Chukchi Sea Region: Rapid Changes in the Pacific Gateway to the Arctic: Schedule

Organizers: Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, jgrebmei@umces.edu; Russell R. Hopcroft, University of Alaska Fairbanks, hopcroft@ims.uaf.edu; Robert S. Pickart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rpickart@whoi.edu; Bill Williams, Institute of Ocean Sciences, DFO Canada, bill.williams@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Sue E. Moore, NOAA Fisheries, sue.moore@noaa.gov

Over the last decade the Chukchi Sea has warmed significantly, experienced major reductions in seasonal sea ice cover, and responded to shifts in atmospheric forcing. These changes demonstrate the sea's vulnerability to climate perturbations and its interconnectivity to the Arctic and global oceans. Numerous scientific programs are underway with support from state and US government agencies, private industry, and via international efforts based in Canada, China, Japan, Korea, and Russia. These programs are rapidly increasing our understanding of the Pacific gateway to the Arctic and promise better system-level understanding. This session invites contributions on emerging results from field and modeling studies that implicate key ocean-atmosphere interactions, including sea ice dynamics, physical and biogeochemical processes in the water column, and biological response throughout the marine food web. Data on changes to external forcing that may promote marine species shifts or evidence of major ecosystem reorganizations are also welcome. This multidisciplinary and international session will provide a state of the art evaluation of the environmental status and trends of the Arctic's Pacific sector, including physical forcing, biogeochemical cycling, biological response, modeling and social-economic interactions. (2, 7, 8)

032: The Arctic and Subpolar North Atlantic as the Pacemakers for Climate Change: Schedule

Organizers: Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada, Igor.Yashayaev@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Dan Seidov, NOAA NODC/Ocean Climate Laboratory, USA, Dan.Seidov@noaa.gov; Dagmar Kieke, University of Bremen, Germany, dkieke@physik.uni-bremen.de; Entcho Demirov, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, entcho@mun.ca

Arctic and Subarctic oceanic processes are critically important for regulating Earth’s climate. As a part of a polar-amplification of climate change the polar areas are warming faster than most other regions of the world. The subpolar North Atlantic acts as a receptor for Arctic-driven climate variability and actively modulates and redistributes climate signals. High-latitude oceanography and climatology are now strongly enhanced by continuing oceanographic monitoring of polar and subpolar basins involving new near real-time in-situ (profiling floats, seagliders) and remote sensing technologies, and by extensive ocean and climate modeling. In conjunction with historic observations and computer simulations these programs have led to important recent advancements in polar and subpolar oceanography and thus in planetary climatology. The session offers an opportunity to discuss new oceanographic data in the Arctic and North Atlantic regions and the ongoing analysis of these data, which in many ways improve our understanding of high-latitude oceanic processes. Of interest to the session are changes in water mass formation, changes in transports and water mass propagation, variability of heat, freshwater and salt content, and changes in their forcing mechanisms. Furthermore, presentations on exchanges between the Arctic and the subpolar North Atlantic and on various aspects of integration of observations and models are highly appreciated. Ocean climate change on decadal, centennial and longer time scale and its impact on regional and global climate is also of great interest to the session. (2, 7, 8)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

040: Biogeochemistry of DOM in the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Cèline Guèguen, Trent University, celinegueguen@trentu.ca; Mats Garnskog, Norwegian Polar Institute, mats.granskog@npolar.no; Colin A. Stedmon, Aarhus University, cst@dmu.dk

The major sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Arctic Ocean are riverine input, inflow from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and autochthonous production in surface waters and shelf seas. Rapid climate change in the region is currently shifting the balance of these sources. As they each supply DOM with different chemical characteristics we can expect that the turnover and fate of this material will also change. Shifts in the bioavailability will influence the role that DOM plays in Arctic marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Increased supply of colored DOM (CDOM) will affect photochemistry, underwater light penetration and quality, and heat absorption. Studying the nature, distribution and source dependency of the persistent refractory fraction of DOM offers an additional tool to assess current and future circulation patterns. This ession invitess contributions on any of these aspects of Arctic DOM biogeochemistry. (4, 7, 18)

110: Dynamics of Fjords and High Latitude Estuaries: Schedule

Organizers: W. Rockwell “Rocky” Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., rgeyer@whoi.edu; Parker MacCready, University of Washington, p.macc@uw.edu; Fiama Straneo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., fstraneo@whoi.edu; Lars Arneborg, University of Gothenburg, laar@gvc.gu.se

Recent studies of the melting of glaciers and the warming of the Arctic region has rekindled interest in the dynamics of fjords and high-latitude river outflows. The estuarine research community has made significant progress in recent years in understanding shallow estuaries in mid-latitude settings, but fjords and high-latitude estuaries have been largely overlooked. This session seeks to bring together the researchers who are making pioneering measurements of these high latitude systems with the estuarine researchers interested in broadening the application of their theory, observational methods and models to a wider range of estuarine environments. Papers addressing fjord and high-latitude estuarine processes are particularly encouraged, but we are also interested in comparisons between fjords and other, more well-studied estuarine environments. (2, 5, 7)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

122: Climate Change Impacts on the High-Latitude Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: John Crusius, U.S. Geological Survey, Univ. of Washington, jcrusius@usgs.gov; Rob Campbell, Prince William Sound Science Center, rcampbell@pwssc.org; Andrew Schroth, US Geological Survey, Woods Hole, aschroth@usgs.gov

Climate change is most pronounced at high latitudes, yet these are among the most remote regions of the ocean and therefore often understudied. For this session we welcome contributions that examine possible impacts of climate change on high-latitude regions of the ocean, with particular emphasis on coastal systems. Perturbations to such systems might include changes in ice melt, stratification, ocean pH, nutrient supply, and in the spatial and temporal variability in nutrient limitation, among other possible impacts. We welcome presentations that provide new insight into biological, chemical and physical processes that are important in the high-latitude ocean, including presentations that discuss new data as well as modeling. (6, 7, 8)

152: Polar Marine Microbial Ecology: Schedule

Organizers: Rebecca J. Gast, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rgast@whoi.edu; Robert W. Sanders, Temple University, sanders1@temple.edu; David A. Caron, University of Southern California, dcaron@usc.edu

Marine microbial communities play key roles in the trophic transfer of carbon in polar marine environments. Our knowledge of potential suitable habitats, diversity, trophic interactions and activity in seasons other than the brief polar summers has grown dramatically over the past few decades. With changes in climate already occurring, polar researchers are poised to document and interpret the changes to microbial communities and their potential for ecosystem-level impacts. We encourage investigators to present their research on polar microbial (both prokaryotic and eukaryotic) ecology. Work with aspects of diversity, functional genomics, cellular biology, biochemical and/or physiological processes, and comparisons between polar regions are sought. (3, 7)

165: Climate Change Impacts on the Bering Sea and Related Polar Seas: From Observation to Prediction: Schedule

Organizers: Thomas Van Pelt, North Pacific Research Board, tvanpelt@nprb.org; Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Michael.Lomas@bios.edu; Mike Sigler, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, mike.sigler@noaa.gov

Bering Sea and related polar oceans have experienced recent changes in ice and climate, ocean dynamics, biotic community structure and ecosystem function. Several large research programs have been working to provide the fundamental observations and information needed for vertically-integrated syntheses of climate-mediated oceanographic drivers and trophic interactions in polar marginal seas. Collaborating modelers are using these empirical data to model and predict the impacts of changing seasonal ice cover on ecosystem dynamics, commercial fisheries, and subsistence harvest. This session will provide a forum to discuss field observations gained from ongoing programs, the application of these data to prognostic models, and their linkages to other polar oceans in pursuit of improved stewardship of marine resources in the 21st century. (3, 7, 8)

180: Arctic-Subarctic Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Ken Drinkwater, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, ken.drinkwater@imr.no; Tom Haine, Johns Hopkins University, Thomas.Haine@jhu.edu

The Arctic and the Subarctic are intrinsically linked, not only through exchange of water but also in the fluxes and movement of flora and fauna between the two regions. Both regions are experiencing profound changes under present warming and are predicted to be even more highly impacted under future global change. To understand how climate variability and change affect will affect these marine ecosystems, it is essential to understand the role of physical and biological fluxes between the Arctic and Subarctic as well as the mechanisms that link the physical characteristics and biological systems of these ocean areas. This session will focus on the links between the Subarctic and Arctic regions in both the Pacific and the Atlantic, building upon ongoing studies and recent IPY results. Evidence is sought on role of the cold Arctic outflows on the physical conditions in the Subarctic and their subsequent effect on the biology and the influence of the warmer Subarctic inflows on the Arctic basin and shelves. Papers linking multiple trophic levels or biology and physics are especially relevant with interest in all taxonomic groups from bacteria to whales. Comparative papers between the Atlantic and Pacific exchanges are especially desired. (2, 3, 7, 8)