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05. Watersheds, Lakes, Rivers, Estuaries

028: Comparing Physical Processes in Large Lakes and Shallow Inland/Marginal Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Dmitry Beletsky, University of Michigan, beletsky@umich.edu; Chin Wu, University of Wisconsin-Madison, chinwu@engr.wisc.edu; Cary Troy, Purdue University, troy@purdue.edu; Ram Rao, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, ram.yerubandi@ec.gc.ca

This session’s focus is on comparative analysis of physical limnology and oceanography of large lakes and shallow (less than 1000 m deep) inland and marginal seas. Papers are solicited dealing with modeling, experimental and laboratory studies of physical processes (waves, currents, turbulence, stratification, ice, sediment transport, etc.) in water bodies dynamically similar to large lakes (where Earth rotation effects are important). Examples include large lakes such as Lake Geneva, the Great Lakes, the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, etc. (2, 5, 6)

029: Sediment Transport and Deposition in Lakes, Estuaries, and Shallow Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Nathan Hawley, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, nathan.hawley@noaa.gov; Courtney K. Harris, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ckharris@vims.edu; Lawrence P. Sanford, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, lsanford@umces.edu

The physical characteristics of many lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves - relatively small volumes of water, shallow water depths, relatively long coastlines, and high loadings from rivers and shoreline sources - make them particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. In recent years human population pressures have increased demands on these regions, and in many cases have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of problems such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, excess turbidity, and high rates of sedimentation. Climate change is expected to add stressors such as increased runoff, storminess, and sea level rise. The importance of sediment transport has become increasingly recognized since not only are many nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants transported by sediments, but sediment-induced turbidity also may limit the amount of light available for photosynthesis and visual predation. Recent advances in theoretical, observational, and numerical modeling have led to increased understanding of sediment dynamics in these complex systems. The session encourages submissions covering any aspect of sediment transport and depositional processes in lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves, including field observations, laboratory experiments, and modeling studies. Studies of physical forcing, sedimentary response, different modes of transport, biogeochemical feedbacks with sediments, and particle behavior are all welcomed. (1, 2, 5, 6)

031: Biogeochemical Cycles of Continental Margins: Drivers and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov; Cécile Cathalot, Netherlands Institute for Ecology - Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, C.Cathalot@nioo.knaw.nl; Marjorie Friedrichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, marjy@vims.edu; Peter Griffith, NASA GSFC, peter.c.griffith@nasa.gov; Antonio Mannino, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, antonio.mannino@nasa.gov

Biogeochemical cycling in the coastal zone is complex and poorly quantified, both on the mean and in terms of variability in response to a myriad of natural and anthropogenic drivers. Such complexity leads to substantial uncertainty in global and regional carbon budgets This session focuses on recent progress in understanding coastal biogeochemical cycling, with emphasis on linkages to terrestrial and global ocean cycles. Two areas of research are particularly sought: (1) impacts of climate variability, extreme events (e.g. floods, resuspension), and land-cover/land-use change on the transport and cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements to and within the coastal ocean margins; (2) synthesis and modeling work that leads to improved coastal zone carbon budgets at scales of global relevance. This special session invites investigators to present and discuss recent progress in coastal systems biogeochemistry from observational, experimental, and modeling perspectives. (5, 6, 8, 9, 18)

065: Physical-Ecological Interactions in Inland Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Alfred Wuest, EAWAG, alfred.wueest@eawag.ch; Josef Daniel Ackerman, University of Guelph, ackerman@uoguelph.ca; Miki Hondzo, SAFL at UMN, mhondzo@umn.edu

Anthropogenic impacts through natural resources use and climate change place increasing stress on inland waters. Significant among these changes are those related to the physical environment and the consequences for the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic environments. This session will address physical, biogeochemical and/or ecological interactions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the pelagos and benthos of coastal and inland waters. It will focus on defining relevant spatial and temporal scales, developing relationships, and predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. (2, 3, 4, 5, 18)

067: Altered Estuaries: Processes, Restoration, and Management: Schedule

Organizers: Guan-hong Lee, Inha University, ghlee@inha.ac.kr; Guan-hong Lee, Inha University, ghlee@inha.ac.kr; Aswani K. Volety, Florida Gulf Coast University, avolety@fgcu.edu; Timothy M. Dellapenna, Texas A&M University, dellapet@tamug.edu

Estuaries provide valuable ecological services such as nursery habitat for recreationally and commercially important fin and shell fisheries; feeding grounds for birds, recreational needs of humans, and filtration and treatment of numerous chemical and microbiological contaminants, etc. At the same time, estuaries lie within the watersheds of the most heavily populated areas with about 60% of the world population living along estuaries and coasts. Over the last century estuaries have been altered by various human activities, including sedimentation from soil erosion; overgrazing and other poor farming practices; drainage and filling of wetlands; eutrophication due to excessive nutrients; and diking or damming for flood control or water diversion;. Efforts have been made in recent decades to understand the nature of altered estuaries and the natural response to these modifications, with the intention of restoration and/or best management practices of estuaries. This session will provide a venue to share our increased knowledge of the comprehensive nature of physical, chemical, geological and biological processes of altered estuaries, as well as our experience on their restoration and adaptive management practices. Our knowledge will help to establish operational tools for environmental management of altered estuaries in supporting a policy of global management of the estuaries. (5, 9, 11)

099: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sea Surface Temperature Variability and its Impacts on Air-Sea Interactions, Weather, and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Gary A. Wick, NOAA ESRL, gary.a.wick@noaa.gov; Chelle Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems, gentemann@remss.com; Andrew T. Jessup, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, jessup@apl.washington.edu; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University, clayson@met.fsu.edu

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is important for the generation of satellite SST products and the understanding and interpretation of oceanic and interfacial processes. Important processes that lead to SST variability include diurnal warming, fronts, and wind effects. SST products are increasingly generated from the combination of observations at different times and spatial scales. Progress is being made in characterizing and accounting for the variability, but challenges remain in quantifying its impact on the SST uncertainty budget. Spatial variability further influences scaling process observations to different resolutions, which requires assumptions about dependence of the structure of the process at several scales simultaneously. Current studies are exploring the impact of incorporating SST estimates with sub-pixel variability and improved resolution of the diurnal cycle on air-sea interactions and lower-frequency weather and climate variability. This session seeks to bring together those attempting to describe SST variability with those studying its impacts. Contributions are invited on all aspects of spatial and temporal SST variability, both observations and models, and studies on how this variability impacts air-sea interactions. Additionally, contributions that address the impact of variability on estimates of errors for observations are solicited. (2, 8, 17)

100: Linking Biogeochemical Processes to Estuarine Physical Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Sommerfield, University of Delaware, cs@udel.edu; Elizabeth Canuel, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ecanuel@vims.edu; Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Elizabeth Sikes, Rutgers University, sikes@marine.rutgers.edu

Physically mediated biogeochemical processes in estuaries play a central role in the fate of dissolved and particulate matter in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of cycling phenomena within estuarine basins is a critical component of terrestrial and ocean material budgets and has direct relevance to coastal and marine ecosystems. For example, understanding the composition, fluxes, and residence times of organic carbon is important for predicting oceanic responses to changes in past and future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, linking biogeochemical and physical dynamics is fraught with observational challenges. Indeed, with time-dependent spatial gradients in water properties and transport mechanisms, estuaries are paradoxically regions of both of rapid dispersion and trapping. Elucidating physical-biogeochemical connections thus requires observational approaches capable of identifying material sources, transport pathways, and process time scales. This may involve coordinated studies of fluid flow, radionuclide tracers, stable isotope proxies, and biomarkers, in conjunction with integrative conceptual or numerical modeling. We invite contributions that seek to link estuarine biogeochemical processes to physical dynamics on the full range of time scales. Possible topics include land-to-estuary routing of particulate organic and mineral matter, primary production, larval transport, nutrient cycling, and organic carbon dynamics. (2, 4,5,18)

108: Biogeochemical and Sedimentological Factors That Influence Physical, Geotechnical and Mechanical Properties of Cohesive Sediments in Riverine and Littoral Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Yoko Furukawa, Naval Research Laboratory, yoko.furukawa@nrlssc.navy.mil; Joseph Calantoni, Naval Research Laboratory, Joe.Calantoni@nrlssc.navy.mil; Allen H. Reed, Naval Research Laboratory, Allen.Reed@nrlssc.navy.mil; Tian-Jian Hsu, University of Delaware, tianjianhsu@gmail.com

This session aims to develop a community-wide understanding of the state-of-the-art for cohesive sediment dynamics in rivers, estuaries, and coastal zones. The physical, geotechnical and mechanical properties (e.g., fluid flow, strength, compressibility, erodibility) of cohesive sediments are profoundly affected by sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes. A quantitative understanding of how these processes interact at nano-, meso-, and field-scales and thereby govern the resulting effects is necessary in order to establish a predictive capability for littoral sediment dynamics and shoreline stability for applications such as coastal optics, engineering and environmental restoration. Topics may include but are not limited to: 1) sediment strength characterization from remotely sensed biological characteristics, 2) sediment resuspension as a function of the micrometer-scale physicochemical properties, and 3) sediment erodibility as a function of either the rapid (< seconds) flocculation pathways or the long-term (> months to hundreds of years) consolidation history. The processes span wide ranges of temporal and spatial scales, and thus abstracts from observational, theoretical, and modeling studies of different spatial and temporal scales are encouraged. The session will provide a forum for researchers to discuss and relate sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. (1, 5, 6, 18)

110: Dynamics of Fjords and High Latitude Estuaries: Schedule

Organizers: W. Rockwell “Rocky” Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., rgeyer@whoi.edu; Parker MacCready, University of Washington, p.macc@uw.edu; Fiama Straneo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., fstraneo@whoi.edu; Lars Arneborg, University of Gothenburg, laar@gvc.gu.se

Recent studies of the melting of glaciers and the warming of the Arctic region has rekindled interest in the dynamics of fjords and high-latitude river outflows. The estuarine research community has made significant progress in recent years in understanding shallow estuaries in mid-latitude settings, but fjords and high-latitude estuaries have been largely overlooked. This session seeks to bring together the researchers who are making pioneering measurements of these high latitude systems with the estuarine researchers interested in broadening the application of their theory, observational methods and models to a wider range of estuarine environments. Papers addressing fjord and high-latitude estuarine processes are particularly encouraged, but we are also interested in comparisons between fjords and other, more well-studied estuarine environments. (2, 5, 7)

125:   Ocean Acidification in Coastal and Estuarine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Simone Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, simone.r.alin@noaa.gov; Adrienne Sutton, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, adrienne.sutton@noaa.gov; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu; George Waldbusser, Oregon State University, waldbuss@coas.oregonstate.edu

Globally, anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving significant changes in ocean carbon chemistry, including declines in pH and carbonate saturation states. In estuaries and coastal oceans, ocean acidification (OA) is occurring in the context of other natural and anthropogenic biogeochemical processes that may accentuate or mitigate the magnitude and impacts of OA. Understanding of how OA is progressing in these environments is critical to managing coastal and estuarine resources in a changing world. Because oceanic carbon chemistry changes can only be stabilized over centennial time-scales, identifying processes that can be managed to ameliorate the present and future impacts of OA will be particularly important. Creative interdisciplinary research is needed to examine the role of ocean acidification in coastal and estuarine ecosystems already altered by other biogeochemical processes. This session seeks to showcase research that explores ocean acidification patterns and impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Submissions with a focus on biological, chemical, geological, or modeling aspects of OA along the continental margins are welcome. We particularly encourage submissions that address interactions between OA and other stressors, such as eutrophication, hypoxia, climate change, and pollution. (4, 5, 6, 8)

126: Links Between Estuarine and Coastal Processes: Schedule

Organizers: David A. Sutherland, NOAA, NWFSC, dsuth79@gmail.com; James A. Lerczak, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, jlerczak@coas.oregonstate.edu; Elizabeth W. North, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, enorth@umces.edu; Parker MacCready, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, pmacc@uw.edu

Over the past several years, major programs have begun to study the connections between estuaries and the coastal ocean, emphasizing the interactions among physical, biological, chemical, and geological processes. This session invites papers that advance our understanding of this important transition region and identify key questions and directions for future research. Topics might include how river plume dynamics affect coastal ocean circulation (and how estuarine exchange flows create and control river plumes), how species connect across these regions and the dynamical processes that regulate this exchange, how long term variability in coastal ocean properties influence estuarine systems, or how terrestrial influences (e.g., nitrate, pollution) brought to estuaries might impact the coastal environment. Papers that contrast regions or scales (small vs. large estuaries, tidal to interannual time scales) are also welcome. (2, 5, 6)

151: Low Latitude Riverine Influence and Impact on Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Will Berelson, University of Southern California, berelson@usc.edu; Ajit Subramaniam, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, ajit@ldeo.columbia.edu

The influence of riverine discharge on oceanic ecosystems, chemical cycles and sedimentation extends well beyond the continental margins. Low latitude rivers may enter ocean ecosystems that have been primed by coastal and/or equatorial upwelling but more often, discharge into oceanic margins of the oligotrophic gyres.  We welcome submittals on topicsrelated to riverine discharge and oceanic biogeochemical interactions including: benthic-pelagic coupling, new measures of productivity and export in these systems, fluxes and elemental budgets, carbon sequestration, reverse weathering and biogeochemical/ecological interactions.(4, 5, 6, 18)

154: Contemporary Issues in Estuarine Physics (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Daniel Codiga, University of Rhode Island, d.codiga@gso.uri.edu; , Greg Gerbi, University of Maine; Michael M. Whitney, University of Connecticut, Michael.Whitney@uconn.edu

Over the past decade there have been considerable advances in our understanding of estuarine physical processes, such as stratification and exchange flow. For example, our understanding of lateral circulation, tidal asymmetries, and mixing dynamics have advanced from simple conceptual models based on descriptive studies to observational and modeling investigations that quantify their roles in estuarine circulation. Indeed, these new insights claim to modify the classic paradigm of estuarine physics first proposed by Pritchard over 50 years ago. However, although lateral flows, tidal asymmetries, and mixing cycles appear to be major players driving estuarine exchange, many aspects of estuarine physics can still be characterized by semi-analytic models largely based on the classic theory. This leaves the conundrum that although the importance of these processes is beginning to be understood, their detailed dynamics and specific effects remain uncertain. We invite talks that use theory, models, laboratory experiments and observations to characterize aspects of circulation, mixing and dispersion in estuarine systems. Topics include, but are not limited to, lateral circulation, vertical mixing, coherent structures, mechanisms driving dispersion, and effects of morphology. We welcome studies across a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from microstructure to basin scale and from intra-tidal to annual time scales. (2, 5)