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04. Chemical Oceanography, Aquatic Chemistry

001: Gases as Tracers of Oceanic Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Roberta Hamme, University of Victoria, rhamme@uvic.ca; David Ho, University of Hawaii Manoa, ho@hawaii.edu

This session seeks to bring together the gas tracer community to exchange knowledge regarding new observations, applications, and/or modeling of gases as tracers for understanding oceanic physical and biogeochemical processes. We welcome abstracts on a variety of topics including distributions of natural and anthropogenic gases and their isotopes in the ocean, atmospheric measurements as they relate to ocean processes, tracer release experiments, and process studies of air-sea transfer mechanisms. Presentations on observations, method development, modeling, and data synthesis and interpretation are all encouraged. (2, 4, 17)

004: The Southern Ocean and Its Role in the Climate System: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Downes, Princeton University, sdownes@princeton.edu; Nicole Jeffery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, njeffery@lanl.gov; Joellen Russell, University of Arizona, jrussell@email.arizona.edu; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, wilbert@lanl.gov

Over the past decade, the climate dynamics, biogeochemistry and physical oceanographic communities have highlighted the Southern Ocean as a key player in the climate system. Thus, understanding the processes that shape the Southern Ocean mean state, variability, and response to external forcing is essential for our understanding of the climate system as a whole. Data collections have expanded significantly over the past decade, and modeling efforts have advanced through Earth System Model development, data assimilation solutions, and process models. These new developments require investigation of how (or whether) the representation of the Southern Ocean has been improved using a combination of model-model and model-data comparisons. The goal of this session is to present modeling and/or data efforts that investigate all aspects of the Southern Ocean, including its mixing and mesoscale processes, large-scale circulation, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-ice interactions, and biogeochemical processes. We particularly encourage analyses using models for the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and assimilated models. (2, 4, 7, 8, 18)

005: Metal Speciation in the Ocean: Metal-Binding Ligand Composition and Role in the Transport of Metals through the Marine Environment: Schedule

Organizers: Sylvia Sander, University of Otago, sylvia.sander@otago.ac.nz; Constant van den Berg, University of Liverpool, vandenberg@liverpool.ac.uk; Kristen Buck, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, kristen.buck@bios.edu

The biogenic trace metals iron, cobalt, zinc, nickel and copper are complexed by organic ligands in the marine system, which can influence trace metal solubility and bioavailability. Little is known about the composition of these metal-binding ligands, although siderophores, thiols, humic substances and saccharides have been identified. There is evidence that this organic complexation helps transport trace metals from their source (hydrothermal vents, estuaries, etc.) to the open ocean. Dynamic aspects related to photochemical changes in metal speciation are also being recognised. This session welcomes abstract submissions related to all aspects of metal speciation in the oceans, and particularly to identifying sources and cycling processes of metal-binding ligands. (4)

007: High-Resolution Geochemical Proxies of Global Change: Progress, Problems, and Utility: Schedule

Organizers: Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Iowa State University, adw@iastate.edu; David P. Gillikin, Union College, gillikid@union.edu

Knowledge of climate and environmental change throughout geological time is derived from deep-sea and terrestrial records representing long time scales. However, while records of climate and environmental changes at long time scales are essential, high-resolution marine-based records at seasonal, annual, and decadal scales are equally important and under-represented in the literature. Much of what we know about past environments is based on the geochemical signature in various proxy archives. While substantial progress continues to be made in this area, specific obstacles and problems do exist. We encourage papers presenting geochemical records of global change, including calibration/validation studies, in biologic or inorganic carbonates and highly resolved (decadal resolution) sediments. Geochemical studies highlighting recent progress, problems, or utility are especially welcome. (1, 4, 8)

009: Ocean Observing: Sensors and Platforms (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Mike DeGrandpre, University of Montana, michael.degrandpre@umontana.edu; Todd Martz, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, trmartz@ucsd.edu

Our methods for studying the ocean are constantly evolving, driven by the need to improve sensitivity, measurement frequency, and spatial coverage, and to achieve these objectives at lower cost. Autonomous sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past decade in response to these demands. This session focuses specifically on new autonomous carbon cycle sensors, recent studies that have used these sensors, and descriptions of deployment strategies. Analysis of data from in situ, autonomous shipboard or remote, e.g. satellite, measurements of any carbon-related parameters are welcomed. We also encourage posters that discuss strategies to most effectively utilize existing (e.g. Argo) and future (e.g. Ocean Observatory Initiative) autonomous platforms. (4, 13)

013: Oceanic Uptake of Heat and Greenhouse Gases: Dynamic and Thermodynamic Controls and Inferences from Tracers: Schedule

Organizers: Geoffrey (Jake) Gebbie, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, ggebbie@whoi.edu; Mark Holzer, University of New South Wales, mholzer@unsw.edu.au; William Smethie, LDEO, Columbia University, bsmeth@ldeo.columbia.edu; Laure Zanna, University of Oxford, zanna@atm.ox.ac.uk

The oceans play a major role in climate, because they are a sink for heat and carbon capable of delaying the climatic response to forcing and thus affecting climate on all space and time scales. This session aims to further our understanding of how, when, and where the properties of the interior ocean are changing with a focus on the controls exerted by ocean dynamics and the constraints provided by observed transient and steady tracers. A key theme of the session is how tracers can inform inform us about the role of the oceans in climate variability and change. Contributions are solicited that present observational, theoretical, and/or modeling results from either of two general areas: (i) the role of ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in governing the uptake of heat, carbon and other tracers, including the relation to climate variability and change, and (ii) new observations of traditional and emerging trace species, novel diagnostic techniques, and forward and inverse modeling approaches to use tracers to constrain dynamical and biogeochemical processes. (2, 4, 8)

014: Ocean Deoxygenation and Coastal Hypoxia in a Changing World: Schedule

Organizers: Nancy N. Rabalais, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, nrabalais@lumcon.edu; Daniel Conley, GeoBiosphere Centre, Department of Geology, Lund University, daniel.conley@geol.lu.se; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu

The interaction of ocean warming and human activities in watersheds is increasing the occurrence, frequency and severity of oxygen deficiency in oceanic and coastal waters. Climate change is warming ocean waters and thereby reducing the solubility of oxygen and its availability to aerobic organisms. Human alterations to hydrology and nutrient flux further aggravate oxygen depletion in coastal waters. These interactions may in fact result in positive influences to aquatic ecosystems, but the overall result is expected to be negative impacts for oceanic waters, including expansion of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. In addition, indications are that increases in deoxygenation will exacerbate ocean acidification. There is little doubt that deoxygenation is increasing around the globe, but these observations result primarily from new reports of oxygen deficiency in the literature. The long-term records for ocean deoxygenation and coastal hypoxia are limited, but these data with correlative information can tell us much about changing conditions and changes in oxygen concentrations in marine waters. This session focuses on long-term data for changing oxygen dynamics in marine waters, both hydrographic data sets and paleoindicators for decreasing oxygen concentrations with their ancillary data that point to causal relationships. (4 ,6, 8, 9)

023:  Dissolved Organic Matter and the ‘Hidden’ Carbon Cycle: Schedule

Organizers: Andy Ridgwell, University of Bristol, andy@seao2.org; Dennis Hansell, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu; Sandra Arndt, University of Bristol, san.arndt@gmail.com; Ellen Druffel, University of California, Irvine, edruffel@uci.edu

There is sufficient dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the modern ocean to put it on par with the atmospheric and terrestrial vegetation carbon reservoirs. Recent geological interpretations have recognized the potential for changes in the DOM reservoir to drive perturbations of global carbon cycling, with isotopic (and often global warming) events in Earth history being increasingly invoked as consequences of DOM oxidation. If true, one might also question how the DOM reservoir will respond to future global environmental changes. To date, global ocean models have tended to focus on the rapid recycling of the most labile of DOM fractions; the large bulk of more refractory fractions have not been widely considered, yet they must be in play if DOM drives the larger perturbations. Are we underestimating a wider dynamical role for DOM in the ocean with potential for feedback with climate? This session will aim to unmask the nature and role of the ocean DOM cycle, and to this end, we invite submissions addressing any of DOM’s hidden facets, including: ocean observations and laboratory characterization; diagenetic, biological, and/or global models; and hypotheses regarding the potential role(s) of DOM in past, present, and future global carbon dynamics and climate. (1, 4, 8, 18)

024: Fecal Pellets of Copepods and Tunicates: Different (Micro) Worlds: Schedule

Organizers: Marion Koester, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat Greifswald, koesterm@uni-greifswald.de; Gustav-Adolf Paffenhofer, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, gustav.paffenhofer@skio.usg.edu; Jay Brandes, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Jay.brandes@skio.usg.edu

The goal of the session is to provide insight into decomposition processes of fecal pellets of 2 zooplankton taxa, dominating on continental shelfs, copepods and tunicates. Their fecal pellets can occur up to thousands per cubic meter (e.g. US Southeastern Shelf), forming a significant contribution to the particulate carbon flux. Pellets are important microworlds:  they offer environments for microbial assemblages, catalyze nutrient cycles, function as transport vehicles and food particles. Of recent interest is whether pellets ìtrapî harmful substances (oil particles, plastic microparticles) and might serve as ìnatural microsensorsî to monitor the health of marine ecosystems. Microbial and chemical processes occurring during early degradation of fecal pellets remain poorly constrained. The decomposition of zooplankton fecal pellets has been described primarily for copepods, while our knowledge of tunicate pellets is limited. Morphological characteristics (composition, stability, digestion status) of pellets of copepods and tunicates differ significantly and are expected to be reflected in their sinking behavior, diversity and function of pellet-associated microbial assemblages, degradation pathways and chemical changes in pellet composition on the scale of hours and days. This interdisciplinary session invites scientists in planktology, chemistry and microbiology to combine traditional with promising modern methodology towards studying the fate of fecal pellets.(3, 4)

026: Sources, Transformation, and Sinks of Black Carbon in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Rainer Lohmann, University of Rhode Island, lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Carrie Masiello, Rice University, masiello@rice.edu

Black carbon (BC), the carbonaceous aromatic residue of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, is a ubiquitous component of global carbon pools due to its refractivity. Following production, BC travels through soils and the atmosphere and eventually enters the ocean. Although BC has been detected in all marine carbon pools, its roles in marine dissolved and particulate organic carbon are poorly constrained. Major uncertainties include the size of global and regional BC fluxes to the ocean, the significance of marine biodegradation of BC (if any), and BC residence times in the oceans. If biodegradation of BC is minimal in the ocean, BC may serve as a recalcitrant tracer of terrestrial carbon, potentially providing information about ocean dynamics and about the interaction of the terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. On the other hand, in the terrestrial biosphere BC particles alter nutrient cycling, serve as a nucleus for microbial activity, and in watersheds can act as a UV screen. No information yet exists on the continuity or loss of these functions as BC enters the marine system. This session is proposed to convene practitioners from field, laboratory and modeling research to discuss latest findings and highlight on-going research needs. (4, 8, 18)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

039: Ocean Biogeochemistry Time-Series and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida, carib@marine.usf.edu; Matthew Church, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, mjchurch@hawaii.edu; Michael Lomas, Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, michael.lomas@bios.edu; Gordon Taylor, Stony Brook University, gtaylor@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Much of our understanding of temporal variability associated with ocean biogeochemistry derives from sustained, systematic, shipboard time-series observations. Time-series science programs provide the oceanographic community with multi-year, high-quality data needed for characterizing ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem variability. We invite contributions from studies which use ocean carbon and biogeochemistry time-series data, and especially encourage studies that examine time-series observations and datasets to elucidate changes in ocean biogeochemical processes, ecosystem structure and function, and linkages and feedbacks with the Earth’s climate system. (3, 4, 8, 18)

040: Biogeochemistry of DOM in the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Cèline Guèguen, Trent University, celinegueguen@trentu.ca; Mats Garnskog, Norwegian Polar Institute, mats.granskog@npolar.no; Colin A. Stedmon, Aarhus University, cst@dmu.dk

The major sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Arctic Ocean are riverine input, inflow from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and autochthonous production in surface waters and shelf seas. Rapid climate change in the region is currently shifting the balance of these sources. As they each supply DOM with different chemical characteristics we can expect that the turnover and fate of this material will also change. Shifts in the bioavailability will influence the role that DOM plays in Arctic marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Increased supply of colored DOM (CDOM) will affect photochemistry, underwater light penetration and quality, and heat absorption. Studying the nature, distribution and source dependency of the persistent refractory fraction of DOM offers an additional tool to assess current and future circulation patterns. This ession invitess contributions on any of these aspects of Arctic DOM biogeochemistry. (4, 7, 18)

041: Methods and Applications of Data Assimilation for Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca; Micheal Dowd, Dalhousie University, mdowd@mathstat.dal.ca; Richard Matear, CSIRO, Richard.Matear@csiro.au; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, katja.fennel@dal.ca

The quantity and diversity of data available for monitoring ocean biogeochemical variables is rapidly increasing as new sensor technologies and observational platforms are deployed. A major challenge is the development of new analysis methods for these complex spatio-temporal data types that yield information not just about the ocean state, but also the underlying dynamical processes. Model-data fusion (or Data Assimilation) algorithms provide an attractive approach to exploit these new data streams within a robust statistical framework. This session invites contributions on biogeochemical data assimilation methods and applications that characterize the biogeochemical state; provide new ways to determine biogeochemical parameters; elucidate the processes driving biogeochemical variability and changes in the ocean; or provide guidance to observing strategies for biogeochemical fields. (4, 13, 16, 18)

042: Eddy Correlation and New Impending Approaches for Measuring Fluxes in the Aquatic Environment: Schedule

Organizers: Peter Berg, University of Virginia,  pb8n@virginia.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu

Eddy correlation is becoming a commonly-used approach for measuring oxygen exchange between benthic communities and the overlying water. The technique allows direct measurements of this flux, and can be used where other traditional methods would fail, e.g. densely-vegetated sediments, highly permeable sands and gravel beds, and hard surfaces such coral reefs and mussel beds. Eddy correlation measurements are done under true in situ conditions with minimal disturbances of the natural light and hydrodynamic conditions, and incorporate a much larger bottom area than traditional flux methods. Other new approaches for measuring benthic fluxes with similar advantages are currently being presented including the flux ratio approach, where fluxes are derived from vertical concentration gradients and eddy diffusivities in the bottom water. In this session, we invite users of the eddy correlation technique and other new flux methods to present their results and experiences. We stress that this session is not only focused on benthic oxygen fluxes, but on all scalar fluxes in the aquatic environment. We also encourage contributions introducing new methods for flux measurements in aquatic environments that are still under development. (2, 4, 13)

045: Oceanic Oxygen Content: Observed Physical and Chemical Processes and Climate Related Changes in the Past, Present and Future: Schedule

Organizers: Lothar Stramma, IFM-GEOMAR, lstramma@ifm-geomar.de; Sabine Mecking, University of Washington, smecking@apl.washington.edu; Denis Gilbert, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Denis.Gilbert@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, rkeeling@ucsd.edu

In the past few years, changes in dissolved oxygen content have become a focal point of oceanic research, due to their large impacts on ecosystems, water column chemistry and sedimentary feedbacks. In the open ocean, the oxygen content appears to be decreasing in most (but not all) areas, especially in the oxygen minimum zones. At the same time, low oxygen areas have spread in the coastal oceans during recent decades. The understanding of physical processes, such as advective oxygen supply or vertical mixing, and chemical processes, such as the interaction between critical oxygen levels and nutrient cycling that cause or are impacted by the observed oxygen changes is limited. The focus of this session is to enhance the understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling the ocean’s oxygen content, the changes in oxygen and their link to climate trends, atmospheric oxygen variations and decadal variability in ocean ventilation, the expansion of oceanic oxygen minimum zones, and the interaction between the open ocean and the shelf. Submissions of abstracts on observations e.g. from the WOCE, CLIVAR or Argo measurement programs or from time series stations as well as on model results illustrating past, present and future oxygen changes are welcomed. (2, 4, 8)

046: Understanding the Biological Consequences of Ocean Acidification in a Holistic Global Change Context: Schedule

Organizers: David Hutchins, University of Southern California, dahutch@usc.edu; Philip Boyd, University of Otago, New Zealand, Pboyd@chemistry.otago.ac.nz; Shannon Meseck, National Marine Fisheries Service, smeseck@clam.mi.nmfs.gov; Adina Paytan, University of California Santa Cruz, apaytan@ucsc.edu

Ocean acidification is happening in concert with a complex matrix of other ocean global change variables, including sea surface warming, stratification and mixed-layer shoaling, altered irradiance regimes, changes in major and micronutrient supplies, sea-ice retreat, increased hypoxia, and consequent novel trophic and competitive interactions due to biogeography shifts. Each of these factors individually will have impacts on the structure and function of biological communities, but the interactions between them may often be more influential on the physiology and ecology of marine organisms than the effect(s) of any one variable alone. Ocean acidification and other global change variables can sometimes interact in highly nonlinear ways, including both synergistically and antagonistically. We therefore encourage presentations featuring experimental, observational, and/or modeling work on the biological consequences of these types of multivariate environmental stressors. Research findings that offer insights into the ability of marine organisms to acclimatize or adapt to long-term changes in multiple environmental stressors are particularly welcome. This session is intended to foster a holistic consideration of biological ocean acidification impacts in the context of complex ecosystem changes, including the capacity for organisms to respond to simultaneous shifts in multiple environmental factors through either phenotypic plasticity or evolution. (3, 4, 8)

049: Advances in the Oceanography of Trace Elements and Isotopes in the Atlantic and Polar Oceans: Schedule

Organizers: Micha Rijkenberg, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Micha.Rijkenberg@nioz.nl; Rob Middag, University of California Santa Cruz, Rob.Middag@nioz.nl; Stephanie Owens, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, sowens@whoi.edu; Patricia C·mara Mor, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Patricia.Camara@uab.cat

The dynamic hydrography of Atlantic, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans is key to the distribution of trace elements in the global oceans. Trace elements like iron play a pivotal role in controlling ocean productivity and therefore global climate. Moreover, several Trace Elements and Isotopes (TEIs; stable or radioactive; natural or anthropogenic) serve as important tracers for unraveling ocean processes and turnover rates. Novel ultraclean rapid sampling systems and international reference samples facilitate measurement of TEIs along deep ocean sections in unprecedented high spatial resolution, coverage and accuracy. For example, the international effort resulted in the thus far longest 13000 kilometer full depth ocean section of TEIs in the Atlantic basin. Intercalibration at crossover stations further confirms accuracy between cruises. The high resolution and multi-tracer approaches produces novel relationships among TEIs and other tracers, and reveals details not seen before. This in turn leads to shifts of paradigms. For example, hydrothermal supply of iron and manganese appears more important for ocean inventory budgets than previously realized. For this session we like to invite topics on TEIs in the Atlantic and polar oceans, including methods, intercalibration, field data and ocean modeling. Relevant topics in other oceans are most welcome as well. (4)

050: Linking the Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Osburn, North Carolina State University, closburn@ncsu.edu; Colin Stedmon, Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, cst@dmu.dk; Robert G.M. Spencer, Woods Hole Research Center, rspencer@whrc.org

A paradigm in chemical oceanography is the remarkable similarity in the optical and chemical properties of both marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and substantially degraded riverine DOM. Recently, in the oceanographic literature, a number of articles have reported on using combined optical and chemical techniques to investigate the sources and cycling of DOM in the coastal and open ocean water columns and in sedimentary pore waters. However, studies that calibrate the optical properties of DOM with geochemical measurements are few and far between in the literature. In addition, studies that attempt to resolve these properties with respect to rates of riverine DOM photochemical and biological degradation are also lacking. This session will provide a forum for scientists to exchange ideas and demonstrate progress in linking data-rich spectroscopic techniques, such as excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs) and spectral absorption, to geochemical measurements of DOM, such as elemental ratios, nutrients, stable isotopes, biomarkers, and structural characterizations arising from new developments in analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (4, 6, 12)

053: Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean: Linking the OMZ To the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Angela Knapp, RSMAS/University of Miami, aknapp@rsmas.miami.edu; Alyson Santoro, UMCES-Horn Point, asantoro@whoi.edu; Rachel Foster, MPI Bremen, rfoster@mpi-bremen.de; Sophie Bonnet, IRD, France, Sophie.Bonnet@univmed.fr

The N budget for the global ocean remains poorly constrained, with some reports suggesting that sinks exceed sources. Moreover, the disparate geographical distribution of field efforts examining N removal from the ocean (primarily via denitrification) and N additions (primarily via N2 fixation) implied that they were spatially separated. The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) Ocean provides a testbed for the recently proposed tight coupling between N inputs and losses, as well as testing linkages between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Several major US and European-sponsored cruises have recently completed field work in these regions characterized by intense oxygen minimum zones, and novel measurements have been made including: molecular investigations of N-related gene sequences, rate determinations of N and C cycling, bottle incubations with nutrient and metal additions, N isotope analyses of common and rare N species, C and N fluxes from the surface ocean as captured by shallow and deep sediment traps, and other novel export estimates. This session welcomes contributions related to the N and/or C cycles observed in either the northern or southern ETP. (3, 4, 18)

056: Biology and Chemistry in a High CO2 World: Schedule

Organizers: Alexandra Rao, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a.rao@nioo.knaw.nl; Christian Wild, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), christian.wild@zmt-bremen.de; Matthew Charette, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, mcharette@whoi.edu, Frank Melzner, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, fmelzner@ifm-geomar.de, Sam Dupont, University of Gˆteborg, Sweden, sam.dupont@marecol.gu.se, Rainer Kiko, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, rkiko@ifm-geomar.de, Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, USA, seibel@uri.edu

Recent research has demonstrated that the release of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere leads to ocean acidification, which is predicted to have a strong adverse effect on marine ecosystems. At the same time, our perceptions of the benthic boundary layer continue to evolve, encompassing a complex interplay of physical, chemical and biological processes in sediments. The links between sediments and ocean acidification are not unidirectional, and the emerging model suggests that numerous feedbacks may impact future changes in ocean chemistry and benthic ecosystems on multiple time scales. Key players include (i) biological communities, from coral reefs to microorganisms and macrofauna in deep and shallow sediments, whose activities have wide-ranging implications for benthic ecology, elemental cycling, and commercial fisheries, (ii) transport and reaction in deep sea and continental margin sediments, including the impact of tides, waves, and bottom currents in permeable sands, and (iii) submarine groundwater discharge, carbonate and pH dynamics in subterranean estuaries. This session aims to bring together experts in measurements and modeling of ocean acidification and benthic processes to address methodological and conceptual challenges pertaining to studies at the frontier between these disciplines. We encourage multi-disciplinary contributions. (3, 4, 6, 8)

057: Biogeochemical Cycling of Micronutrient Trace Elements: Schedule

Organizers: Maeve Lohan, University of Plymouth, maeve.lohan@plymouth.ac.uk; Andrew Bowie, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC, Andrew.Bowie@utas.edu.au; Toshi Gamo, Univeristy of Toyko, gamo@aori.u-toyko.ac.jp; Greg Cutter, Old Dominion University, gcutter@odu.edu

There is growing international interest (e.g., GEOTRACES, SOLAS, IMBER) to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. This session will focus on the trace elements that serve as micronutrients (e.g., Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, etc), the availability of which influence the biogeochemical activity of marine organisms, control the structure of ocean ecosystems and hence regulate the ocean carbon cycle. We also welcome presentation of data on diagnostic trace elements (e.g., Al, Mn, rare earths, etc) and isotopes that help characterise micronutrient sources and sinks. Submissions are invited which focus on micronutrients and diagnostic tracers in different phases (dissolved, particulate, speciation) that have been studied both along ocean sections from different ocean basins and in the context of process studies. We also welcome abstracts focusing on the numerical modeling of micronutrients to quantify lateral and vertical transports, as well as biogeochemical sources and sinks. (4, 18)

059: Ocean Climate Data Records: Schedule

Organizers: Kenneth S. Casey, NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, kenneth.casey@noaa.gov; Edward Kearns, NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Ed.Kearns@noaa.gov; Carig Donlon, European Space Agency, craig.donlon@esa.int

The National Research Council (2004) defines a Climate Data Record (CDR) as a time series of sufficient duration, quality, and continuity to accurately determine climate variability and change. For satellite-based CDRs, GCOS provides requirements in the form of essential climate variables (ECV) that share several characteristics including being long-term, consistently processed, highly accurate, and produced with associated uncertainties using systems that combine sustained, ongoing capacity with the latest community consensus science knowledge and best practices. Both satellite and in situ-based CDRs support a wide range of applications including climate change monitoring and numerical prediction, coral bleaching and disease, the oceans and human disease outbreaks, ocean circulation, and sea level change. Educational and operational applications involving interpretation of real-time information are also enabled and improved by the climatological context provided by CDRs. Presentations are welcomed that describe methods for Fundamental CDR production; the development and production of Thematic CDRs; the status of existing CDRs for the ocean and overlying atmosphere; the integration of CDRs into ocean and climate modeling activities; the challenges associated with determining CDR uncertainties; and results from the analyses of CDRs. The CDRs may be those derived from in situ, remotely-sensed, or a combination of methods, and include those related to any oceanographic discipline. (8, 16)

060: Marine Gas Hydrate Deposits: Research, Monitoring Strategies and Present-Day Knowledge: Schedule

Organizers: Ray Highsmith, University of Mississippi, ray@olemiss.edu; Laura Lapham, Aarhus University, laura.lapham@biology.au.dk; Leonardo Macelloni, University of Mississippi, lmacello@olemiss.edu; Marta Torres, Oregon State University, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

Gas hydrates are the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. Hydrate stability is influenced by temperature and pressure fluctuations. Several deposits have been identified world-wide near the seafloor surface and represent a unique system where stability might be affected also by microbial interactions, very low seismic activity and oceanographic fluctuations (storms, currents, tides). Methane reaching the seafloor from deep reservoirs becomes an important source of carbon for diverse communities of microbes and macrofauna, making these areas ecologically important. The near-surface hydrate sites also sequester large amounts of carbon within associated carbonate deposits, which provide habitat for benthic communities. Therefore, to understand the factors that control hydrate stability or interactions with the surrounding ocean, it is critical to monitor and study the deposits over time. We seek abstracts highlighting recent results on the evolution of geological, biological, or chemical factors based at established research/monitoring stations, such as in the Gulf of Mexico or the Cascadia Margin, or at hydrate sites around the world that have been visited frequently over time. What have we learned about hydrate deposits? How dynamic are they and what are the controlling factors? What is needed for future hydrate research and monitoring? (1, 3, 4, 18)

065: Physical-Ecological Interactions in Inland Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Alfred Wuest, EAWAG, alfred.wueest@eawag.ch; Josef Daniel Ackerman, University of Guelph, ackerman@uoguelph.ca; Miki Hondzo, SAFL at UMN, mhondzo@umn.edu

Anthropogenic impacts through natural resources use and climate change place increasing stress on inland waters. Significant among these changes are those related to the physical environment and the consequences for the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic environments. This session will address physical, biogeochemical and/or ecological interactions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the pelagos and benthos of coastal and inland waters. It will focus on defining relevant spatial and temporal scales, developing relationships, and predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. (2, 3, 4, 5, 18)

074: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: Data Syntheses, Analyses and Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Nicolas Gruber, ETH Zurich, nicolas.gruber@env.ethz.ch; Dorothee Bakker, University of East Anglia, D.Bakker@uea.ac.uk; Chris Sabine, NOAA PMEL, Chris.Sabine@noaa.gov; Toste Tanhua, IFM-Geomar, ttanhua@ifm-geomar.de

The ocean carbon cycle is changing at a rate whose magnitude and pattern we are only beginning to document, quantify, and understand. The uptake of anthropogenic COM2 from the atmosphere, climate fluctuations as well as long-term trends in ocean circulation and biology have led already to substantial changes in the ocean carbon cycle, with potentially larger changes looming ahead. In the last decade, substantial efforts have been undertaken to measure these changes, and a number of projects are underway to synthesize them and to put them into the context of climate variability and change (e.g. international synthesis activities associated with the SOLAS-IMBER carbon working groups and IOCCP, including SOCAT, CARINA and PACIFICA, for example, but also those undertaken in the context of RECCAP). This session aims to bring together the scientists working on these synthesis projects, but is open to all other scientists who are interested in developing an integrated view of how the ocean carbon cycle has changed in the recent decades. Of interest are data syntheses, analyses and modeling studies focusing on air-sea CO2 fluxes, changes in ocean surface and interior carbon properties, and how the changes in these realms are connected to each other. (4, 8, 16)

078: The Fate of Discharged Hydrocarbons from the Macondo Reservoir and the Impacts to Gulf Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Joel Kostka, Georgia Institute of Technology, joel.kostka@biology.gatech.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu; Ian MacDonald, Florida State University, imacdonald@fsu.edu; Samantha Joye, University of Georgia, mandyjoye@gmail.com

The blowout of the Macondo reservoir beneath the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig resulted in the world’s largest accidental release of hydrocarbons into the ocean in recorded history. Contamination of ecosystems by these hydrocarbons continues to cause severe environmental and economic consequences in the Gulf region. This session focuses on an understanding of the physical-chemical fate of the hydrocarbons and itís impacts on ecosystem function in the Gulf of Mexico, including all aspects of food webs from microorganisms to large mammals. Participation will be encouraged from researchers that employ interdisciplinary approaches including field observations, experimentation, technology development, and numerical modeling. Topics to be addressed will include:  physical distribution and dispersion of oil with associated dispersants, biogeochemical degradation of oil hydrocarbons, and the environmental effects of hydrocarbons on planktonic and benthic communities from the deepsea to shallow coastal systems. The risk of accidental oil discharge to the marine environment remains high for the foreseeable future as increased economic pressure to access new oil reserves in deep marine waters will require less tested technologies. Thus, there remains a critical need to understand the fate and effects of oil and gas in order to support decision making, design management strategies and guide cleanup efforts. (3, 4, 14)

088:  Consequences of the March 11, 2011 Earthquake, Tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant on the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Ken Buesseler, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, kbuesseler@whoi.edu; Motoyoshi Ikeda, Hokkaido University, mikeda@ees.hokudai.ac.jp

The March 11, 2011 earthquake off Japan and subsequent tsunami caused devastation on land and disruption of cooling systems at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant facility. The lack of adequate cooling led to overheating, venting of radioactive gases, explosions, fires and thereby atmospheric releases and fallout of radioactive contaminants. Water used to cool the reactors and spent fuel pond also led to considerable release of radionuclides to the ocean from direct run off and saturated soils and groundwater. This session seeks to bring together early data on the impact of these events on the ocean together with modeling results for a more comprehensive understanding of the event. This includes studies of the relative path and magnitude of the radioactive releases, range of radionuclides released, dose assessments, levels of contaminants in the sea water, sediment and biota, dispersion patterns measured and predicted for both near and far fields. Not only radioactive contaminant studies, but also work related to coastal flooding impacts and other non-radioactive pollutants (oils, sewage, etc.). and their transport pathways are also appropriate for this session. A goal of this session is to share with the broader community our initial assessments of the ocean off Japan. (4, 14)

096: The Biological Basis and Geochemical Consequences of Non-Redfield N:P Ratios in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Raymond Sambrotto, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., sambrott@ldeo.columbia.edu; John Reinfelder, Rutgers University, Environmental Sciences, reinfelder@envsci.rutgers.edu

Although the ratio of major inorganic nutrients in the oceanís main thermocline is relatively constant, the ratio of phytoplankton consumption and export from surface waters is not. For example, the existence of relatively low N:P export has been established in multiple studies from high latitude, diatom-dominated environments and high N:P consumption characterize vast areas of lower latitude oligotrophic waters. Recent numerical simulations suggest that physical mixing can blend these differences between nutrient regimes to generate the canonical values in the thermocline of the Southern Ocean. In the eastern tropical South Pacific, differences in N/P uptake between upwelling and oligotrophic communities impact the typical geochemical approaches for estimating nitrogen fixation. This session will explore the biological generation of non-Redfield N:P signals in the surface ocean as well as their effects on the chemical composition of sub-surface water masses. Topics will include the physiological, cladistic, and ecological basis for the altered nutrient signature as well as the present understanding of its ultimate impact on regional and basin-scale nutrient distributions. (3, 4, 18)

099: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sea Surface: Schedule

Temperature Variability and its Impacts on Air-Sea Interactions, Weather, and Climate

Organizers: Gary A. Wick, NOAA ESRL, gary.a.wick@noaa.gov; Chelle Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems, gentemann@remss.com; Andrew T. Jessup, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, jessup@apl.washington.edu; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University, clayson@met.fsu.edu

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is important for the generation of satellite SST products and the understanding and interpretation of oceanic and interfacial processes. Important processes that lead to SST variability include diurnal warming, fronts, and wind effects. SST products are increasingly generated from the combination of observations at different times and spatial scales. Progress is being made in characterizing and accounting for the variability, but challenges remain in quantifying its impact on the SST uncertainty budget. Spatial variability further influences scaling process observations to different resolutions, which requires assumptions about dependence of the structure of the process at several scales simultaneously. Current studies are exploring the impact of incorporating SST estimates with sub-pixel variability and improved resolution of the diurnal cycle on air-sea interactions and lower-frequency weather and climate variability. This session seeks to bring together those attempting to describe SST variability with those studying its impacts. Contributions are invited on all aspects of spatial and temporal SST variability, both observations and models, and studies on how this variability impacts air-sea interactions. Additionally, contributions that address the impact of variability on estimates of errors for observations are solicited. (2, 8, 17)

100: Linking Biogeochemical Processes to Estuarine Physical Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Sommerfield, University of Delaware, cs@udel.edu; Elizabeth Canuel, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ecanuel@vims.edu; Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Elizabeth Sikes, Rutgers University, sikes@marine.rutgers.edu

Physically mediated biogeochemical processes in estuaries play a central role in the fate of dissolved and particulate matter in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of cycling phenomena within estuarine basins is a critical component of terrestrial and ocean material budgets and has direct relevance to coastal and marine ecosystems. For example, understanding the composition, fluxes, and residence times of organic carbon is important for predicting oceanic responses to changes in past and future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, linking biogeochemical and physical dynamics is fraught with observational challenges. Indeed, with time-dependent spatial gradients in water properties and transport mechanisms, estuaries are paradoxically regions of both of rapid dispersion and trapping. Elucidating physical-biogeochemical connections thus requires observational approaches capable of identifying material sources, transport pathways, and process time scales. This may involve coordinated studies of fluid flow, radionuclide tracers, stable isotope proxies, and biomarkers, in conjunction with integrative conceptual or numerical modeling. We invite contributions that seek to link estuarine biogeochemical processes to physical dynamics on the full range of time scales. Possible topics include land-to-estuary routing of particulate organic and mineral matter, primary production, larval transport, nutrient cycling, and organic carbon dynamics. (2, 4,5,18)

106: Global Mode Waters: Physical and Biogeochemical Processes, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Young-Oh Kwon, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, yokwon@whoi.edu; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, ltalley@ucsd.edu; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, Manoa, xie@hawaii.edu; Toshio Suga, Tohoku University, suga@pol.gp.tohoku.ac.jp

Mode waters are one of most notable features in the upper ocean, ubiquitously found in every ocean basin in association with strong currents. Mode waters in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic are associated with large air-sea CO2 exchange. Recent major field programs in the Gulf Stream (CLIMODE) and Kuroshio Extension (KESS), analysis of data such as those from Argo, and advances in theory and numerical modeling, are producing steady growth of understanding various mode waters and their dynamical and biogeochemical impacts. Abstracts are welcome that address various aspects of physical and biogeochemical processes associated with mode waters throughout the global ocean, their variability, and the impact on large-scale circulation, air-sea interaction, eco-system, and climate. (2, 4, 17, 18)

112: Ocean Spreading Centers: Connecting the Subseafloor with the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Sarah Bennett, NASA JPL, CalTech, saroban@gmail.com; Jason Sylvan, University of Southern California, jsylvan@usc.edu

Deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide a window into the subseafloor environment and a transport mechanism for fluids sourced deep within the earth’s crust out into the open ocean. At the interface between the seafloor and the ocean, fluids flowing from the crust provide a redox rich environment which is exploited by both micro- and macro organisms. Even up in the water column, chemistry and biology sourced from deep within the crust continues to influence the open ocean on a global scale. This session aims to bring in chemical, biological and geological studies from each of these environments, to provide our audience with perspectives from the hydrothermal system as a whole and the interconnectivities between each locality. We encourage contributions from both field and laboratory studies that investigate the influence of hydrothermal circulation on the subsurface, seafloor and open ocean, as well as how the local environment affects the fluids themselves. The combination of biogeochemical studies in extreme environments such as the hydrothermal system, will enable us understand the limits and constraints on life, which not only has important relevance for our own planet, but also for the extraterrestrial system. (1, 3, 4, 18)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

116: Recent Advances in Linking the Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Rachel Horak, University of Washington, rahorak@uw.edu; Laura Bristow, SMAST, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, lbristow@umassd.edu; Bonnie Chang, Princeton University, bonniec@princeton.edu; Loreto De Brabandere, University of Southern Denmark, loretodb@biology.sdu.dk

Oxygen deficient water columns in the marine environment (e.g. eastern tropical Pacific, Arabian Sea, Baltic Sea, Cariaco Basin) are host to a range of unique and globally significant elemental transformations. Of particular relevance in these waters are C, N, S, and metal cycles and the role microbes play in mediating and coupling these processes. The field of microbiology is evolving rapidly, and, along with advances in biogeochemical methods, has helped improve our understanding of elemental cycling in marine oxygen deficient zones. These microbially mediated redox transformations are far more complex than previously thought and we currently have only a hint of the genetic diversity and biological capabilities of the microbial assemblages in these zones. This session aims to bring together a diverse group of microbiologists, biogeochemists, and modelers to increase our understanding of marine oxygen deficient water columns and their underlying sediments. We encourage contributions that explore the microbial diversity and potential processes, biological rates, and environmental controls on microbially mediated elemental cycling in these regions. (3, 4, 18)

123: Compound-Specific Amino Acid Analysis: A Rapidly Evolving Tool for Ecology, Paleoceanography and Biogeochemical Cycle Research: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew D. McCarthy, University of California, Santa Cruz, mccarthy@pmc.ucsc.edu; Brian Popp, University of Hawaii, SOEST, popp@hawaii.edu; Marilyn Fogel, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, m.fogel@gl.ciw.edu

Rapidly accelerating work on stable isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) has demonstrated unique potential to understand food webs, track source and diagenesis of organic matter, and provide new paleoceanographic tools for unraveling past changes in the ocean’s N and C cycles. While CSI-AA has been demonstrated in earlier work to address diverse questions ranging from the origins of amino acids in meteorites to quantification of the diets of modern pigs and ancient whales, realization that this class of compounds holds distinctive information has resulted in a resurgence of interest in CSI-AA. Currently evolving approaches include the application of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopic analyses to study the ecology, diet, trophic position, and physiology of organisms ranging from microbes to metazoans. As more is unraveled in modern organism, CSI-AA is becoming a critical tool for investigation of biogeochemical cycling of detrital organic matter, paleoceanographic studies, and understanding the diagenesis of organic matter in sediments. This session will focus on advances in the applications of CSI-AA to biogeochemical, ecological and physiological problems in marine and freshwater environments. We encourage submissions that focus on new techniques and approaches, as well as specific environmental applications. (3, 4, 13, 18)

125:   Ocean Acidification in Coastal and Estuarine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Simone Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, simone.r.alin@noaa.gov; Adrienne Sutton, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, adrienne.sutton@noaa.gov; Francis Chan, Oregon State University, chanft@science.oregonstate.edu; George Waldbusser, Oregon State University, waldbuss@coas.oregonstate.edu

Globally, anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving significant changes in ocean carbon chemistry, including declines in pH and carbonate saturation states. In estuaries and coastal oceans, ocean acidification (OA) is occurring in the context of other natural and anthropogenic biogeochemical processes that may accentuate or mitigate the magnitude and impacts of OA. Understanding of how OA is progressing in these environments is critical to managing coastal and estuarine resources in a changing world. Because oceanic carbon chemistry changes can only be stabilized over centennial time-scales, identifying processes that can be managed to ameliorate the present and future impacts of OA will be particularly important. Creative interdisciplinary research is needed to examine the role of ocean acidification in coastal and estuarine ecosystems already altered by other biogeochemical processes. This session seeks to showcase research that explores ocean acidification patterns and impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Submissions with a focus on biological, chemical, geological, or modeling aspects of OA along the continental margins are welcome. We particularly encourage submissions that address interactions between OA and other stressors, such as eutrophication, hypoxia, climate change, and pollution. (4, 5, 6, 8)

147: Infusing Biogeochemistry with Ecosystem Science: Schedule

Organizers: Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University, susanne.neuer@asu.edu; Raleigh Hood, University of Maryland, rhood@umces.edu

The cycling and transport of organic carbon and energy in the ocean is mostly mediated by organisms. But biogeochemical studies often insufficiently consider ecological aspects, despite the apparent need to find a synergy between both when investigating and predicting flux of carbon and other elements in a changing ocean. For example, the community composition of primary producers influences the biological carbon pump, and higher trophic levels are important in their utilization, remineralisation and transport of organic matter to depth. In this special session we invite presentations of biogeochemical studies that consider aspects of organism and ecosystem dynamics, both from observational and modeling perspectives. (3, 4, 9, 18)

148: Recent Advances in In Situ Chemical and Biological Measurements in Marine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Martial Taillefert, Georgia Institute of Technology, mtaillef@eas.gatech.edu; Brian Glazer, University of Hawaii, glazer@hawaii.edu

Oceanographic measurements are essential to study, preserve, and manage the oceans. Despite the rapid advances in oceanographic technology, chemical and biological measurements obtained in these environments rely largely on sampling and ex situ analyses of water, sediment, and mineral substrates, compared to the in situ capabilities of physical oceanographic measurements. To improve our understanding of the biogeochemical processes regulating the distribution and flux of elements between the seafloor, water column, and the atmosphere, it is necessary to monitor the geochemical and biological composition of marine environments continuously with high spatial and/or temporal resolution. The recent technological advances in instrument electronics, power generation, nanotechnology, and communication have boosted the development of in situ monitoring systems, and the new network observatory initiatives in the oceanographic community are in need of new instruments with in situ capabilities, chemical and biological sensors, and microbial incubation devices for a variety of applications. This session will regroup scientists interested in sharing their recent development in instrumentation or chemical and/or biological sensors for in situ measurements or automated sampling in a variety of marine environments, including hydrothermal systems, water columns, and sediments. (3, 4, 13)

151: Low Latitude Riverine Influence and Impact on Ocean Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Will Berelson, University of Southern California, berelson@usc.edu; Ajit Subramaniam, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, ajit@ldeo.columbia.edu

The influence of riverine discharge on oceanic ecosystems, chemical cycles and sedimentation extends well beyond the continental margins. Low latitude rivers may enter ocean ecosystems that have been primed by coastal and/or equatorial upwelling but more often, discharge into oceanic margins of the oligotrophic gyres.  We welcome submittals on topicsrelated to riverine discharge and oceanic biogeochemical interactions including: benthic-pelagic coupling, new measures of productivity and export in these systems, fluxes and elemental budgets, carbon sequestration, reverse weathering and biogeochemical/ecological interactions.(4, 5, 6, 18)

158: Shedding Light on the Dark Ocean: Advances in Linking Physical and Microbial Oceanography to Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Gerhard J. Herndl, Dept. Marine Biology, University of Vienna, gerhard.herndl@univie.ac.at; Alexander B. Bochdansky, Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Old Dominion University, ABochdan@odu.edu; Javier Aristegui, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, jaristegui@dbio.ulpgc.es; Dennis Hansell, RSMAS/MAC, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu

In terms of volume, the dark ocean represents the largest oceanic subsystem. Long considered a rather homogeneous environment, new facts have emerged that demonstrate that the dark ocean harbors a similar diversity of microbes as the sunlit surface waters. Microbes with novel metabolic pathways have been identified both in meso- and bathypelagic waters. Albeit the metabolic activity of the dark oceanís biota is generally low, the sheer volume of the dark ocean results in major uncertainties on its role in the oceanic carbon cycling. Major research initiatives have been launched recently to link physical oceanography, marine biogeochemistry and microbial oceanography, and to specifically address major enigmas regarding the significance of the dark ocean in the global element cycling. This session invites contributions from all oceanographic disciplines that address all aspects of the dark ocean in the biogeochemical cycling of elements including particle formation, flux and utilization in the deep ocean. Welcome are also contributions linking microbial community dynamics to biogeochemical fluxes using innovative approaches. (3, 4, 18)

163: Adaptation to High CO2 Oceans: From Experimental Evolution to Naturally CO2 Rich Habitats: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Melzner, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, fmelzner@ifm-geomar.de; Sam Dupont, University of Gothenborg, Sweden, sam.dupont@marecol.gu.se; Rainer Kiko, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, rkiko@ifm-geomar.de; Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, seibel@uri.edu

Ocean acidification will impact marine habitats. Assessing vulnerability of species and communities is difficult, as experimental studies often are single species focused and short - term in duration. In this session, we want to explore the capacity of organisms to adapt to an altered carbonate system speciation by featuring experimental evolution studies. In addition, we want to encourage presentations on species and communities adapted to environments that naturally expose organisms to elevated pCO2, such as coastal hypoxic zones, volcanic vent systems, marine sediments, intertidal and oxygen minimum zones, but also stressful ontogenetic habitats, such as egg masses and egg fluids. We envision an interdisciplinary session that brings together ecologists, chemists, evolutionary biologists and physiologists. (3, 4, 8)

166: Redox and Coordination Chemistry of Iron in Marine Systems: Schedule

Organizers: James Moffett, University of Southern California, jmoffett@usc.edu; Katherine Barbeau, UC San Diego, kbarbeau@ucsd.edu

Iron undergoes redox cycling between Fe(II) and Fe(III), and is strongly complexed by organic ligands. In the upper ocean, organically complexed forms predominate and ultimately determine the reactivity and biological availability of iron. Fe(II) is produced through biological and photochemical processes and may at times be the predominant inorganic form of iron, even in oxygenated waters. Recent evidence suggests that the coordination environment of iron created through organic complexation may influence the kinetics and thermodynamics of redox cycling. This session is directed at investigators who are studying iron redox and complexation processes at the molecular level, and how those processes interactively influence biological iron utilization and cycling in diverse marine environments. Both field and laboratory-based investigations are of interest. While the session is focused on iron, studies of related processes with other transition metals are also welcome. (4)

183: Chemical Signals That Mediate Biological Interactions and Community Dynamics in Marine Habitats: Schedule

Organizers: Graham A. Ferrier, University of California Los Angeles, gferrier@ucla.edu; Ryan Ferrer, Seattle Pacific University, ferrer1@spu.edu

This session will explore the sensory stimuli that underlie species interactions and drive community processes in marine habitats, from open ocean to the intertidal. Topics will include the discussion of chemical cues that influence marine settlement, competition, predation, and defense. Additionally, signal generation and transport, as well as the mechanisms of signal detection, will be discussed. Presentations will focus on completely identified and characterized chemical signals, and presenters will emphasize their physiological, biological, and ecological implications. This session is meant to highlight recent advances in marine biochemistry and chemical ecology, as well as to spur interests in an under-explored field of marine science. (3, 4, 9)