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03. Biological Oceanography, Aquatic Biology

003: The Response of Marine Calcifiers to Global Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Schedule

Organizers: Nick Kamenos, University of Glasgow, nick.kamenos@glasgow.ac.uk; Maggie Cusack, University of Glasgow, maggie.cusack@glasgow.ac.uk; J. Murray Roberts, Heriot-Watt University, J.M.Roberts@hw.ac.uk

Recent research has highlighted the large variability of responses by calcifying marine biota to changes in their physical environment. Critically, those calcifiers provide important ecosystem services and in addition, studies using novel environmental proxies from cold-water carbonates are helping form our understanding of environmental variability and responses to past periods of rapid climate change This session will promote a more complete understanding of how mid- to high-latitude biomineralizing organisms including corals, coralline algae, bryozoans and mussels respond to environmental changes such as rapid climate change, ocean acidification, hypoxia, etc. The session will include sub-organism to ecosystem level processes, evidence for acclimation and geochemical proxy records. It will combine palaeo aspects with research investigating present-day biotic and physical adaptations and the responses of services provided by biogenic habitats. The aim is to provide the holistic approach required to further our understanding of mid and high-latitude calcifier responses to global change. (1, 3, 7, 8)

010: Ocean Observing Systems: Regional and Global: Schedule

Organizers: Michael S. Tomlinson, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, tomlinson86@q.com; Eric Heinen De Carlo, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, edecarlo@soest.hawaii.edu; James T. Potemra, PhD, University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, jimp@hawaii.edu, Albert Fischer, IOC/UNESCO, a.fischer@unesco.org, Eric Lindstrom, NASA, eric.j.lindstrom@nasa.gov, Ru Morrison, NERACOOS, Ru.Morrison@neracoos.org, Suzanne Skelley, U.S. IOOS Program Office, Suzanne.Skelley@noaa.gov, Harvey Seim, University of North Carolina, hseim@email.unc.edu

It has been 7 years since the first of eleven Regional Associations of Ocean Observing Systems (OOSs) in the United States came online and started providing data and information to their stakeholders and the general public. These OOSs provide valuable real-time, high-resolution data and information in support of environmental protection, ocean safety, and ocean economic benefits. In addition, the OOSs provide ocean scientists with access to large, multivariable, high temporal and spatial resolution datasets which enable us to better understand atmosphere-land-ocean interactions; the effects of extreme events (e.g., tsunamis, storms, spills); and larger scale phenomena such as ENSO, PDO, and important issues such as ocean acidification. In this session, we envision a combination of oral and poster presentations that focus on some of the most important findings obtained from OOS data across the nation to date, although we also encourage submissions from international colleagues involved in ocean observing efforts elsewhere. We want to emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the OOS and the data collected and how these large data sets allow us to examine specific phenomena and resolve the effects of these phenomena spatially and temporally in detail that heretofore was not possible on such a large scale. (8, 13)

011: Biology, Biogeochemistry, and Bio-optics of the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Kevin R. Arrigo, Stanford University, arrigo@stanford.edu; Marcel Babin, Universite Laval, Marcel.Babin@takuvik.ulaval.ca; Don Perovich, donald.k.perovich@usace.army.mil

Rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic Ocean over the last decade are likely to markedly alter its biology and biogeochemistry. Changes have been most extreme in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, this area has received considerable scientific interest in recent years. Remote sensing studies suggest that as sea ice cover and the length of sea ice season has decreased, primary productivity in the pelagic environment has risen, particularly on continental shelves. However, associated changes within the sea ice ecosystem are not known. Unfortunately, satellite remote sensing in Arctic waters is challenging and an improved understanding of the optical characteristics of its surface waters and sea ice cover is sorely needed. The goal of this session is to present recent efforts to characterize ongoing changes in the biology and biogeochemistry in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, using both field-based and satellite-based approaches, and relate these to changes in the physical environment, including sea ice. We also welcome results from work being done to improve our ability to monitor changes in this remote and difficult to sample environment using satellite measurements of ocean color, as was done during the Malina and ICESCAPE cruises. (3, 7, 12, 18)

024: Fecal Pellets of Copepods and Tunicates: Different (Micro) Worlds: Schedule

Organizers: Marion Koester, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat Greifswald, koesterm@uni-greifswald.de; Gustav-Adolf Paffenhofer, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, gustav.paffenhofer@skio.usg.edu; Jay Brandes, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Jay.brandes@skio.usg.edu

The goal of the session is to provide insight into decomposition processes of fecal pellets of 2 zooplankton taxa, dominating on continental shelfs, copepods and tunicates. Their fecal pellets can occur up to thousands per cubic meter (e.g. US Southeastern Shelf), forming a significant contribution to the particulate carbon flux. Pellets are important microworlds:  they offer environments for microbial assemblages, catalyze nutrient cycles, function as transport vehicles and food particles. Of recent interest is whether pellets ìtrapî harmful substances (oil particles, plastic microparticles) and might serve as ìnatural microsensorsî to monitor the health of marine ecosystems. Microbial and chemical processes occurring during early degradation of fecal pellets remain poorly constrained. The decomposition of zooplankton fecal pellets has been described primarily for copepods, while our knowledge of tunicate pellets is limited. Morphological characteristics (composition, stability, digestion status) of pellets of copepods and tunicates differ significantly and are expected to be reflected in their sinking behavior, diversity and function of pellet-associated microbial assemblages, degradation pathways and chemical changes in pellet composition on the scale of hours and days. This interdisciplinary session invites scientists in planktology, chemistry and microbiology to combine traditional with promising modern methodology towards studying the fate of fecal pellets.(3, 4)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

039: Ocean Biogeochemistry Time-Series and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida, carib@marine.usf.edu; Matthew Church, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, mjchurch@hawaii.edu; Michael Lomas, Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, michael.lomas@bios.edu; Gordon Taylor, Stony Brook University, gtaylor@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Much of our understanding of temporal variability associated with ocean biogeochemistry derives from sustained, systematic, shipboard time-series observations. Time-series science programs provide the oceanographic community with multi-year, high-quality data needed for characterizing ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem variability. We invite contributions from studies which use ocean carbon and biogeochemistry time-series data, and especially encourage studies that examine time-series observations and datasets to elucidate changes in ocean biogeochemical processes, ecosystem structure and function, and linkages and feedbacks with the Earth’s climate system. (3, 4, 8, 18)

044: Advancing Satellite Ocean Color Science for Global and Coastal Research: Schedule

Organizers: Bryan A. Franz, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA), bryan.a.franz@nasa.gov; Vincent Vantrepotte, Laboratoire d’Océanologie et Géosciences (CRNS-France), Vincent.Vantrepotte@univ-littoral.fr; Fréderic Mélin, European Commission on Joint Research Centre (Italy), frederic.melin@jrc.ec.europa.eu; Stéphane Maritorena, Earth Research Institute, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara (USA), stephane@eri.ucsb.edu

Ocean color satellites provide daily global synoptic views of marine optical and biogeochemical properties. These properties describe the contents of the upper ocean mixed layer, information critical to furthering scientific understanding of ocean processes such as carbon exchanges, phytoplankton dynamics, and responses to climatic disturbances. The international community has invested significant effort in improving the quality and maintaining the continuity of satellite-derived marine optical properties, and in developing innovative approaches to study marine biogeochemical processes in both coastal and open ocean environments. In 2012, the continuous record of satellite ocean color enters its 16th year, with multiple ocean color sensors from several space agencies contributing to the time-series and a host of international research institutions contributing algorithms and field measurements. This session aims to take stock of a fast-evolving field through presentations addressing the state-of-the-art in advanced ocean color products, methods, and research applications that enhance our understanding of marine ecosystems and regional to global carbon cycle dynamics. (3, 12)

046: Understanding the Biological Consequences of Ocean Acidification in a Holistic Global Change Context: Schedule

Organizers: David Hutchins, University of Southern California, dahutch@usc.edu; Philip Boyd, University of Otago, New Zealand, Pboyd@chemistry.otago.ac.nz; Shannon Meseck, National Marine Fisheries Service, smeseck@clam.mi.nmfs.gov; Adina Paytan, University of California Santa Cruz, apaytan@ucsc.edu

Ocean acidification is happening in concert with a complex matrix of other ocean global change variables, including sea surface warming, stratification and mixed-layer shoaling, altered irradiance regimes, changes in major and micronutrient supplies, sea-ice retreat, increased hypoxia, and consequent novel trophic and competitive interactions due to biogeography shifts. Each of these factors individually will have impacts on the structure and function of biological communities, but the interactions between them may often be more influential on the physiology and ecology of marine organisms than the effect(s) of any one variable alone. Ocean acidification and other global change variables can sometimes interact in highly nonlinear ways, including both synergistically and antagonistically. We therefore encourage presentations featuring experimental, observational, and/or modeling work on the biological consequences of these types of multivariate environmental stressors. Research findings that offer insights into the ability of marine organisms to acclimatize or adapt to long-term changes in multiple environmental stressors are particularly welcome. This session is intended to foster a holistic consideration of biological ocean acidification impacts in the context of complex ecosystem changes, including the capacity for organisms to respond to simultaneous shifts in multiple environmental factors through either phenotypic plasticity or evolution. (3, 4, 8)

053: Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean: Linking the OMZ To the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Angela Knapp, RSMAS/University of Miami, aknapp@rsmas.miami.edu; Alyson Santoro, UMCES-Horn Point, asantoro@whoi.edu; Rachel Foster, MPI Bremen, rfoster@mpi-bremen.de; Sophie Bonnet, IRD, France, Sophie.Bonnet@univmed.fr

The N budget for the global ocean remains poorly constrained, with some reports suggesting that sinks exceed sources. Moreover, the disparate geographical distribution of field efforts examining N removal from the ocean (primarily via denitrification) and N additions (primarily via N2 fixation) implied that they were spatially separated. The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) Ocean provides a testbed for the recently proposed tight coupling between N inputs and losses, as well as testing linkages between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Several major US and European-sponsored cruises have recently completed field work in these regions characterized by intense oxygen minimum zones, and novel measurements have been made including: molecular investigations of N-related gene sequences, rate determinations of N and C cycling, bottle incubations with nutrient and metal additions, N isotope analyses of common and rare N species, C and N fluxes from the surface ocean as captured by shallow and deep sediment traps, and other novel export estimates. This session welcomes contributions related to the N and/or C cycles observed in either the northern or southern ETP. (3, 4, 18)

056: Biology and Chemistry in a High CO2 World: Schedule

Organizers: Alexandra Rao, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a.rao@nioo.knaw.nl; Christian Wild, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), christian.wild@zmt-bremen.de; Matthew Charette, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, mcharette@whoi.edu, Frank Melzner, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, fmelzner@ifm-geomar.de, Sam Dupont, University of Gˆteborg, Sweden, sam.dupont@marecol.gu.se, Rainer Kiko, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, Germany, rkiko@ifm-geomar.de, Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, USA, seibel@uri.edu

Recent research has demonstrated that the release of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere leads to ocean acidification, which is predicted to have a strong adverse effect on marine ecosystems. At the same time, our perceptions of the benthic boundary layer continue to evolve, encompassing a complex interplay of physical, chemical and biological processes in sediments. The links between sediments and ocean acidification are not unidirectional, and the emerging model suggests that numerous feedbacks may impact future changes in ocean chemistry and benthic ecosystems on multiple time scales. Key players include (i) biological communities, from coral reefs to microorganisms and macrofauna in deep and shallow sediments, whose activities have wide-ranging implications for benthic ecology, elemental cycling, and commercial fisheries, (ii) transport and reaction in deep sea and continental margin sediments, including the impact of tides, waves, and bottom currents in permeable sands, and (iii) submarine groundwater discharge, carbonate and pH dynamics in subterranean estuaries. This session aims to bring together experts in measurements and modeling of ocean acidification and benthic processes to address methodological and conceptual challenges pertaining to studies at the frontier between these disciplines. We encourage multi-disciplinary contributions. (3, 4, 6, 8)

058: Integrated Observational and Modeling Studies of Marine Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Bradley Penta, Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center, penta@nrlssc.navy.mil; Francisco Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, chfr@mbari.org

New and emerging technologies are allowing unprecedentedly comprehensive views of marine ecosystems. Observations by shipboard, towed, fixed, remote, and autonomous platforms equipped with complementary sensors and informed by simulation models are providing new insights into fundamental ecosystem processes. This session will focus on multi-disciplinary, multi-platform process and modeling studies of plankton blooms in marine ecosystems. Presentations are solicited that highlight results from interdisciplinary studies (e.g., BloomEx, BIOSPACE, AOSN, COAST, MUSE, NAB) and recent advances in observational, data processing, and modeling techniques. Contributions are welcome on the subjects of coordination and control of observational assets, adaptive sampling, and mission planning (decision support). Submissions on modeling and data assimilation methods are also within the scope of this session. (3, 9, 13, 16)

060: Marine Gas Hydrate Deposits: Research, Monitoring Strategies and Present-Day Knowledge: Schedule

Organizers: Ray Highsmith, University of Mississippi, ray@olemiss.edu; Laura Lapham, Aarhus University, laura.lapham@biology.au.dk; Leonardo Macelloni, University of Mississippi, lmacello@olemiss.edu; Marta Torres, Oregon State University, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

Gas hydrates are the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. Hydrate stability is influenced by temperature and pressure fluctuations. Several deposits have been identified world-wide near the seafloor surface and represent a unique system where stability might be affected also by microbial interactions, very low seismic activity and oceanographic fluctuations (storms, currents, tides). Methane reaching the seafloor from deep reservoirs becomes an important source of carbon for diverse communities of microbes and macrofauna, making these areas ecologically important. The near-surface hydrate sites also sequester large amounts of carbon within associated carbonate deposits, which provide habitat for benthic communities. Therefore, to understand the factors that control hydrate stability or interactions with the surrounding ocean, it is critical to monitor and study the deposits over time. We seek abstracts highlighting recent results on the evolution of geological, biological, or chemical factors based at established research/monitoring stations, such as in the Gulf of Mexico or the Cascadia Margin, or at hydrate sites around the world that have been visited frequently over time. What have we learned about hydrate deposits? How dynamic are they and what are the controlling factors? What is needed for future hydrate research and monitoring? (1, 3, 4, 18)

065: Physical-Ecological Interactions in Inland Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Alfred Wuest, EAWAG, alfred.wueest@eawag.ch; Josef Daniel Ackerman, University of Guelph, ackerman@uoguelph.ca; Miki Hondzo, SAFL at UMN, mhondzo@umn.edu

Anthropogenic impacts through natural resources use and climate change place increasing stress on inland waters. Significant among these changes are those related to the physical environment and the consequences for the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic environments. This session will address physical, biogeochemical and/or ecological interactions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the pelagos and benthos of coastal and inland waters. It will focus on defining relevant spatial and temporal scales, developing relationships, and predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. (2, 3, 4, 5, 18)

071: Deep-Sea Conservation Imperatives in the 21st Century: Schedule

Organizers: Lisa A. Levin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, llevin@ucsd.edu; Cindy Van Dover, Duke University Marine Laboratory, clv3@duke.edu; Jeff Ardron, Marine Conservation Institute, Jeff.Ardron@Marine-Conservation.org; Craig R. Smith, University of Hawaii at Manoa, craigsmi@hawaii.edu

The deep waters and seabed of the world ocean constitute the largest biosphere on this planet, supporting a wealth of species and habitat diversity, performing key ecosystem functions and providing valuable food and energy resources. Once considered pristine, the deep sea (from 200-11,000 m) is under increasing pressure from potentially destructive extraction activities such as fishing, oil and gas exploitation and minerals mining, as well as waste and contaminant disposal, bioprospecting, and scientific research. CO2-driven climate change is also altering deep-sea species distributions and ecosystem processes with attendant effects on services and functions. In addressing these issues, EEZs and international waters face different regulatory landscapes. We invite talks that address conservation issues in pelagic and benthic realms of the slope, abyss and trenches. Topics of interest include but are not limited to human and climate-change impacts in the deep-sea, current conservation science issues and needs, marine policy instruments, management options, and global challenges. Presentations are welcome from science, industry, government and NGOs. (3 ,9, 11)

072: Plankton Phenology: Drivers, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Henson, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, S.Henson@noc.ac.uk; Rubao Ji, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rji@whoi.edu; Martin Edwards, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, maed@sahfos.ac.uk; Marie-Fanny Racault, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, mfrt@pml.ac.uk

The timing of seasonal events in plankton populations affect survival rates of their predators with knock-on effects on carbon cycling and higher trophic levels. Characterising plankton phenology is challenging because time series of data with relatively high temporal resolution are required. However, advances in our understanding of phenology have come from satellite ocean colour data, Continuous Plankton Recorder data and time series stations. Growing evidence shows that climate-related changes in forcing are driving shifts in plankton phenology, which are hypothesised to continue changing with projected global warming. In this session, we invite contributions that examine phenology in phytoplankton or zooplankton populations, environmental controls on variability on seasonal to decadal timescales and impacts of changes in phenology on higher trophic levels. Contributions based on in situ datasets, satellite data or model studies are all welcome. (3, 8, 9)

078: The Fate of Discharged Hydrocarbons from the Macondo Reservoir and the Impacts to Gulf Ecosystems: Schedule

Organizers: Joel Kostka, Georgia Institute of Technology, joel.kostka@biology.gatech.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu; Ian MacDonald, Florida State University, imacdonald@fsu.edu; Samantha Joye, University of Georgia, mandyjoye@gmail.com

The blowout of the Macondo reservoir beneath the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig resulted in the world’s largest accidental release of hydrocarbons into the ocean in recorded history. Contamination of ecosystems by these hydrocarbons continues to cause severe environmental and economic consequences in the Gulf region. This session focuses on an understanding of the physical-chemical fate of the hydrocarbons and itís impacts on ecosystem function in the Gulf of Mexico, including all aspects of food webs from microorganisms to large mammals. Participation will be encouraged from researchers that employ interdisciplinary approaches including field observations, experimentation, technology development, and numerical modeling. Topics to be addressed will include:  physical distribution and dispersion of oil with associated dispersants, biogeochemical degradation of oil hydrocarbons, and the environmental effects of hydrocarbons on planktonic and benthic communities from the deepsea to shallow coastal systems. The risk of accidental oil discharge to the marine environment remains high for the foreseeable future as increased economic pressure to access new oil reserves in deep marine waters will require less tested technologies. Thus, there remains a critical need to understand the fate and effects of oil and gas in order to support decision making, design management strategies and guide cleanup efforts. (3, 4, 14)

086: Climate Change Impacts on Living Marine Resources: Schedule

Organizers: Vincent Saba, Princeton University, vsaba@princeton.edu; Charles Stock, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, charles.stock@noaa.gov; Anne Hollowed, NOAA NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Anne.Hollowed@noaa.gov

We invite abstracts investigating the response of Living Marine Resources (LMRs) to anthropogenic climate change. A wide range of LMRs will be considered, including fish, mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. Studies focused on the detection and attribution of past climate change impacts on LMRs as well as those focused on assessing future impacts will be considered. We are particularly interested in contributions that explore the mechanistic linkages between climate-driven changes in physical properties and the eventual LMR response. These linkages can be challenging to diagnose because they occur across a broad range of spatiotemporal scales and be modulated by interactions throughout the marine food web. Uncovering these linkages, however, is essential for improving projections of the impact of climate change on LMRs. (3, 8, 9)

096: The Biological Basis and Geochemical Consequences of Non-Redfield N:P Ratios in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Raymond Sambrotto, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., sambrott@ldeo.columbia.edu; John Reinfelder, Rutgers University, Environmental Sciences, reinfelder@envsci.rutgers.edu

Although the ratio of major inorganic nutrients in the oceanís main thermocline is relatively constant, the ratio of phytoplankton consumption and export from surface waters is not. For example, the existence of relatively low N:P export has been established in multiple studies from high latitude, diatom-dominated environments and high N:P consumption characterize vast areas of lower latitude oligotrophic waters. Recent numerical simulations suggest that physical mixing can blend these differences between nutrient regimes to generate the canonical values in the thermocline of the Southern Ocean. In the eastern tropical South Pacific, differences in N/P uptake between upwelling and oligotrophic communities impact the typical geochemical approaches for estimating nitrogen fixation. This session will explore the biological generation of non-Redfield N:P signals in the surface ocean as well as their effects on the chemical composition of sub-surface water masses. Topics will include the physiological, cladistic, and ecological basis for the altered nutrient signature as well as the present understanding of its ultimate impact on regional and basin-scale nutrient distributions. (3, 4, 18)

112: Ocean Spreading Centers: Connecting the Subseafloor with the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Sarah Bennett, NASA JPL, CalTech, saroban@gmail.com; Jason Sylvan, University of Southern California, jsylvan@usc.edu

Deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide a window into the subseafloor environment and a transport mechanism for fluids sourced deep within the earth’s crust out into the open ocean. At the interface between the seafloor and the ocean, fluids flowing from the crust provide a redox rich environment which is exploited by both micro- and macro organisms. Even up in the water column, chemistry and biology sourced from deep within the crust continues to influence the open ocean on a global scale. This session aims to bring in chemical, biological and geological studies from each of these environments, to provide our audience with perspectives from the hydrothermal system as a whole and the interconnectivities between each locality. We encourage contributions from both field and laboratory studies that investigate the influence of hydrothermal circulation on the subsurface, seafloor and open ocean, as well as how the local environment affects the fluids themselves. The combination of biogeochemical studies in extreme environments such as the hydrothermal system, will enable us understand the limits and constraints on life, which not only has important relevance for our own planet, but also for the extraterrestrial system. (1, 3, 4, 18)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

116: Recent Advances in Linking the Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Rachel Horak, University of Washington, rahorak@uw.edu; Laura Bristow, SMAST, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, lbristow@umassd.edu; Bonnie Chang, Princeton University, bonniec@princeton.edu; Loreto De Brabandere, University of Southern Denmark, loretodb@biology.sdu.dk

Oxygen deficient water columns in the marine environment (e.g. eastern tropical Pacific, Arabian Sea, Baltic Sea, Cariaco Basin) are host to a range of unique and globally significant elemental transformations. Of particular relevance in these waters are C, N, S, and metal cycles and the role microbes play in mediating and coupling these processes. The field of microbiology is evolving rapidly, and, along with advances in biogeochemical methods, has helped improve our understanding of elemental cycling in marine oxygen deficient zones. These microbially mediated redox transformations are far more complex than previously thought and we currently have only a hint of the genetic diversity and biological capabilities of the microbial assemblages in these zones. This session aims to bring together a diverse group of microbiologists, biogeochemists, and modelers to increase our understanding of marine oxygen deficient water columns and their underlying sediments. We encourage contributions that explore the microbial diversity and potential processes, biological rates, and environmental controls on microbially mediated elemental cycling in these regions. (3, 4, 18)

123: Compound-Specific Amino Acid Analysis: A Rapidly Evolving Tool for Ecology, Paleoceanography and Biogeochemical Cycle Research: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew D. McCarthy, University of California, Santa Cruz, mccarthy@pmc.ucsc.edu; Brian Popp, University of Hawaii, SOEST, popp@hawaii.edu; Marilyn Fogel, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, m.fogel@gl.ciw.edu

Rapidly accelerating work on stable isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) has demonstrated unique potential to understand food webs, track source and diagenesis of organic matter, and provide new paleoceanographic tools for unraveling past changes in the ocean’s N and C cycles. While CSI-AA has been demonstrated in earlier work to address diverse questions ranging from the origins of amino acids in meteorites to quantification of the diets of modern pigs and ancient whales, realization that this class of compounds holds distinctive information has resulted in a resurgence of interest in CSI-AA. Currently evolving approaches include the application of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopic analyses to study the ecology, diet, trophic position, and physiology of organisms ranging from microbes to metazoans. As more is unraveled in modern organism, CSI-AA is becoming a critical tool for investigation of biogeochemical cycling of detrital organic matter, paleoceanographic studies, and understanding the diagenesis of organic matter in sediments. This session will focus on advances in the applications of CSI-AA to biogeochemical, ecological and physiological problems in marine and freshwater environments. We encourage submissions that focus on new techniques and approaches, as well as specific environmental applications. (3, 4, 13, 18)

124: New Insights into the Early Life Stages and Reproductive Dynamics of Large Marine Vertebrates: Schedule

Organizers: Joel Llopiz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, jllopiz@whoi.edu; Barbara Muhling, University of Miami Rosenstiel School Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science, barbara.muhling@noaa.gov; Kate Mansfield, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA/NMFS, kate.mansfield@noaa.gov; Lesley Thorne, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, lesley.thorne@duke.edu

Large marine vertebrates, whether bony fishes, sharks, mammals, sea turtles, or birds, play critical roles in the functioning of marine ecosystems. Since the maintenance or rebuilding of large marine vertebrate populations is highly dependent upon successful reproductive events and the survival of the early life stages, the understanding of these processes is critical for effective management and conservation efforts. For many of these long-lived species, the ‘lost years’ during the early life stages (part or all of the juvenile stage, and including the larval stage for bony fishes) have been distinctly understudied. Yet, a recent increase in efforts is shedding new light on the early life stages of large marine vertebrates, as well as their reproduction. Examples of such research include the mapping of reproductive areas in relation to oceanographic conditions, understanding the processes influencing reproductive output, and investigating how the survival and behavior of early life stages vary with biotic and abiotic conditions. The comparative approach of bringing together knowledge and perspectives gained from studying this taxonomically broad but important group of organisms should provide greater insight into general patterns and processes influencing the survival and conservation of the world’s large marine vertebrates. (3, 8, 9)

127: Phytoplankton Fluorescence: Filling the Gap between Observations and Understanding: Schedule

Organizers: Alexander Chekalyuk, LDEO of Columbia University, chekaluk@ldeo.columbia.edu; Yannick Huot, Département de Géomatique Appliquée, Université de Sherbrooke, yannick.huot@usherbrooke.ca

Measuring in vivo fluorescence from phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments can provide information regarding their biomass, physiology, photosynthetic rates, and community structure. Such measurements are highly sensitive, non-intrusive, rapid, and easy to carry out, which make them an attractive alternative to traditional techniques. However, the interpretation of fluorescence data remains challenging: applying insights gained in the laboratory to measurements taken in natural aquatic environments is difficult, and understanding the sources of variability observed in the field is complex. Nevertheless, from satellites to flow cytometers, from emission-excitation spectra to time-resolved measurements, a broad array of tools and protocols have been developed and utilized to address specific scientific questions. Recent advances in autonomous platform technology and the development of more informative and sophisticated instruments and techniques provide new unique observational and analytical capabilities. Yet, there seems to be a growing gap between our ability to make observations using the available technology and our capacity to interpret these observations for improved characterizations of the natural aquatic environments. To address this issue and to review recent advances, we invite submissions on all aspects of phytoplankton fluorescence with an emphasis on the interpretation and better understanding of in vivo and in situ field measurements. (3, 13)

129: Mechanisms of Nutrient Assimilation and Metabolism in Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Species: Schedule

Organizers: James Ammerman, Stony Brook University, New York Sea Grant, james.ammerman@stonybrook.edu; Christopher Gobler, Stony Brook University, Southampton, Christopher.Gobler@stonybrook.edu

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are an increasing problem in many marine and freshwater coastal regions. Increased nutrient fluxes and other anthropogenic factors have contributed to these blooms, while at the same time molecular and genomic methods are improving our understanding of the mechanisms of the assimilation and metabolism of these nutrients. This session will focus on these mechanisms, including those involved in the assimilation of both macro- and micro-nutrients (including metals and vitamins), in prokaryotic and eukaryotic HAB species in marine and freshwater environments. We encourage submissions that utilize any of a variety of methods including laboratory and field studies, as well as traditional and molecular approaches. (3)

136: Top Predator Distributions: Variability and Fisheries: Schedule

Organizers: Daniel Palacios, JIMAR and NOAA/SWFSC, daniel.palacios@noaa.gov; Mark Baumgartner, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, mbaumgartner@whoi.edu; Steven Bograd, NOAA/SWFSC, steven.bograd@noaa.gov; Elliott Hazen, JIMAR and NOAA/SWFSC, elliott.hazen@noaa.gov; George Shillinger, Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, georges@stanford.edu

Patterns in top marine predator distribution, abundance and behavior are influenced by spatial and temporal variability in the ocean occurring at a variety of scales. From diel periodicity in diving and acoustic behavior to distribution shifts caused by climate change, variability in oceanographic conditions and prey distribution can have profound effects on top marine predators. This session seeks to bring together biologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and conservation practitioners who are using cutting-edge instrumentation, numerical and habitat modeling, or other novel methods to investigate relationships between environmental variability and the ecology and/or management of predatory fishes, marine turtles, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. The session will focus on understanding the linkages between physical and biological processes across a variety of scales and on how these relationships can be used to manage and conserve top predator populations. (3)

137: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry and Ecology: Establishing Linkages Between Molecular Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Schedule

Organizers: Zackary Johnson, Duke University, zij@duke.edu; Maureen Coleman, University of Chicago, mlcoleman@uchicago.edu

With molecular, taxonomic, ecological and biogeochemical aspects, the term “biodiversity” broadly captures the breadth of organisms and their functioning within ecosystems. Technological advances have lead to substantial progress in describing the molecular and genomic diversity of marine organisms and additional progress has been made using meta-analyses of large geospatially-explicit datasets. More recent efforts have sought to leverage these advances and link them to functional ecology (e.g. biogeochemistry) or to conservation and ecosystem management. Major programs including the Census of Marine Life, US NSF Dimensions of Biodiversity, the Gordon and Betty Moore Marine Microbiology Initiative and others have provided alternate frameworks for characterizing this biodiversity. Further, both observational and modeling efforts have emphasized the importance of the linking various metrics of biodiversity and in using data assimilation and theoretical approaches to characterize marine biodiversity. The goal of this session is to highlight recent progress and future opportunities in broadly describing the biodiversity of microbial to macrofaunal organisms using a variety of approaches at a range of scales. In particular, we encourage participation across multiple size scales of organisms and in using novel techniques to provide connections (or identify disconnects) across scales and different aspects of biodiversity. (3, 9, 18)

139: Governing Across Scales—Innovative Stewardship of Earth Systems: Creating a Global Large Marine Ecosystem Knowledge Network: Schedule

Organizers: Harold P. Batchelder, Oregon State University, hbatchelder@coas.oregonstate.edu; Peter Fox, Renseselaer Polytechnic Institute, pfox@rpi.edu; Suzanne Lawrence, Independent, suzanne@suzannelawrence.net; Oran Young, Univ. California, Santa Barbara, oran.young@gmail.com

Overfishing, marine pollution, habitat loss and climate change are contributing to the degradation in the world’s marine ecosystems. Prompt and potentially significant changes in the use of ocean resources are needed to overcome the negative consequences of human exploitation. Climate change has added new urgency to efforts to sustainably govern Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) as well as the accelerated recognition that ocean ecosystems not only affect climate processes, but are also substantially impacted by climate change. Investments in LME programs worldwide require implementation plans that are effective and efficient. What is presently lacking is a process to bring together existing knowledge networks to identify, review, and synthesize the best assessment and management practices among the community of LME practitioners dedicated to facilitating exchange of lessons learned. This session is designed to create a forum for sharing of information (e.g., data, lessons learned and best management practices) developed through various LME project processes among the global marine science community. The session will benefit all members of the ocean science community interested in building and maintaining a global knowledge network of policymakers and scientists committed to moving ecosystem based management and coastal and marine spatial planning from paper to practice. (3, 9, 11, 16)

141: Improving the Representation of Plankton Ecology in Earth System Models: Schedule

Organizers: Irina Marinov, University of Pennsylvania, imarinov@sas.upenn.edu; Zhi-Ping Mei, Horn Point Laboratory, Univ. of Maryland, zmei@umces.edu; Tihomir Kostadinov, University of California Santa Barbara, tiho@eri.ucsb.edu; Anand Gnanadesikan, Johns Hopkins University, gnanades@jhu.edu

Since phytoplankton contribute 50% of total global carbon fixation, it is critical to understand through Earth System Models how climate change will affect primary production and ocean carbon cycling, and the potential feedbacks on climate. However, there is a gap between the increasingly detailed knowledge of phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their simplified representation in Earth System Models. This session intends to provide an avenue for observationalists, theoreticians and modelers to present recent advances in in-situ and remote sensing based observations of phytoplankton physiology and ecology, and their representation in regional to global ocean models. Relevant questions include: What are the recent advances and new challenges in modeling ocean ecology in Earth System Models? Which are the important advances in observational (including remote sensing) and theoretical phytoplankton ecology, such as light, macro-and trace nutrient (co)limitations, elemental stoichiometry, size-scaling and size-structure, different tradeoffs among ecological traits, that might be critical for ocean carbon and nutrient cycling and storage, and thus need to make their way in the next generation of global climate models? How sensitive are the predicted biogeochemical cycles on the time scale of climate change to new ecological formulations and increased complexity of the Earth System models? (2, 3, 8, 9, 16)

146: Zooplankton Feeding Ecology and the Biological Carbon Pump in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Wilson, Arizona State University/ Bangor University, sewilso6@asu.edu; Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University, susanne.neuer@asu.edu

Zooplankton affect the efficiency of carbon transport in marine ecosystems. Investigations into the distribution and feeding ecology of zooplankton can help our understanding of how trophic interactions can affect the biological pump. Variations in zooplankton community structure and diet can differentially alter the transfer efficiency of sinking POC. In addition, variations in climate have also been shown to affect POC flux as well as zooplankton biomass and species composition. We invite contributions from studies which explore zooplankton distributions, trophic interactions and their importance in the biological carbon pump. (3)

147: Infusing Biogeochemistry with Ecosystem Science: Schedule

Organizers: Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University, susanne.neuer@asu.edu; Raleigh Hood, University of Maryland, rhood@umces.edu

The cycling and transport of organic carbon and energy in the ocean is mostly mediated by organisms. But biogeochemical studies often insufficiently consider ecological aspects, despite the apparent need to find a synergy between both when investigating and predicting flux of carbon and other elements in a changing ocean. For example, the community composition of primary producers influences the biological carbon pump, and higher trophic levels are important in their utilization, remineralisation and transport of organic matter to depth. In this special session we invite presentations of biogeochemical studies that consider aspects of organism and ecosystem dynamics, both from observational and modeling perspectives. (3, 4, 9, 18)

148: Recent Advances in In Situ Chemical and Biological Measurements in Marine Environments: Schedule

Organizers: Martial Taillefert, Georgia Institute of Technology, mtaillef@eas.gatech.edu; Brian Glazer, University of Hawaii, glazer@hawaii.edu

Oceanographic measurements are essential to study, preserve, and manage the oceans. Despite the rapid advances in oceanographic technology, chemical and biological measurements obtained in these environments rely largely on sampling and ex situ analyses of water, sediment, and mineral substrates, compared to the in situ capabilities of physical oceanographic measurements. To improve our understanding of the biogeochemical processes regulating the distribution and flux of elements between the seafloor, water column, and the atmosphere, it is necessary to monitor the geochemical and biological composition of marine environments continuously with high spatial and/or temporal resolution. The recent technological advances in instrument electronics, power generation, nanotechnology, and communication have boosted the development of in situ monitoring systems, and the new network observatory initiatives in the oceanographic community are in need of new instruments with in situ capabilities, chemical and biological sensors, and microbial incubation devices for a variety of applications. This session will regroup scientists interested in sharing their recent development in instrumentation or chemical and/or biological sensors for in situ measurements or automated sampling in a variety of marine environments, including hydrothermal systems, water columns, and sediments. (3, 4, 13)

152: Polar Marine Microbial Ecology: Schedule

Organizers: Rebecca J. Gast, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rgast@whoi.edu; Robert W. Sanders, Temple University, sanders1@temple.edu; David A. Caron, University of Southern California, dcaron@usc.edu

Marine microbial communities play key roles in the trophic transfer of carbon in polar marine environments. Our knowledge of potential suitable habitats, diversity, trophic interactions and activity in seasons other than the brief polar summers has grown dramatically over the past few decades. With changes in climate already occurring, polar researchers are poised to document and interpret the changes to microbial communities and their potential for ecosystem-level impacts. We encourage investigators to present their research on polar microbial (both prokaryotic and eukaryotic) ecology. Work with aspects of diversity, functional genomics, cellular biology, biochemical and/or physiological processes, and comparisons between polar regions are sought. (3, 7)

153: Chemical Signals That Mediate Interactions of Free Living Organisms and Host Associated Microbes: Schedule

Organizers: Karla B. Heidelberg, University of Southern California, kheidelb@usc.edu; Torston Thomas, University of New South Wales, t.thomas@unsw.edu.au, Graham A. Ferrier, University of California Los Angeles, gferrier@ucla.edu, Ryan Ferrer, Seattle Pacific University, ferrer1@spu.edu

The effect of environmental change on marine systems has gained great interest. Prime examples include the observation that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide alters the ocean’s carbonate buffer system, which in turn has a dramatic impact on macroorganisms with carbonate structure (e.g. corals, shells). Those and other macroorganisms live and interact with a great diversity of microorganisms, forming a holobiont. Environmental change may alter those host-microbes interactions and hence may impact host health. This session explores topics related to various effects of environmental change on macroorganisms and their associated microbial diversity. (3, 8)

157: Understanding Plankton Biogeography By Putting Functional Traits on the Map: Schedule

Organizers: Andrew D. Barton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, adbarton@mit.edu; Elena Litchman, W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, litchman@msu.edu; Andrew J. Pershing, University of Maine & Gulf of Maine Research Institute, andrew.pershing@maine.edu

What determines plankton biogeography? The abundance of each species in a community is thought to be regulated by the interplay of its functional traits, biotic interactions, and the environment. The environment varies on spatial and temporal scales ranging from short-lived, small-scale fluid turbulence to long-term climate change through Earth history and in future warming scenarios, and is instrumental in driving the biogeography and community ecology of aquatic species. Much has been learned about the physical, chemical, and biological regulation of plankton biogeography from ecosystem modeling, concerted plankton surveys (e.g., the Continuous Plankton Recorder and Atlantic Meridional Transect), the fossil record, and more recently, molecular and genomic techniques, yet many unknowns remain. Here we ask where and when, and why, are certain species with known functional traits successful in marine and fresh waters? Specifically, we invite laboratory, field, bioinformatic, and modeling submissions that seek to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton taxa, broadly defined as zooplankton, phytoplankton, and bacterioplankton, by considering how their functional traits vary along environmental gradients at all spatial and temporal scales. We encourage submissions that seek to build enhanced, mechanistic understanding of plankton biogeography, with an eye toward “putting plankton functional traits on the map.” (3)

158: Shedding Light on the Dark Ocean: Advances in Linking Physical and Microbial Oceanography to Biogeochemistry: Schedule

Organizers: Gerhard J. Herndl, Dept. Marine Biology, University of Vienna, gerhard.herndl@univie.ac.at; Alexander B. Bochdansky, Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Old Dominion University, ABochdan@odu.edu; Javier Aristegui, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, jaristegui@dbio.ulpgc.es; Dennis Hansell, RSMAS/MAC, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu

In terms of volume, the dark ocean represents the largest oceanic subsystem. Long considered a rather homogeneous environment, new facts have emerged that demonstrate that the dark ocean harbors a similar diversity of microbes as the sunlit surface waters. Microbes with novel metabolic pathways have been identified both in meso- and bathypelagic waters. Albeit the metabolic activity of the dark oceanís biota is generally low, the sheer volume of the dark ocean results in major uncertainties on its role in the oceanic carbon cycling. Major research initiatives have been launched recently to link physical oceanography, marine biogeochemistry and microbial oceanography, and to specifically address major enigmas regarding the significance of the dark ocean in the global element cycling. This session invites contributions from all oceanographic disciplines that address all aspects of the dark ocean in the biogeochemical cycling of elements including particle formation, flux and utilization in the deep ocean. Welcome are also contributions linking microbial community dynamics to biogeochemical fluxes using innovative approaches. (3, 4, 18)

162: Advances in Phylogeography and Connectivity of Marine Metazoans: Schedule

Organizers: Ann Bucklin, University of Connecticut, ann.bucklin@uconn.edu; Timothy Shank, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, tshank@whoi.edu

Marine phylogeography (the study of geographical distributions of genetic lineages of a population or species) has advanced rapidly in recent years. Analysis of connectivity of marine animal populations, communities, and ecosystems has become a central focus in ocean science, with broad-reaching implications including: understanding of past future impacts climate change, management and conservation of marine resources, and spatial planning. Technological breakthroughs in genomics, metagenomics, and environmental DNA sequencing have provided access to a vastly expanded repertoire of molecular makers for non-model animal populations; statistical and analytical approaches have allowed integrated analysis of multiple characters; models have been developed to explore migration and gene flow of organisms over a range of ecologically- and oceanographically-relevant scales. This session will include analysis and modeling of the phylogeography of marine metazoans living in diverse environments (coasts and deep sea, benthic and pelagic, coral reefs and vents) over a range of temporal and spatial scales and patterns (local to global, cosmopolitan and endemic). (3, 9)

163: Adaptation to High CO2 Oceans: From Experimental Evolution to Naturally CO2 Rich Habitats: Schedule

Organizers: Frank Melzner, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, fmelzner@ifm-geomar.de; Sam Dupont, University of Gothenborg, Sweden, sam.dupont@marecol.gu.se; Rainer Kiko, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, rkiko@ifm-geomar.de; Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, seibel@uri.edu

Ocean acidification will impact marine habitats. Assessing vulnerability of species and communities is difficult, as experimental studies often are single species focused and short - term in duration. In this session, we want to explore the capacity of organisms to adapt to an altered carbonate system speciation by featuring experimental evolution studies. In addition, we want to encourage presentations on species and communities adapted to environments that naturally expose organisms to elevated pCO2, such as coastal hypoxic zones, volcanic vent systems, marine sediments, intertidal and oxygen minimum zones, but also stressful ontogenetic habitats, such as egg masses and egg fluids. We envision an interdisciplinary session that brings together ecologists, chemists, evolutionary biologists and physiologists. (3, 4, 8)

165: Climate Change Impacts on the Bering Sea and Related Polar Seas: From Observation to Prediction: Schedule

Organizers: Thomas Van Pelt, North Pacific Research Board, tvanpelt@nprb.org; Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Michael.Lomas@bios.edu; Mike Sigler, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, mike.sigler@noaa.gov

Bering Sea and related polar oceans have experienced recent changes in ice and climate, ocean dynamics, biotic community structure and ecosystem function. Several large research programs have been working to provide the fundamental observations and information needed for vertically-integrated syntheses of climate-mediated oceanographic drivers and trophic interactions in polar marginal seas. Collaborating modelers are using these empirical data to model and predict the impacts of changing seasonal ice cover on ecosystem dynamics, commercial fisheries, and subsistence harvest. This session will provide a forum to discuss field observations gained from ongoing programs, the application of these data to prognostic models, and their linkages to other polar oceans in pursuit of improved stewardship of marine resources in the 21st century. (3, 7, 8)

174: Ecosystem Science in the Gulf of Mexico: Knowledge Gaps, Science Needs, and Long-Term Plans for the Future: Schedule

Organizers: Alan P. Leonardi, NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, alan.leonardi@noaa.gov; Rebecca E. Green, BOEM, Environmental Sciences Section, rebecca.green@boemre.gov

The Gulf of Mexico coastal and marine ecosystems provide a host of ecosystem services, including fisheries, global nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and tourism and recreation. Recent events such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the 2011 Mississippi River flooding are dramatic examples of anthropogenic and natural stressors that are influencing this large marine ecosystem and that have exposed the limits of our knowledge of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. This session will explore these gaps in knowledge, examine the research and science needs to support a long-term adaptive ecosystem approach to understanding and predicting changes to the Gulfís natural and human-based components, and propose the framework(s) and activities required to meet these needs and close our knowledge gaps in the future. (3, 9, 14)

177: Gelatinous Plankton: Ecology, Physiology and Economic Impact in the Changing World Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Anthony Moss, Auburn University, mossant@auburn.edu; Jamie Seymour, James Cook University, jamie.seymour@jcu.edu.au,

“Jellyfish,” as defined by Haddock (2011 ASLO Aquatic Sciences, Puerto Rico)— i.e. all forms of gelatinous body marine animals - are becoming increasingly obvious as both highly adaptable keystone predators — such as key members of the Ctenophora and Cnidaria, or, in the case of the Thaliacea, critical, sensitive primary grazers in highly partitioned regions of the world ocean. A great deal of hyperbole has developed around these still-enigmatic animals, and local governments and management groups are left uncertain as to their actual ecological and economic impact. This session will bring together plankton experts conversant on many areas of the ocean: coastal, shelf and blue-water open ocean, to attempt to accurately depict the current status of the gelatinous plankton in the changing world ocean. (3, 9)

180: Arctic-Subarctic Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Ken Drinkwater, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, ken.drinkwater@imr.no; Tom Haine, Johns Hopkins University, Thomas.Haine@jhu.edu

The Arctic and the Subarctic are intrinsically linked, not only through exchange of water but also in the fluxes and movement of flora and fauna between the two regions. Both regions are experiencing profound changes under present warming and are predicted to be even more highly impacted under future global change. To understand how climate variability and change affect will affect these marine ecosystems, it is essential to understand the role of physical and biological fluxes between the Arctic and Subarctic as well as the mechanisms that link the physical characteristics and biological systems of these ocean areas. This session will focus on the links between the Subarctic and Arctic regions in both the Pacific and the Atlantic, building upon ongoing studies and recent IPY results. Evidence is sought on role of the cold Arctic outflows on the physical conditions in the Subarctic and their subsequent effect on the biology and the influence of the warmer Subarctic inflows on the Arctic basin and shelves. Papers linking multiple trophic levels or biology and physics are especially relevant with interest in all taxonomic groups from bacteria to whales. Comparative papers between the Atlantic and Pacific exchanges are especially desired. (2, 3, 7, 8)