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02. Physical Oceanography and Limnology

001: Gases as Tracers of Oceanic Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Roberta Hamme, University of Victoria, rhamme@uvic.ca; David Ho, University of Hawaii Manoa, ho@hawaii.edu

This session seeks to bring together the gas tracer community to exchange knowledge regarding new observations, applications, and/or modeling of gases as tracers for understanding oceanic physical and biogeochemical processes. We welcome abstracts on a variety of topics including distributions of natural and anthropogenic gases and their isotopes in the ocean, atmospheric measurements as they relate to ocean processes, tracer release experiments, and process studies of air-sea transfer mechanisms. Presentations on observations, method development, modeling, and data synthesis and interpretation are all encouraged. (2, 4, 17)

004: The Southern Ocean and Its Role in the Climate System: Schedule

Organizers: Stephanie Downes, Princeton University, sdownes@princeton.edu; Nicole Jeffery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, njeffery@lanl.gov; Joellen Russell, University of Arizona, jrussell@email.arizona.edu; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory, wilbert@lanl.gov

Over the past decade, the climate dynamics, biogeochemistry and physical oceanographic communities have highlighted the Southern Ocean as a key player in the climate system. Thus, understanding the processes that shape the Southern Ocean mean state, variability, and response to external forcing is essential for our understanding of the climate system as a whole. Data collections have expanded significantly over the past decade, and modeling efforts have advanced through Earth System Model development, data assimilation solutions, and process models. These new developments require investigation of how (or whether) the representation of the Southern Ocean has been improved using a combination of model-model and model-data comparisons. The goal of this session is to present modeling and/or data efforts that investigate all aspects of the Southern Ocean, including its mixing and mesoscale processes, large-scale circulation, ocean-atmosphere and ocean-ice interactions, and biogeochemical processes. We particularly encourage analyses using models for the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and assimilated models. (2, 4, 7, 8, 18)

006: Advances in Coastal Ocean Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction: Schedule

Organizers: Villy Kourafalou, University of Miami/RSMAS, vkourafalou@rsmas.miami.edu; Pierre De Mey, LEGOS - Laboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, demey-redir@neyak.org; Ruoying He, North Carolina State University, rhe@ncsu.edu; Alex Kurapov, Oregon State University, kurapov@coas.oregonstate.edu

Downscaling and extending predictability in coastal and shelf seas are two of the objectives of the GODAE OceanView (GOV) initiative through its Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team (COSSTT). Broad participation and international coordination of interdisciplinary coastal and shelf models nested in data assimilative large scale models is a COSSTT priority. This session will provide a forum for multi-scale hydrodynamic modeling and observational studies that aim toward scientific validation, prediction and operational applications of numerical models in coastal and shelf seas, leading to new understanding of multiscale nonlinear ocean processes. Applications of nested models, such as the influence of physical processes on ecosystem dynamics and interdisciplinary coastal predictions are also welcome. The session will promote the discussion of methodologies that lead to reliable coastal forecasts (such as data assimilation, error analysis, influence of nesting, resolution and forcing), Observing System Simulation Experiments and the impact of sustainable, integrated modeling and observational networks that connect local, regional and global scales. Applications on lessons learned from prediction and/or hindcasts during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 tsunami in Japan are particularly welcome. (2, 6, 13, 14)

008: Arctic Ocean Boundary Currents: Observations, Theory and Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Mary-Louise Timmermans, Yale University, mary-louise.timmermans@yale.edu; Sheldon Bacon, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, s.bacon@noc.ac.uk; Robert Pickart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rpickart@whoi.edu

Arctic Ocean boundary currents are central to the heat, freshwater and geochemical budgets of the Arctic system and can rapidly propagate and modify high-latitude climate signals. Their scales range from the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, extending thousands of kilometers around the perimeter of the basin, to regional shelfbreak jets, such as those adjacent to the Chukchi, Beaufort, and Barents Seas. This session explores all aspects of Arctic basin boundary flows, including, but not limited to: seasonal and longer-term water-mass changes; governing dynamics; exchange processes linking the continental shelf and slope to the deep central basins, such as eddies, dense water flows and wind-forced circulation; and exchanges between Arctic boundary currents and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and coastal Arctic seas. We invite contributions that bring new insights into the system of boundary currents of the Arctic Ocean through observational, theoretical and modeling studies. (2, 7)

012: The Chukchi Sea Region: Rapid Changes in the Pacific Gateway to the Arctic: Schedule

Organizers: Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, jgrebmei@umces.edu; Russell R. Hopcroft, University of Alaska Fairbanks, hopcroft@ims.uaf.edu; Robert S. Pickart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, rpickart@whoi.edu; Bill Williams, Institute of Ocean Sciences, DFO Canada, bill.williams@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Sue E. Moore, NOAA Fisheries, sue.moore@noaa.gov

Over the last decade the Chukchi Sea has warmed significantly, experienced major reductions in seasonal sea ice cover, and responded to shifts in atmospheric forcing. These changes demonstrate the sea's vulnerability to climate perturbations and its interconnectivity to the Arctic and global oceans. Numerous scientific programs are underway with support from state and US government agencies, private industry, and via international efforts based in Canada, China, Japan, Korea, and Russia. These programs are rapidly increasing our understanding of the Pacific gateway to the Arctic and promise better system-level understanding. This session invites contributions on emerging results from field and modeling studies that implicate key ocean-atmosphere interactions, including sea ice dynamics, physical and biogeochemical processes in the water column, and biological response throughout the marine food web. Data on changes to external forcing that may promote marine species shifts or evidence of major ecosystem reorganizations are also welcome. This multidisciplinary and international session will provide a state of the art evaluation of the environmental status and trends of the Arctic's Pacific sector, including physical forcing, biogeochemical cycling, biological response, modeling and social-economic interactions. (2, 7, 8)

013: Oceanic Uptake of Heat and Greenhouse Gases: Dynamic and Thermodynamic Controls and Inferences from Tracers: Schedule

Organizers: Geoffrey (Jake) Gebbie, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, ggebbie@whoi.edu; Mark Holzer, University of New South Wales, mholzer@unsw.edu.au; William Smethie, LDEO, Columbia University, bsmeth@ldeo.columbia.edu; Laure Zanna, University of Oxford, zanna@atm.ox.ac.uk

The oceans play a major role in climate, because they are a sink for heat and carbon capable of delaying the climatic response to forcing and thus affecting climate on all space and time scales. This session aims to further our understanding of how, when, and where the properties of the interior ocean are changing with a focus on the controls exerted by ocean dynamics and the constraints provided by observed transient and steady tracers. A key theme of the session is how tracers can inform inform us about the role of the oceans in climate variability and change. Contributions are solicited that present observational, theoretical, and/or modeling results from either of two general areas: (i) the role of ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in governing the uptake of heat, carbon and other tracers, including the relation to climate variability and change, and (ii) new observations of traditional and emerging trace species, novel diagnostic techniques, and forward and inverse modeling approaches to use tracers to constrain dynamical and biogeochemical processes. (2, 4, 8)

015: Nearshore Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Jennifer L. Irish, Virginia Tech, jirish@vt.edu; Alex Apotsos, U.S. Geological Survey, aapotsos@gmail.com

Geomorphologically diverse nearshore regions are continuously evolving due to wind, waves, and varying water levels. These long-term processes are punctuated by devastating coastal storms and tsunamis that quickly reshape coastal areas. In this session we invite abstracts that focus on the dynamics of waves, tides, currents, turbulence, and sediment transport from the beach face to the shelf break along sandy, muddy or mixed sedimentary coasts and inlets. Topics of particular interest include: 1) sediment transport, 2) waves and wave-driven circulation, 3) coastal morphodynamics, 4) swash zone processes, 5) nearshore turbulence, and 6) extreme coastal events. Presentations concerning in situ and remote sensing observations, laboratory experimentation, theory, modeling, and model-data assimilation are encouraged. (1, 2, 6)

016: Dynamics and Observations of Submesoscale Oceanic Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Tamay M. Ozgokmen, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, tozgokmen@rsmas.miami.edu; M. Jeroen Molemaker, University of California, Los Angeles, nmolem@atmos.ucla.edu; James C. McWilliams, University of California, Los Angeles, jcm@atmos.ucla.edu; Eric D’Asaro, University of Washington, dasaro@apl.washington.edu

An improved insight in oceanic processes on lateral scales of 100 m to 10 km and temporal scales ranging from hours to days is important to develop a better understanding of multi-scale interactions and energy balance in the ocean, for biogeochemical transport, autonomous vehicles, navigation, acoustic propagation, dispersion and mitigation of pollutants. Currently, these processes are not well understood. This is in part because the submesoscale regime corresponds to a transition from the better studied geostrophic mesoscale to turbulent microscale, in which horizontal stirring and vertical mixing are linked. Submesoscale processes also pose a significant challenge to both observations and modeling, in that the interaction of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales must be captured simultaneously and internal wave signals understood. Several processes that have been recognized as potential contributors to submesoscale variability are loss of balance through ageostrophic instabilities, mixed layer instabilities and vortical modes created by breaking internal gravity waves. We welcome presentations related to developments in theory, field observations and numerical modeling studies that help shed insight into submesoscale oceanic processes. (2)

020: Theory, Modelling, and Observations of Remote-sensed Propagating Waves and Eddies: Schedule

Organizers: Dr. Subrahmanyam Bulusu, University of South Carolina, sbulusu@geol.sc.edu; Dr. Remi Tailleux, University of Reading, R.G.J.Tailleux@reading.ac.uk

Westward propagating Rossby waves and eddies are the most dominant feature of sea-surface height (SSH) variability on seasonal to decadal time scales, butother propagating waves such as Kelvin-waves or barotropic Rossby waves are also present, as well as observable in other remote-sensed products, such as sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll, and even sea-surface salinity (SSS). Waves and other propagating features are of fundamental importance for the large-scale circulation owing to their role: 1) in the adjustment of the oceans to changes in the buoyancy and wind forcing, 2) in significantly contributing to the meridional transport of heat, salt, and nutrients. As a result, it is essential to represent such signals in numerical ocean general circulation models used for climate change studies. For this to be successful, however, much remain to be understood about the formation, propagation, decay, dynamics, and vertical structure of such signals. This session encourages contributions using Remote Sensing observations (altimetry, SST, and ocean color) and in-situ data (e.g., ARGO floats), as well as theoretical and modelling work, that can help refine the description and understanding of such waves and eddies, and how the surface signature of such signals relate to their vertical structure. (2, 12)

021: Modeling and Observing the Tides in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: James Richman, Naval Research Laboratory, richman@nrlssc.navy.mil; Brian Arbic, University of Michigan, arbic@umich.edu; Patrick Cummins, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patrick.Cummins@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Malte Mueller, University of Victoria, mmueller@uvic.ca

A resurgence of interest in ocean tides has occurred in the past few years with satellite estimates of barotropic and baroclinic tidal amplitudes and dissipation, field experiments focused on the generation and propagation of internal tides and regional and global ocean models of the barotropic and baroclinic tides in both the open ocean and coastal ocean. The tides likely provide a strong control on the stratification and circulation of the ocean, with deep ocean tidal energy dissipation and internal wave production providing approximately 1/3 of the energy for deep ocean mixing. Altimetric observations and global models show the propagation of beams of internal tides over 1000s of kms. This session will provide a forum for both observationalists and modelers to discuss recent results on the generation, propagation and dissipation of tides in both the coastal and deep ocean. Comparisons between global models and regional models and comparisons between models and observations are particularly encouraged as a basis for discussion in this session. (2)

022: Air-Sea Interactions of Typhoons in the Western North Pacific Ocean and Neighboring Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Hans C. Graber, CSTARS-University of Miami, hgraber@rsmas.miami.edu; I.-I. Lin, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, iilin@as.ntu.edu.tw; Eric D’Asaro, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, USA, dasaro@apl.washington.edu; David Tweng-Yung Tang, Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, tyt@ntu.edu.tw

Western North Pacific Ocean and the neighboring seas are among the world oceans where tropical cyclones (typhoons) are both ubiquitous and intense. These typhoons impose direct threat to the half-billion people living near the Asian coasts. However, current typhoon intensity forecast skills remain poor and one of the identified major reasons for such discrepancy is the lack of understanding on the complex interactions between ocean and typhoons. For one, a more accurate knowledge of the marine fluxes and energy budgets from measurements inside the boundary layer of typhoons is critical to improving coupled ocean-atmosphere models to better predict storm track and intensity. These complex physical and biogeochemical interactions also include the role of ocean currents and mesoscale ocean eddies in the typhoon’s intensification, accurate characterization of air-sea momentum and energy exchanges between cyclone and ocean under extreme typhoon (and super-typhoon) wind conditions, as well as interactions between typhoon, sea state, ocean wave breaking, sea spray, and the ocean. In the summer 2010, a large field campaign (Impact of Typhoon On Pacific, ITOP) comprising aircrafts, research vessels, in-situ ocean observational platforms (buoys, drifters and floats), and satellite observations, was conducted in the western North Pacific ocean to explore the above-mentioned complex issues. This session welcomes submissions from both observational and modeling efforts and is not limited to specific ocean basins. Specifically observations of air-sea interaction from buoys, floats and drifters are of great interest to obtain better estimates of the winds and waves at the air-water interface during typhoon conditions. Submissions under the broad discipline of cyclone-ocean physical and biogeochemical interactions are also very welcomed. (2, 17)

028: Comparing Physical Processes in Large Lakes and Shallow Inland/Marginal Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Dmitry Beletsky, University of Michigan, beletsky@umich.edu; Chin Wu, University of Wisconsin-Madison, chinwu@engr.wisc.edu; Cary Troy, Purdue University, troy@purdue.edu; Ram Rao, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, ram.yerubandi@ec.gc.ca

This session’s focus is on comparative analysis of physical limnology and oceanography of large lakes and shallow (less than 1000 m deep) inland and marginal seas. Papers are solicited dealing with modeling, experimental and laboratory studies of physical processes (waves, currents, turbulence, stratification, ice, sediment transport, etc.) in water bodies dynamically similar to large lakes (where Earth rotation effects are important). Examples include large lakes such as Lake Geneva, the Great Lakes, the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, etc. (2, 5, 6)

029: Sediment Transport and Deposition in Lakes, Estuaries, and Shallow Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Nathan Hawley, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, nathan.hawley@noaa.gov; Courtney K. Harris, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ckharris@vims.edu; Lawrence P. Sanford, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, lsanford@umces.edu

The physical characteristics of many lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves - relatively small volumes of water, shallow water depths, relatively long coastlines, and high loadings from rivers and shoreline sources - make them particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. In recent years human population pressures have increased demands on these regions, and in many cases have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of problems such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, excess turbidity, and high rates of sedimentation. Climate change is expected to add stressors such as increased runoff, storminess, and sea level rise. The importance of sediment transport has become increasingly recognized since not only are many nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants transported by sediments, but sediment-induced turbidity also may limit the amount of light available for photosynthesis and visual predation. Recent advances in theoretical, observational, and numerical modeling have led to increased understanding of sediment dynamics in these complex systems. The session encourages submissions covering any aspect of sediment transport and depositional processes in lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves, including field observations, laboratory experiments, and modeling studies. Studies of physical forcing, sedimentary response, different modes of transport, biogeochemical feedbacks with sediments, and particle behavior are all welcomed. (1, 2, 5, 6)

030: Gulf of Mexico Circulation & Ecosystem Numerical Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher N. K. Mooers, Portland State University, cmooers@cecs.pdx.edu; Patrick Hogan, Naval Research Laboratory, pat.hogan@nrlssc.navy.mil; Leo Oey, Princeton University, lyo@princeton.edu; Claire Paris, RSMAS/University of Miami, cparis@rsmas.miami.edu

The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico is dominated by the Loop Current and the eddies it sheds, and by the passage of intense weather systems in all seasons. The highly variable and intense circulation, together with river discharges, impacts the marine ecosystems of the Gulf. Intensive and extensive field and modeling studies have increased the understanding of the circulation and provide a basis for skill assessing numerical circulation models and prediction systems. Today, more than 20 significant models exist for the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Hence, the Gulf of Mexico has potential to serve as a modeling & observing system testbed for prediction systems. The aim of this session is to explore the skill of some of these models, especially as they apply to ecosystem models. The complex roles of the circulation on dispersion and ecosystem response in the Deepwater Horizon oil & gas gusher event, which began 20 APR 10 and ran for three months, gives new impetus (indeed, urgency) to this topic area. (2, 9, 13, 14)

032: The Arctic and Subpolar North Atlantic as the Pacemakers for Climate Change: Schedule

Organizers: Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada, Igor.Yashayaev@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Dan Seidov, NOAA NODC/Ocean Climate Laboratory, USA, Dan.Seidov@noaa.gov; Dagmar Kieke, University of Bremen, Germany, dkieke@physik.uni-bremen.de; Entcho Demirov, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, entcho@mun.ca

Arctic and Subarctic oceanic processes are critically important for regulating Earth’s climate. As a part of a polar-amplification of climate change the polar areas are warming faster than most other regions of the world. The subpolar North Atlantic acts as a receptor for Arctic-driven climate variability and actively modulates and redistributes climate signals. High-latitude oceanography and climatology are now strongly enhanced by continuing oceanographic monitoring of polar and subpolar basins involving new near real-time in-situ (profiling floats, seagliders) and remote sensing technologies, and by extensive ocean and climate modeling. In conjunction with historic observations and computer simulations these programs have led to important recent advancements in polar and subpolar oceanography and thus in planetary climatology. The session offers an opportunity to discuss new oceanographic data in the Arctic and North Atlantic regions and the ongoing analysis of these data, which in many ways improve our understanding of high-latitude oceanic processes. Of interest to the session are changes in water mass formation, changes in transports and water mass propagation, variability of heat, freshwater and salt content, and changes in their forcing mechanisms. Furthermore, presentations on exchanges between the Arctic and the subpolar North Atlantic and on various aspects of integration of observations and models are highly appreciated. Ocean climate change on decadal, centennial and longer time scale and its impact on regional and global climate is also of great interest to the session. (2, 7, 8)

033: Oceanographic Processes at the Antarctic Continental Margins: Schedule

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research Seattle, rmuench@esr.org; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, hofmann@ccpo.odu.edu; Anna Wahlin, University of Gothenburg, anna.wahlin@gu.se; Laurie Padman, Earth & Space Research Corvallis, padman@esr.org

The oceans encircling Antarctica experience vigorous exchanges between ocean, ice and atmosphere, with significant consequences for global ocean and climate states. Water mass modification through cooling, sea ice formation and mixing drives a global deep ocean overturning circulation and impacts the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by influencing the stability of ice shelves that buttress glaciers and ice streams. Upwelling at the shelf break provides nutrients that fuel primary production, contributing to a rich ecosystem with a potentially significant impact on the oceanic carbon budget through sequestration. The session will focus on physical and biogeochemical processes in the circum-Antarctic continental margin. Results from field observations, models and remote sensing are welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: shelf, slope and coastal circulation and mixing; impacts of shelf-slope processes on deep and bottom water formation and on mass balance of ice shelves; atmospheric impacts on physical systems, including the sea ice cover, and on biological systems; and the relationships between physical processes and regional marine ecosystems. Discussions of the potential impacts of climate change on these various systems are particularly welcome. The session will include both oral and poster presentations. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18)

034: Long Waves on Continental Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Alexander Yankovsky, University of South Carolina, ayankovsky@geol.sc.edu; Andrew Kennedy, University of Notre Dame, andrew.kennedy@nd.edu

Continental shelves cause long wave amplification, act as a waveguide for trapped wave modes, promote energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic modes, enhance long wave dissipation, and transport energy and momentum far from their generation region. We invite papers which delineate these processes on a wide range of scales including both subinertial and superinertial frequencies. Of particular interest are long waves generated by atmospheric forcing (including extreme forcing events) and tides. Ideally we would like to achieve a combination of theoretical, modeling, laboratory and observational studies. Interdisciplinary studies relating long wave dynamics with biological and geological processes are encouraged. (2, 6)

037:   Operational Applications of Ocean Satellite Observations: Schedule

Organizers: Margaret Srinivasan, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory, margaret.srinivasan@jpl.nasa.gov; Dr. Robert Leben, University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, leben@colorado.edu

We invite contributions on operational applications utilizing both near real-time (NRT) and reconstructed historical ocean satellite data, in addition to ocean reanalysis and coupled models of relevant parameters. Of particular interest are studies and methods that highlight the practical uses of altimetry, scatterometry, ocean color, ocean temperature, salinity and gravity data with real-world or potential commercial applications. The combination of data between two or more sensors, or between multiple satellites producing same sensor data, can be a powerful tool in analyzing ocean circulation and climate effects, can contribute to operational optimizations, and can even have significant contributions to issues of safety at sea. Operational applications may include, but are not limited to, offshore oil and other marine operations, NRT data streams, NRT coastal monitoring, operational processing, blended satellite data for operational use, marine mammal studies, fisheries management, recreational boating, and climate/hurricane studies. We strongly encourage topics in marine forecasting and those with potential industry or commercial applications. (2, 12, 13)

042: Eddy Correlation and New Impending Approaches for Measuring Fluxes in the Aquatic Environment: Schedule

Organizers: Peter Berg, University of Virginia,  pb8n@virginia.edu; Markus Huettel, Florida State University, mhuettel@fsu.edu

Eddy correlation is becoming a commonly-used approach for measuring oxygen exchange between benthic communities and the overlying water. The technique allows direct measurements of this flux, and can be used where other traditional methods would fail, e.g. densely-vegetated sediments, highly permeable sands and gravel beds, and hard surfaces such coral reefs and mussel beds. Eddy correlation measurements are done under true in situ conditions with minimal disturbances of the natural light and hydrodynamic conditions, and incorporate a much larger bottom area than traditional flux methods. Other new approaches for measuring benthic fluxes with similar advantages are currently being presented including the flux ratio approach, where fluxes are derived from vertical concentration gradients and eddy diffusivities in the bottom water. In this session, we invite users of the eddy correlation technique and other new flux methods to present their results and experiences. We stress that this session is not only focused on benthic oxygen fluxes, but on all scalar fluxes in the aquatic environment. We also encourage contributions introducing new methods for flux measurements in aquatic environments that are still under development. (2, 4, 13)

045: Oceanic Oxygen Content: Observed Physical and Chemical Processes and Climate Related Changes in the Past, Present and Future: Schedule

Organizers: Lothar Stramma, IFM-GEOMAR, lstramma@ifm-geomar.de; Sabine Mecking, University of Washington, smecking@apl.washington.edu; Denis Gilbert, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Denis.Gilbert@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, rkeeling@ucsd.edu

In the past few years, changes in dissolved oxygen content have become a focal point of oceanic research, due to their large impacts on ecosystems, water column chemistry and sedimentary feedbacks. In the open ocean, the oxygen content appears to be decreasing in most (but not all) areas, especially in the oxygen minimum zones. At the same time, low oxygen areas have spread in the coastal oceans during recent decades. The understanding of physical processes, such as advective oxygen supply or vertical mixing, and chemical processes, such as the interaction between critical oxygen levels and nutrient cycling that cause or are impacted by the observed oxygen changes is limited. The focus of this session is to enhance the understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling the ocean’s oxygen content, the changes in oxygen and their link to climate trends, atmospheric oxygen variations and decadal variability in ocean ventilation, the expansion of oceanic oxygen minimum zones, and the interaction between the open ocean and the shelf. Submissions of abstracts on observations e.g. from the WOCE, CLIVAR or Argo measurement programs or from time series stations as well as on model results illustrating past, present and future oxygen changes are welcomed. (2, 4, 8)

048: Ocean Surface Boundary Layers: Schedule

Organizers: Baylor Fox-Kemper, University of Colorado, bfk@colorado.edu; Stephen Belcher, University of Reading, s.e.belcher@reading.ac.uk; Eric D’Asaro, University of Washington, dasaro@apl.washington.edu; Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, acng@noc.soton.ac.uk

The upper ocean is a turbulent environment with control over the air-sea exchange of momentum and gasses. This session will include observations, modeling, theory, and parameterizations of near-surface processes. Primary topics of interest include:   Generation of turbulence through surface wave interactions and dissipation; turbulence scaling in models and observations; remote and in situ observation; wave process simulations; submesoscale phenomena in the surface layer; roles of the surface layer in the larger climate system; and wave-wind-mixing-current interactions. (2, 17)

051: Compatible Analytic, Mathematical and Laboratory Modeling of Basic Oceanic Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Yuli D. Chashechkin, Institute for Problems of Mechanics of the RAS, Moscow, chakin@ipmnet.ru; Iaroslav V. Zagumennyi, Institute of Hydromechanics NASU, Kiev, zagumennyi@gmail.com; Victor E.Prohorov, Institute for Problems of Mechanics of the RAS, Moscow, Prohorov@ipmnet.ru

This session is concerned with the nonlinear dynamics different waves, vortices, vortex systems, jets and wakes as component of oceanic processes. Manifestation of rotation, stratification and dissipation effects is subject of discussions and applications to the Earth’s ocean and atmosphere dynamics. Waves, vortices, jets and turbulent patches can be considered as coherent structures existing individually or in combination with each others. Mechanisms of their formation, propagation and decay, the parameterization of these processes are among the discussed themes. Topics that will be dealt with are the non-linear dynamics of thin interfaces, fronts, coherent structures; their mutual interactions and interaction with waves are also welcome. Condition of observability of physical quantities in different models and accuracy of oceanic measurements are point of discussion too. Among discussed are problems of modeling results extrapolation on the environment. Presentations including data of field and laboratory studies, numerical and analytical modeling of phenomena of all scales from the finest ones defined by dissipation to global values are welcome. (2)

061: Coastal Oceanography through Integrated Data Analysis: Schedule

Organizers: Yonggang Liu, University of South Florida, yliu@marine.usf.edu; Ryan M. McCabe, University of Washington, rmccabe@ocean.washington.edu

With increasing coastal ocean observation systems and independent projects collecting various data streams, our understanding of continental shelf processes has advanced significantly in recent years. This special session is an opportunity to showcase new scientific results obtained from these sustained or process-oriented coastal observations including, for example, moored current meters, HF radars, AUVs, gliders, drifters, profilers, tide gauges, C-MAN stations, satellites, and other remotely-sensed data. Progress on a variety of coastal topics such as along- and cross-shelf circulation and exchange, upwelling and downwelling dynamics, buoyancy fluxes, local and remote forcing, estuary-plume-shelf systems, offshore current/eddy intrusions, topographic influences, and their downstream impacts are all encouraged. Noting that no single instrument is enough to fully capture dynamic coastal ocean processes, new insights from integrated data analyses covering multiple scales by combing two or more types of data are particularly encouraged. Numerical model-assisted data analyses and accompanying insights are also welcome. (2, 6, 13)

065: Physical-Ecological Interactions in Inland Waters: Schedule

Organizers: Alfred Wuest, EAWAG, alfred.wueest@eawag.ch; Josef Daniel Ackerman, University of Guelph, ackerman@uoguelph.ca; Miki Hondzo, SAFL at UMN, mhondzo@umn.edu

Anthropogenic impacts through natural resources use and climate change place increasing stress on inland waters. Significant among these changes are those related to the physical environment and the consequences for the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic environments. This session will address physical, biogeochemical and/or ecological interactions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the pelagos and benthos of coastal and inland waters. It will focus on defining relevant spatial and temporal scales, developing relationships, and predicting the impacts of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. (2, 3, 4, 5, 18)

066: Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Air-Sea Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Fan Wang, Insititute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, fwang@qdio.ac.cn; Kentaro Ando, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, andouk@jamstec.go.jp; Dongchull Jeon, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, dcjeon@kordi.re.kr; Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, jsprintall@ucsd.edu; Sophie Cravatte, LEGOS/IRD, Toulouse, France, sophie.cravatte@ird.fr

The western Pacific (WP) features a complicated ocean circulation system with intensive multi-scale air-sea interactions. As the origin or fate of several major currents, the WP strongly interacts with the ambient oceans and marginal seas, and participates in the recharge-discharge process of the western Pacific warm pool. The changes in the WP can highly influence the heat and freshwater budget and hence the atmospheric deep convection over the warm pool, thereby playing a key role in modulating ENSO cycles and the East Asian Monsoon, as well as in the development and evolution of the tropical cyclones. This session seeks contributions with topics including the WP circulation and its variability of both hemispheres, interactions with the mid-latitudes and maritime continents, and roles in the warm pool maintenance and variability, interactions between western boundary currents, equatorial currents and mesoscale processes, upper ocean processes, barrier layer and salt budget of the warm pool, and air-sea interactions associated with the warm pool, the ITCZ and the SPCZ, etc. This session would like to promote a forum for coordinating on-going and planned observational and modeling efforts relating to climate variations in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. (2, 17)

068: Air-Sea Interactions in Western Boundary Current Systems and Marginal Seas: Schedule

Organizers: Hisashi Nakamura, RCAST, University of Tokyo, hisashi@atmos.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hisashi Nakamura, University of Tokyo, hisashi@atmos.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Meghan F. Cronin, NOAA PMEL, Meghan.F.Cronin@noaa.gov; Shoshiro Minobe, Hokkaido University, minobe@mail.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, xie@hawaii.edu

This session focuses on extratropical air-sea interactions in western boundary current (WBC) systems and marginal seas, where huge amounts of heat and moisture are supplied from the ocean to the atmosphere. Particular emphasis is placed on atmospheric and oceanic processes, occurring over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, that are involved in the air-sea interactions within those ìhot spotsî and that may play a role in the climate system and its variability. Contributions based on observational, diagnostic, modeling and theoretical studies are invited on a range of topics including, but not limited to, the processes affecting the oceanic fronts and distribution of heat within the WBC systems and marginal seas, the influence of WBCs and associated oceanic fontal zones on wind distribution, cloud formation, organization of precipitation systems, cyclone development, the formation of storm tracks and jet streams, their variability and modulations on interannual and decadal scales, and their feedbacks/influences on ocean currents/jets and their interactions with meso-scale eddies, mode water formation, and marine ecosystems. Contributions on air-sea interactions over marginal seas are also invited, including strong seasonality, bathymetric effects, sea-ice formation, and continental influences through atmospheric processes and river discharge, and interactions with open oceans. (2, 17)

075: Optics and Acoustics in Turbulent Sediment Suspensions: Schedule

Organizers: Paul Hill, Dalhousie University, paul.hill@dal.ca; Peter Traykovski, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, ptraykovski@whoi.edu; David Bowers, University of Bangor, oss063@bangor.ac.uk; Wayne Slade, University of Maine and Sequoia Scientific, wayne.slade@gmail.com

The goal of this session is to explore the links between suspended sediment dynamics and observed optical and acoustical properties of sediment suspensions in coastal waters.The session is motivated by the fact that use of optical and acoustical sensors to monitor sediment suspensions is common in coastal waters, yet the physics of acoustic and optical scattering over the complete range of particle characteristics has several outstanding issues. Similarly, as hydrodynamic and sediment models in coastal waters become increasingly accurate, these models are being used to predict optical and acoustical properties, with the same uncertainties regarding conversion of suspension properties into optical and acoustical properties. Topics to be explored include, but are not limited to, how optics and acoustics respond to changes in sediment concentration, size, and composition, and more particularly how optics and acoustics respond to, and can be used to infer, the processes of particle aggregation, particle disaggregation, advection, settling, resuspension, and the interactions of particles, turbulence and bedforms. (1, 2, 12)

084: Advances in Flow-Topography Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Andrew Thompson, California Institute of Technology, aft26@cam.ac.uk; Igor Kamenkovich, University of Miami, ikamenkovich@rsmas.miami.edu; Stephanie Waterman, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, stephanie.n.waterman@gmail.com

The importance of both large-scale and small-scale topographic features on moderating the ocean’s large-scale circulation have long been appreciated. Improvements in the spatial coverage of observations, especially in polar regions, as well as improved resolution of numerical models have recently identified many dynamical processes that have modified our understanding of how topography feeds back on ocean circulation and Earth’s climate. These processes include, but are not limited to, modulation of Rossby wave propagation speeds, influence on the dynamics of large-scale currents and mesoscale eddies, control of material transport and mixing, eddy generation along boundary currents in marginal seas and water mass and tracer exchange across the continental shelves and slopes. Observational, modeling and theoretical studies are invited covering all aspect of topography-flow interactions, including control of topography on the large-scale circulation, interactions between topography and coherent eddies and jets, generation and modification of linear and non-linear waves, continental shelf/slope processes. (2)

087: Ocean-Atmosphere Processes of Monsoon Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Hemantha Wijesekera, Naval Research Laboratory, hemantha.wijesekera@nrlssc.navy.mil; Harindra Joseph Fernando, University of Notre Dame, Harindra.J.Fernando.10@nd.edu; Raghu Murtugudde, Univ of MD, College Park, ragu@essic.umd.edu; Debasis Sengupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, dsen@caos.iisc.ernet.in

Monsoons dominate the regional climate of the tropics oceans and are themselves driven by land-ocean temperature differentials resulting from the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. The most striking and intense of all are the African-Asian-Australian monsoons (AAAM) centered on the Indian Ocean. These monsoons are not only intimately related to each other but also interact with the Indian Ocean on diurnal, subseasonal, seasonal-to-interannual and longer time-scales. AAAMs are not only rich in physical processes but also drastically affect the livelihoods of nearly half of the World’s denizens, who depend on fisheries and food production based on timely monsoon rainfall. The Indian Ocean is an indicator of global warming due to its rapid warming that has outpaced the other oceans over the last several decades. Thus it is a natural laboratory for more intense studies of the air-sea interactions and exchange processes with the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Air-sea interactions over the subregions such as the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the equatorial and the southern tropical strips offer unique contrasts at diurnal to decadal time-scales. The surface and subsurface processes, buoyancy forcing, local and remote forcing at submesoscale to synoptic scales offer a rich spectrum of ocean-atmosphere processes that play a role in regional climate variability and change via monsoon dynamics. This session is devoted to papers on atmospheric-oceanic dynamics covering a range of space-time scales with the hope of discussing current state of the science and identifying knowledge gaps that will help design of future research programs. (2, 8, 17)

090: Enhanced Regions of Mixing in the Coastal and Deep Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Jeffrey W. Book, Naval Research Laboratory, jeff.book@nrlssc.navy.mil; Harindra J. Fernando, University of Notre Dame, Harindra.J.Fernando.10@nd.edu; Nicole L. Jones, University of Western Australia, nicole.jones@uwa.edu.au; Hemantha Wijesekera, Naval Research Laboratory, Hemantha.Wijesekera@nrlssc.navy.mil

The goal of this session is to present a diverse range of recent results regarding regions of enhanced ocean mixing, the processes which are influencing the enhancement, and the role that these areas play in larger regional or global mixing budgets. Specific regions of interest include, but are not limited to:  rough or steep topography, strong frontal zones, regions of strong internal waves, and straits and constrictions. The range of possible topics includes observational studies, numerical modeling efforts, and parameterization/theoretical process studies. Some topics of interest are the interactions of scales, the role of horizontal processes in mixing enhancement, and efforts to observe and quantify these effects. (2)

091: Direct Measurement of Air-Sea Fluxes, Surface Waves and Oceanic Boundary Layer Turbulence (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Doug Vandemark, Univ. of New Hamphsire, doug.vandemark@unh.edu; Will Drennan, Univ. of Miami, wdrennan@rsmas.miami.edu; Jim Edson, Univ, of Connecticut, james.edson@uconn.edu; J. Tom Farrar, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The in situ measurement of turbulence and scalars associated with air-sea fluxes are continually improving thanks to rapidly expanding capabilities in ocean observing platforms and sensors as well as refinement in observational techniques. Moreover, it is now feasible and increasingly common to collect data over long periods of time and over a wider range of ocean-atmosphere forcing conditions such that a new level of certainty in air-sea flux estimation appears achievable. This session is aimed at fostering discussion of latest techniques and results surrounding the field measurement of mass, momentum and heat fluxes near the air-sea interface and within both ocean and atmospheric boundary layers as well as surface wave observations supporting these investigations. While the intended emphasis is on field observations and extended time series observations, activities related to modeling and remote measurements of fluxes and ocean surface waves are also encouraged. (2, 17)

092: Advances in Ocean Salinity Remote Sensing: Initial Results from the Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS Satellite Missions: Schedule

Organizers: Gary Lagerloef, Earth and Space Research, Lager@esr.org; Yi Chao, JPL/CalTech, Yi.Chao@jpl.nasa.gov; Jordi Font, SMOS-BEC/ICM-CSIC, jfont@icm.csic.es; Sandra Torrusio, CONAE, storrusio@conae.gov.ar

The Aquarius/SAC-D (launched June 2011) and SMOS (launched November 2009) satellite missions stand at the frontier of ocean remote sensing by providing the capability to map sea surface salinity (SSS) variations globally. These new data offer unprecedented views on the coupling between ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. The salinity measurement also presents formidable technical challenges for calibration and accuracy to advance the many science goals. This session will showcase the initial results from these two satellite missions including the early scientific findings, synergy with other satellite measurements, error analyses and the status of the data quality as compared to the available surface in situ observations. Contributions are also sought that address the potential research applications of the satellite salinity data through data analysis, modeling, assimilation, and prediction studies. In addition to salinity, the Aquarius/SAC-D mission provides measurements of ocean winds, rain rate, sea ice, and some limited-area sea surface temperature images, which may also be presented. (2, 12)

094: Oceanic Impacts of Orographic Flows: Emphasizing Two-Way Coupling and Feedback Mechanisms: Schedule

Organizers: Rui M. A. Caldeira, CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, rcaldeira@ciimar.up.pt; Julie Pullen, Maritime Security Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology, julie@theworldisyourocean.net; Vanda Grubisic, University of Vienna, Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, vanda.grubisic@univie.ac.at

Several processes occur between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the ocean surface, these processes mediate the exchange of momentum, heat and gas, with important environmental and/or climate impacts. Islands and mountainous coastal regions perturb the atmospheric (orographic) flows inducing strong impacts to the oceanís surface. Such regions function as ideal ëhot-spotsí to study the coupled system, bringing together atmosphere and ocean scientists alike. On the other hand, extreme weather events such as hurricanes have also been used as case studies to further explore the air-sea coupling system. In this session, we propose to discuss studies, which contribute to improve our understanding of the dynamics occurring at the interface between the sea surface and the ABL, including observations, numerical modeling and/or laboratory studies. To further improve the current state-of-the-art, we encourage the discussion of studies emphasizing two-way coupling and feedback mechanisms, which contribute to the improvement of monitoring and forecasting systems. (2, 17)

095: Detection and Analysis of Mesoscale and Submesoscale Eddies from Observational Data and Numerical Products: Schedule

Organizers: Changming Dong, University of California, Los Angeles, cdong@atmos.ucla.edu; Sung Yong Kim, MPL, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, UCSD, syongkim@mpl.ucsd.edu; Pablo Sangra, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, psangra@dfis.ulpgc.es; Milena Veneziani, OSD, University of California, Santa Cruz, milena@ucsc.edu

It is well known that eddies play an important role in oceanic physical and biological processes, which have significant impacts on the climate and environment both locally and globally. The eddy generation and evolution mechanism is a fundamental geophysical fluid dynamics problem. Any reliable eddy data sets from observational data and numerical model products could facilitate better understanding of the above topics. To generate a reliable eddy data set, an efficient and reliable eddy detection scheme is very important. In recent years, eddy detection attracts board attention. Many automated eddy detection schemes have been developed, applied to both numerical products and observational data, such as sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature (SST), ocean color, trajectory data from floats and sea surface drifters, and High-Frequency Radar mapped surface velocity. The special session will present all studies relevant to detection and analysis of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies from observational data and numerical model products, and their applications to physical, biological, climatological and environmental problems. (2)

097: Mixing and Transport Due to Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves: Schedule

Organizers: Oliver Fringer, Stanford University, fringer@stanford.edu; Subhas Karan Venayagamoorthy, Colorado State University, vskaran@engr.colostate.edu

Internal gravity waves play an important role in the mixing and transport of heat, salt, nutrients and other suspended matter in the ocean. There is substantial evidence to support the notion that the ocean overturning circulation is maintained by turbulent mixing due to breaking internal waves. In the coastal ocean, nutrient transport due to nonlinear internal waves is likely an important contributor to the health of numerous coral reef ecosystems. This session seeks to highlight recent advances in fundamental understanding of transport, stratified turbulence and mixing associated with nonlinear internal gravity waves. Observational, numerical modeling, and theoretical studies are welcome. (2)

099: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sea Surface Temperature Variability and its Impacts on Air-Sea Interactions, Weather, and Climate: Schedule

Organizers: Gary A. Wick, NOAA ESRL, gary.a.wick@noaa.gov; Chelle Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems, gentemann@remss.com; Andrew T. Jessup, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, jessup@apl.washington.edu; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University, clayson@met.fsu.edu

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is important for the generation of satellite SST products and the understanding and interpretation of oceanic and interfacial processes. Important processes that lead to SST variability include diurnal warming, fronts, and wind effects. SST products are increasingly generated from the combination of observations at different times and spatial scales. Progress is being made in characterizing and accounting for the variability, but challenges remain in quantifying its impact on the SST uncertainty budget. Spatial variability further influences scaling process observations to different resolutions, which requires assumptions about dependence of the structure of the process at several scales simultaneously. Current studies are exploring the impact of incorporating SST estimates with sub-pixel variability and improved resolution of the diurnal cycle on air-sea interactions and lower-frequency weather and climate variability. This session seeks to bring together those attempting to describe SST variability with those studying its impacts. Contributions are invited on all aspects of spatial and temporal SST variability, both observations and models, and studies on how this variability impacts air-sea interactions. Additionally, contributions that address the impact of variability on estimates of errors for observations are solicited. (2, 8, 17)

100: Linking Biogeochemical Processes to Estuarine Physical Dynamics: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher Sommerfield, University of Delaware, cs@udel.edu; Elizabeth Canuel, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ecanuel@vims.edu; Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Elizabeth Sikes, Rutgers University, sikes@marine.rutgers.edu

Physically mediated biogeochemical processes in estuaries play a central role in the fate of dissolved and particulate matter in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of cycling phenomena within estuarine basins is a critical component of terrestrial and ocean material budgets and has direct relevance to coastal and marine ecosystems. For example, understanding the composition, fluxes, and residence times of organic carbon is important for predicting oceanic responses to changes in past and future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, linking biogeochemical and physical dynamics is fraught with observational challenges. Indeed, with time-dependent spatial gradients in water properties and transport mechanisms, estuaries are paradoxically regions of both of rapid dispersion and trapping. Elucidating physical-biogeochemical connections thus requires observational approaches capable of identifying material sources, transport pathways, and process time scales. This may involve coordinated studies of fluid flow, radionuclide tracers, stable isotope proxies, and biomarkers, in conjunction with integrative conceptual or numerical modeling. We invite contributions that seek to link estuarine biogeochemical processes to physical dynamics on the full range of time scales. Possible topics include land-to-estuary routing of particulate organic and mineral matter, primary production, larval transport, nutrient cycling, and organic carbon dynamics. (2, 4,5,18)

104: Improvements in Understanding Tropical Atlantic Climate Variability and Predictability: Past Behavior, Observations and Climate Models: Schedule

Organizers: Salil Mahajan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, mahajans@ornl.gov; Takeshi Doi, Princeton University/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Takeshi.Doi@noaa.gov; Ernesto Munoz, New Mexico Consortium, emunoz@newmexicoconsortium.org; Kelly H Kilbourne, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, kilbourn@umces.edu

Climate variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean influences the climate of its surrounding regions by way of ITCZ variability, the Atlantic Meridional Mode, Atlantic Nino, Benguela Nino, the Atlantic warm pools and tropical cyclogenesis. The tropical Atlantic Ocean itself is influenced by remote forcings such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Recent years have seen a strong improvement in our understanding of tropical Atlantic variability and predictability via paleoclimate and modern observations, high resolution coupled climate modeling and statistical modeling on seasonal to decadal time-scales. However, strong biases still exist in climate models over the tropical Atlantic. The goal of this session is to collectively discuss the current state of knowledge of tropical Atlantic climate variability and identify the research questions critical to a better understanding and prediction of its climate. Abstracts that discuss the variability of the tropical Atlantic, its response to natural and anthropogenic forcings and its influence on the global climate from either a modern or paleo-perspective are encouraged for this session. (2, 8, 17)

105: Vertical Flow in the Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Andreas Thurnherr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, ant@ldeo.columbia.edu; Eleanor, Frajka-Williams, eefw1u08@noc.ac.uk; Tamay Ozgokmen, University of Miami, tozgokmen@rsmas.miami.edu

The vertical velocity component is important for ocean dynamics on a vast range of scales, from the dissipation scale of turbulence to the global overturning circulation. In addition to directly influencing transport of biogeochemical tracers and larvae of many marine organisms, vertical velocity is dynamically significant for a variety of physical oceanographic processes, including deep convection and hydrothermal plumes, overflows and gravity currents, internal waves and tides, fronts, etc. For this session, we solicit papers on any aspect o vertical flow in the ocean, including measurements, numerical modeling and theory. (2)

106: Global Mode Waters: Physical and Biogeochemical Processes, Variability and Impacts: Schedule

Organizers: Young-Oh Kwon, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, yokwon@whoi.edu; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, ltalley@ucsd.edu; Shang-Ping Xie, University of Hawaii, Manoa, xie@hawaii.edu; Toshio Suga, Tohoku University, suga@pol.gp.tohoku.ac.jp

Mode waters are one of most notable features in the upper ocean, ubiquitously found in every ocean basin in association with strong currents. Mode waters in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic are associated with large air-sea CO2 exchange. Recent major field programs in the Gulf Stream (CLIMODE) and Kuroshio Extension (KESS), analysis of data such as those from Argo, and advances in theory and numerical modeling, are producing steady growth of understanding various mode waters and their dynamical and biogeochemical impacts. Abstracts are welcome that address various aspects of physical and biogeochemical processes associated with mode waters throughout the global ocean, their variability, and the impact on large-scale circulation, air-sea interaction, eco-system, and climate. (2, 4, 17, 18)

109: Integrating Oceanography and Animal Tracking - The Ocean Tracking Network: Schedule

Organizers: Sara Iverson, Dalhousie University, Sara.Iverson@Dal.Ca; John Kocik, NOAA Fisheries Maine Field Station, jkocik@mercury.wh.whoi.edu; David Welch, Kintama Research Services, david.welch@kintama.com; Daniela Turk, Dalhousie University, daniela.turk@Dal.Ca

Climate variability, change, and anthropogenic activities affect the distribution, abundance and behavior of marine organisms. Newly available acoustic tracking observations and closer collaboration between oceanography and marine biology research is needed to address how changing ocean dynamics impact ocean ecosystems, animal ecology, and ocean resources.This session aims to bring together both marine biology and oceanography researchers to improve our understanding of the linkages between physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic conditions and the population structure, dynamics, movement, and critical habitat of key marine organisms (from eels to whales). We invite contributions from modeling and observation studies, and those which are planning to use, or could benefit from acoustic tracking and co-located oceanographic data from the Ocean Tracking Network. (2, 3, 8, 13)

110: Dynamics of Fjords and High Latitude Estuaries: Schedule

Organizers: W. Rockwell “Rocky” Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., rgeyer@whoi.edu; Parker MacCready, University of Washington, p.macc@uw.edu; Fiama Straneo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., fstraneo@whoi.edu; Lars Arneborg, University of Gothenburg, laar@gvc.gu.se

Recent studies of the melting of glaciers and the warming of the Arctic region has rekindled interest in the dynamics of fjords and high-latitude river outflows. The estuarine research community has made significant progress in recent years in understanding shallow estuaries in mid-latitude settings, but fjords and high-latitude estuaries have been largely overlooked. This session seeks to bring together the researchers who are making pioneering measurements of these high latitude systems with the estuarine researchers interested in broadening the application of their theory, observational methods and models to a wider range of estuarine environments. Papers addressing fjord and high-latitude estuarine processes are particularly encouraged, but we are also interested in comparisons between fjords and other, more well-studied estuarine environments. (2, 5, 7)

113: Dynamics of the Deep Gulf of Mexico: Schedule

Organizers: Dmitry Dukhovskoy, COAPS FSU, ddukhovskoy@fsu.edu; Steven Morey, COAPS FSU, smorey@fsu.edu; Cortis Cooper, Chevron Energy Technology Co., cortcooper@chevron.com

An acceleration of observational and modeling studies over the past decade has changed the view of the deep Gulf of Mexico from being a relatively quiescent abyss to a very energetic environment. Recent research highlights the importance of dynamical processes such as internal topographically trapped waves, baroclinic tides, and deep eddies in the Gulf and suggests that a primary source of energy to the deep Gulf is the penetration of the Loop Current, a branch of the upper ocean western boundary current that flows through the basin. Yet the energy transition from the upper ocean to the deeper layers is unclear. Recent advances in this area have shed light into the deep dynamics that are influenced by the strong upper ocean currents and eddies. This session seeks contributions that present new insight into the dynamics of the deep Gulf of Mexico, the mechanisms by which energy is transferred to the deep circulation, propagation and distribution of energy throughout the basin, and interaction of the energetic circulation with topographic features. Talks and posters presenting results from recent and ongoing observational, theoretical, and modeling studies are particularly welcome. (2, 14)

115: Western Antarctic Ocean Ecosystems:Chemical, Physical, and Biological Connections: Schedule

Organizers: Matthew M. Mills, Stanford University, mmmills@stanford.edu; Ken Mankoff, University of California at Santa Cruz, kdmankof@ucsc.edu; Ted Maksym, British Antarctic Survey, emak@bas.ac.uk

The rapidly changing environment along the western Antarctic continental shelf has generated a plethora of recent research activity. The Amundsen Sea sector has some of Antarcticaís most rapidly thinning and accelerating glaciers, such as the Pine Island and Thwaites, which dynamically interact with coastal polynyas. The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing some of the largest temperature changes on the planet. Additionally, the western Antarctic shelf is an area of high biological productivity. For example, the Amundsen and Pine Island polynyas regularly attain the highest chlorophyll concentrations and integrated rates of primary productivity of all Antarctic polynyas. However, we still have little understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that drive the high biological production here and our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these mechanisms and processes is limited. The proposed session invites presentations on the current state of knowledge concerning the physical and chemical environment within the Western Antarctic Seas and their coupling to the biological productivity of the region. Contributions addressing the circulation of circumpolar deepwater on the continental shelf, glacial ice and meltwater impacts on polynya chemistry, physics and biology, sea ice dynamics, or that make specific reference to multiple timescales and/or cross disciplinary boundaries (e.g. observations vs. modeling), are particularly encouraged. (2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 18)

118: Upper Ocean Turbulence and Its Impact on Air-Sea Fluxes: Schedule

Organizers: Brian Ward, University College Galway, Ireland, bward@nuigalway.ie; Ann Gargett, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, gargettann@gmail.com; Kai Christensen, Meteorological Institute, Norway, kaihc@met.no

The air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, gas, water, and aerosols have been parameterised by atmospheric processes, primarily wind speed.However upper ocean proceses such as turbulence plays an important role. This session invites contributions on topics primarily related to observations such as:- Surface wave induced drift and mixing- Upper ocean turbulence and waves- Langmuir circulations/turbulence- Wave induced momentum and energy fluxes- DNS/LES modeling related to observations. (2, 17)

119: Advances in Monitoring the Ocean’s Heat and Salt Balance: Schedule

Organizers: Simon Good, Met Office, simon.good@metoffice.gov.uk; Sydney Levitus, NODC, Sydney.Levitus@noaa.gov

The Argo array of profiling floats has dramatically increased data coverage for temperature and salinity for the global oceans in the last 7 years. The calculation of global and regional heat and salt content changes have accordingly become more reliable, but the change in the ocean observing system has come with the challenge of systematic bias in the different parts of the ocean observing system both at present and historically. Presentations on advances in monitoring the ocean’s heat and salt balance on regional and global scales, on quantifying uncertainties in these quantities and whether these place any limitations on our understanding of past changes, and challenges and solutions to biases introduced by different components of the ocean observing system are solicited for this session. (2, 8, 13, 16)

126: Links Between Estuarine and Coastal Processes: Schedule

Organizers: David A. Sutherland, NOAA, NWFSC, dsuth79@gmail.com; James A. Lerczak, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, jlerczak@coas.oregonstate.edu; Elizabeth W. North, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, enorth@umces.edu; Parker MacCready, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, pmacc@uw.edu

Over the past several years, major programs have begun to study the connections between estuaries and the coastal ocean, emphasizing the interactions among physical, biological, chemical, and geological processes. This session invites papers that advance our understanding of this important transition region and identify key questions and directions for future research. Topics might include how river plume dynamics affect coastal ocean circulation (and how estuarine exchange flows create and control river plumes), how species connect across these regions and the dynamical processes that regulate this exchange, how long term variability in coastal ocean properties influence estuarine systems, or how terrestrial influences (e.g., nitrate, pollution) brought to estuaries might impact the coastal environment. Papers that contrast regions or scales (small vs. large estuaries, tidal to interannual time scales) are also welcome. (2, 5, 6)

128: Sensitivity Analysis, Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification in Ocean Modeling: Schedule

Organizers: Ibrahim Hoteit, King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology, ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa; Bruce Cornuelle, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, bdc@ucsd.edu; Mohamed Iskandarani, Rosenstiel Schoold of Marine Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, miskandarani@rsmas.miami.edu

Quantifying uncertainties in ocean models and reducing them through data assimilation are essential steps towards accurate and dependable oceanic simulations and forecasts. Challenges in this area are numerous due to the non-linear interaction of multiple spatio-temporal scales, and due to uncertainties in physical processes, and various parameters and inputs. The problem is compounded by the paucity of data in space and time compared to the relevant dynamical scales, and by the presence of irreducible errors that need to be quantified and represented. This session will focus on new developments in sensitivity analysis in ocean models, forward propagation of model uncertainty, new data assimilation and uncertainty reduction techniques and applications, and quantifying uncertainties in ocean models simulations and data assimilation products. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers working in the areas of ocean data assimilation, ocean model sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification, with the goal of discussing new technical developments and recent applications. We invite contributions dealing with all theoretical and practical aspects of data assimilation and uncertainty quantification in ocean models.

133: Jets, Plumes, Eddies, and Waves as a Link Between Anisotropic Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics and General Circulation: Schedule

Organizers: Oleg Melnichenko, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, oleg@hawaii.edu; Nikolai Maximenko, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, maximenk@hawaii.edu; Niklas Schneider, Department of Oceanography, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, nschneid@hawaii.edu; Emanuele Di Lorenzo, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, edl@gatech.edu

This session invites reports on observational, modeling, and theoretical studies, addressing ocean processes, responsible for formation of all kinds of anisotropic structures, involving mesoscale phenomena, as well as assessment of impacts of these processes on the climate system. The list of the structures includes, but is not limited to: (i) multiple alternating quasi-zonal jets, (ii) wave-like packets, (iii) beta-plumes appearing under various forces, (iv) striations, (v) organized systems of eddies, and (vi) preferred eddy paths. Investigations, relating two or more physics or illustrating applications to atmosphere, climate, biology, ecology, etc., are especially welcome. (2)

135: Imaging the Ocean Interior: From Seismics to Optics: Schedule

Organizers: Robert Pinkel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, rpinkel@ucsd.edu; Steven Holbrook, University of Wyoming, SteveH@uwyo.edu

As time progresses, more sensing systems are able to capture multi-dimensional data that can be displayed as two, three or four-dimensional images. The different views of the ocean obtained with these systems reflect specific properties being sensed as well as the space-time slice of reality that is sampled. In this session we compare, contrast and enjoy the differing views of the ocean obtained from acoustic forward- and back-scattering devices, optical systems, and tomographic arrays, as well as from point sensors on drifting-float arrays, moving profilers, AUVs, and gliders. The focus is not on ìimage processingî, rather on the extraction of scientific information:   what is seen and what is missed by the various approaches. (2, 12, 13)

141: Improving the Representation of Plankton Ecology in Earth System Models: Schedule

Organizers: Irina Marinov, University of Pennsylvania, imarinov@sas.upenn.edu; Zhi-Ping Mei, Horn Point Laboratory, Univ. of Maryland, zmei@umces.edu; Tihomir Kostadinov, University of California Santa Barbara, tiho@eri.ucsb.edu; Anand Gnanadesikan, Johns Hopkins University, gnanades@jhu.edu

Since phytoplankton contribute 50% of total global carbon fixation, it is critical to understand through Earth System Models how climate change will affect primary production and ocean carbon cycling, and the potential feedbacks on climate. However, there is a gap between the increasingly detailed knowledge of phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their simplified representation in Earth System Models. This session intends to provide an avenue for observationalists, theoreticians and modelers to present recent advances in in-situ and remote sensing based observations of phytoplankton physiology and ecology, and their representation in regional to global ocean models. Relevant questions include: What are the recent advances and new challenges in modeling ocean ecology in Earth System Models? Which are the important advances in observational (including remote sensing) and theoretical phytoplankton ecology, such as light, macro-and trace nutrient (co)limitations, elemental stoichiometry, size-scaling and size-structure, different tradeoffs among ecological traits, that might be critical for ocean carbon and nutrient cycling and storage, and thus need to make their way in the next generation of global climate models? How sensitive are the predicted biogeochemical cycles on the time scale of climate change to new ecological formulations and increased complexity of the Earth System models? (2, 3, 8, 9, 16)

142: Oceanic Fronts: Observations, Modeling, and Applications: Schedule

Organizers: Igor M. Belkin, University of Rhode Island, igormbelkin@gmail.com; Peter C. Cornillon, University of Rhode Island, pcornillon@gso.uri.edu; Dongxiao Wang, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, dxwang@scsio.ac.cn; Jonathan Nash, Oregon State University, nash@coas.oregonstate.edu; Alex Horner-Devine, University of Washington, arhd@uw.edu

Presentations are solicited on all aspects of oceanic fronts, with a special emphasis on observations, modeling, and data analysis, from in situ and remote sensing data. The scope of this session is global, with all spatial and temporal scales included, from small-scale fronts in coastal and offshore waters to large-scale trans-oceanic fronts. In particular, we invite presentations on front detection methods, algorithms, and validation studies, and on satellite image processing and pattern recognition issues relevant to front detection and mapping. Papers on biological, chemical, and geological aspects of fronts, as well as diverse applications, are especially welcome, including, but not limited to, the following topics: fronts and their role in the ecology of marine species (from plankton to whales); elevated productivity at fronts; fisheries and aquaculture; marine protected areas; concentration of pollutants at fronts; particle flux and sedimentation; and fronts’ impact on cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons. (2)

143: Modeling Oceanic Pollutant Transport: Schedule

Organizers: Christopher H Barker, NOAA Emergency Response Division, Chris.Barker@noaa.gov; Amy MacFadyen, NOAA Emergency Response Division, Amy.Macfadyen@noaa.gov; Peter Murphy, NOAA, Peter.Murphy@noaa.gov

Ocean circulation modeling is a field of study with many diverse applications. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, modeling of oil surface oil transport has been a particularly newsworthy application. Advances continue to be made in surface oil spill models, but their use is now comparatively well developed. By contrast, application of circulation models to the movement and dispersion of other pollutants, including marine debris, non-petroleum chemical releases, and unexploded ordnance, has not been developed or discussed to the same level. The need for understanding of these pollutants, including their movement and their impacts, has been underscored by recent events ranging from use of dispersant at depth in the Deepwater Horizon response to the marine debris and radioactive contaminant releases caused by the tsunami that struck Japan in 2011. Scientists across disciplines are exploring new approaches as well as new applications for existing techniques to address these issues and others. This session will highlight ongoing work and recent advances in data collection and assimilation, considerations of 3D modeling, and new applications of existing ocean circulation models to the varying problems of oceanic pollutant transport modeling. (2, 13, 14)

145: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Connections Between Coastal Zones (The Surfzone, Inner, Middle, and Outer Shelf and Continental Slope): Schedule

Organizers: Melanie Fewings, University of California, Santa Barbara, fewings@msi.ucsb.edu; Erika McPhee-Shaw, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, SJSU, eshaw@mlml.calstate.edu; Roger Samelson, Oregon State University, rsamelson@coas.oregonstate.edu; R. Kipp Shearman, Oregon State University, shearman@coas.oregonstate.edu

There are dynamical differences between sub-regions of the continental shelf: the surfzone, inner shelf, mid shelf, outer shelf, and shelf slope. The outer shelf and slope may be influenced by a shelf break jet, slope-water intrusions, and deep-ocean eddies interacting with the shelf. On the inner shelf, where surface and bottom boundary layers overlap, turbulence influences the entire water column; the geostrophic response to along-shelf wind forcing is weak compared to the mid- and outer shelf; cross-shelf winds drive cross-shelf circulation; and even offshore of the surf zone, circulation can be affected by surface waves. Dynamics near the coast can also include a non-geostrophic baroclinic response to the diurnal sea breeze, the development of intense fronts, buoyant coastal-trapped flows, and shoaling nonlinear internal waves that may drive a net circulation. These dynamics control cross-shelf transport between the coast and deep sea that affects distributions of larvae, harmful algal blooms, carbon, high or low oxygen waters, nutrients, and pollutants. We invite observational, theoretical, and modeling presentations addressing physical, biological, and chemical aspects of cross-shelf transport and the dynamics and consequences of interactions and connections between the shallow and deeper coastal zones. (2, 6)

154: Contemporary Issues in Estuarine Physics (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Robert Chant, Rutgers University, chant@marine.rutgers.edu; Daniel Codiga, University of Rhode Island, d.codiga@gso.uri.edu; , Greg Gerbi, University of Maine; Michael M. Whitney, University of Connecticut, Michael.Whitney@uconn.edu

Over the past decade there have been considerable advances in our understanding of estuarine physical processes, such as stratification and exchange flow. For example, our understanding of lateral circulation, tidal asymmetries, and mixing dynamics have advanced from simple conceptual models based on descriptive studies to observational and modeling investigations that quantify their roles in estuarine circulation. Indeed, these new insights claim to modify the classic paradigm of estuarine physics first proposed by Pritchard over 50 years ago. However, although lateral flows, tidal asymmetries, and mixing cycles appear to be major players driving estuarine exchange, many aspects of estuarine physics can still be characterized by semi-analytic models largely based on the classic theory. This leaves the conundrum that although the importance of these processes is beginning to be understood, their detailed dynamics and specific effects remain uncertain. We invite talks that use theory, models, laboratory experiments and observations to characterize aspects of circulation, mixing and dispersion in estuarine systems. Topics include, but are not limited to, lateral circulation, vertical mixing, coherent structures, mechanisms driving dispersion, and effects of morphology. We welcome studies across a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from microstructure to basin scale and from intra-tidal to annual time scales. (2, 5)

161: Characterizing the Variability of the Coastal Ocean and Its Implications: Schedule

Organizers: Sung Yong Kim, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, syongkim@mpl.ucsd.edu; Anthony Kirincich, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, akirincich@whoi.edu

The rapid advancement of coastal ocean observational programs has enhanced our capability to capture the dynamics of coastal circulation. Coupled with this observational infrastructure, new satellite data products and advanced numerical modeling efforts allow us to investigate coastal processes including shelf, estuarine, and river flows at an unprecedented range of spatial and temporal scales, document their variability, and begin to investigate their implications. This session invites contributions that describe and interpret the dynamic nature of coastal circulation spanning from submesoscale to mesoscale and from episodic events to climate change. Presentations on observational and theoretical studies of circulation variability are recommended as are reports from recent process studies addressing individual dynamical aspects. Results from interdisciplinary studies on biological implications related to coastal dynamics at these scales are also encouraged. (2, 6, 13)

173: Ocean Surface Waves and Interactions with Currents and Winds: Schedule

Organizers: William Perrie, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, william.perrie@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Ryan Mulligan, Queens University, mulliganr@civil.queensu.ca

This session will encompass observations, theory and model studies of surface waves, and their interactions with the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, in coastal and open ocean environments over different spatial and temporal scales. We encourage studies that compare model results to in situ and remotely sensed data. When winds blow over the ocean, they generate surface waves and wind-driven currents; in turn, the currents and waves modulate the winds and the atmospheric boundary layer. In high winds, viz. hurricanes, the wind-generated waves have large amplitudes, and currents can be very strong. Large waves have strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions. These interactions affect momentum and energy fluxes and play a role in the evolution of waves during storms. Parameterization of the energy and momentum transferred to waves from the wind, and dissipated to the upper ocean, remain unresolved issues to this day. Exchanges are large during hurricanes, may reflect asymmetries of spatial variations of the wind and wave fields during the generation and development of given storms , which in turn may affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and heat. This session will explore the fluxes between the upper ocean, surface waves, subsurface currents and the wind. (2, 17)

175: Exploitations of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Winds, Waves and Data Assimilation: Schedule

Organizers: Hans C. Graber, CSTARS - University of Miami, hgraber@rsmas.miami.edu; Theresa Paluszkiewicz, Office of Naval Research, terri.paluszkiewicz@navy.mil

Satellite-based radars are capable to observe the winds and waves on the ocean with higher resolution than any other satellite sensor. With radars operating both day and night and in all weather measurements of winds, waves and currents in tropical cyclones and storms are possible.New algorithms enable the generation of high detail wind and wave fields which are suitable for assimilation into coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Of interest are results of new algorithms capable of deriving high wind speeds and sea state in hurricanes and typhoons and modeling results when SAR data was assimilated into coupled models. (2, 12, 17)

180: Arctic-Subarctic Interactions: Schedule

Organizers: Ken Drinkwater, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, ken.drinkwater@imr.no; Tom Haine, Johns Hopkins University, Thomas.Haine@jhu.edu

The Arctic and the Subarctic are intrinsically linked, not only through exchange of water but also in the fluxes and movement of flora and fauna between the two regions. Both regions are experiencing profound changes under present warming and are predicted to be even more highly impacted under future global change. To understand how climate variability and change affect will affect these marine ecosystems, it is essential to understand the role of physical and biological fluxes between the Arctic and Subarctic as well as the mechanisms that link the physical characteristics and biological systems of these ocean areas. This session will focus on the links between the Subarctic and Arctic regions in both the Pacific and the Atlantic, building upon ongoing studies and recent IPY results. Evidence is sought on role of the cold Arctic outflows on the physical conditions in the Subarctic and their subsequent effect on the biology and the influence of the warmer Subarctic inflows on the Arctic basin and shelves. Papers linking multiple trophic levels or biology and physics are especially relevant with interest in all taxonomic groups from bacteria to whales. Comparative papers between the Atlantic and Pacific exchanges are especially desired. (2, 3, 7, 8)