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01. Geology and Geophysics

003: The Response of Marine Calcifiers to Global Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Schedule

Organizers: Nick Kamenos, University of Glasgow, nick.kamenos@glasgow.ac.uk; Maggie Cusack, University of Glasgow, maggie.cusack@glasgow.ac.uk; J. Murray Roberts, Heriot-Watt University, J.M.Roberts@hw.ac.uk

Recent research has highlighted the large variability of responses by calcifying marine biota to changes in their physical environment. Critically, those calcifiers provide important ecosystem services and in addition, studies using novel environmental proxies from cold-water carbonates are helping form our understanding of environmental variability and responses to past periods of rapid climate change This session will promote a more complete understanding of how mid- to high-latitude biomineralizing organisms including corals, coralline algae, bryozoans and mussels respond to environmental changes such as rapid climate change, ocean acidification, hypoxia, etc. The session will include sub-organism to ecosystem level processes, evidence for acclimation and geochemical proxy records. It will combine palaeo aspects with research investigating present-day biotic and physical adaptations and the responses of services provided by biogenic habitats. The aim is to provide the holistic approach required to further our understanding of mid and high-latitude calcifier responses to global change. (1, 3, 7, 8)

007: High-Resolution Geochemical Proxies of Global Change: Progress, Problems, and Utility: Schedule

Organizers: Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Iowa State University, adw@iastate.edu; David P. Gillikin, Union College, gillikid@union.edu

Knowledge of climate and environmental change throughout geological time is derived from deep-sea and terrestrial records representing long time scales. However, while records of climate and environmental changes at long time scales are essential, high-resolution marine-based records at seasonal, annual, and decadal scales are equally important and under-represented in the literature. Much of what we know about past environments is based on the geochemical signature in various proxy archives. While substantial progress continues to be made in this area, specific obstacles and problems do exist. We encourage papers presenting geochemical records of global change, including calibration/validation studies, in biologic or inorganic carbonates and highly resolved (decadal resolution) sediments. Geochemical studies highlighting recent progress, problems, or utility are especially welcome. (1, 4, 8)

015: Nearshore Processes: Schedule

Organizers: Jennifer L. Irish, Virginia Tech, jirish@vt.edu; Alex Apotsos, U.S. Geological Survey, aapotsos@gmail.com

Geomorphologically diverse nearshore regions are continuously evolving due to wind, waves, and varying water levels. These long-term processes are punctuated by devastating coastal storms and tsunamis that quickly reshape coastal areas. In this session we invite abstracts that focus on the dynamics of waves, tides, currents, turbulence, and sediment transport from the beach face to the shelf break along sandy, muddy or mixed sedimentary coasts and inlets. Topics of particular interest include: 1) sediment transport, 2) waves and wave-driven circulation, 3) coastal morphodynamics, 4) swash zone processes, 5) nearshore turbulence, and 6) extreme coastal events. Presentations concerning in situ and remote sensing observations, laboratory experimentation, theory, modeling, and model-data assimilation are encouraged. (1, 2, 6)

023:  Dissolved Organic Matter and the ‘Hidden’ Carbon Cycle: Schedule

Organizers: Andy Ridgwell, University of Bristol, andy@seao2.org; Dennis Hansell, University of Miami, dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu; Sandra Arndt, University of Bristol, san.arndt@gmail.com; Ellen Druffel, University of California, Irvine, edruffel@uci.edu

There is sufficient dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the modern ocean to put it on par with the atmospheric and terrestrial vegetation carbon reservoirs. Recent geological interpretations have recognized the potential for changes in the DOM reservoir to drive perturbations of global carbon cycling, with isotopic (and often global warming) events in Earth history being increasingly invoked as consequences of DOM oxidation. If true, one might also question how the DOM reservoir will respond to future global environmental changes. To date, global ocean models have tended to focus on the rapid recycling of the most labile of DOM fractions; the large bulk of more refractory fractions have not been widely considered, yet they must be in play if DOM drives the larger perturbations. Are we underestimating a wider dynamical role for DOM in the ocean with potential for feedback with climate? This session will aim to unmask the nature and role of the ocean DOM cycle, and to this end, we invite submissions addressing any of DOM’s hidden facets, including: ocean observations and laboratory characterization; diagenetic, biological, and/or global models; and hypotheses regarding the potential role(s) of DOM in past, present, and future global carbon dynamics and climate. (1, 4, 8, 18)

029: Sediment Transport and Deposition in Lakes, Estuaries, and Shallow Shelves: Schedule

Organizers: Nathan Hawley, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, nathan.hawley@noaa.gov; Courtney K. Harris, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, ckharris@vims.edu; Lawrence P. Sanford, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, lsanford@umces.edu

The physical characteristics of many lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves - relatively small volumes of water, shallow water depths, relatively long coastlines, and high loadings from rivers and shoreline sources - make them particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. In recent years human population pressures have increased demands on these regions, and in many cases have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of problems such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, excess turbidity, and high rates of sedimentation. Climate change is expected to add stressors such as increased runoff, storminess, and sea level rise. The importance of sediment transport has become increasingly recognized since not only are many nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants transported by sediments, but sediment-induced turbidity also may limit the amount of light available for photosynthesis and visual predation. Recent advances in theoretical, observational, and numerical modeling have led to increased understanding of sediment dynamics in these complex systems. The session encourages submissions covering any aspect of sediment transport and depositional processes in lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves, including field observations, laboratory experiments, and modeling studies. Studies of physical forcing, sedimentary response, different modes of transport, biogeochemical feedbacks with sediments, and particle behavior are all welcomed. (1, 2, 5, 6)

054: Mapping and Characterizing the Seafloor Using Acoustics: Bringing Spatial Data Up from the Depths (Posters Only): Schedule

Organizers: Miles G. Logsdon, University of Washington, School of Oceanography, mlog@u.washington.edu; Leslie R. Sautter, College of Charleston, Dept. of Geology and Env. Geosciences, sautterl@cofc.edu

Advances in acoustic techniques along with increased availability of high resolution bathymetric data have resulted in significant contributions by academia, government and industry toward better documentation and understanding of the ocean’s floor. The techniques and technologies associated with bathymetric mapping, ground-truthing, habitat characterization, seafloor morphology, and geospatial pattern analysis now enable exploration and experimentation of ocean processes at spatial and temporal resolutions never before possible. With opportunities such as these, comes the responsibility to understand error and precision as well as provide explanation regarding the legacy of the data. Beginning with survey design through the visualization and quantitative assessment of form, mapping and characterization of the seafloor using acoustics requires attention to numerous processes which may influence the use of resulting data. This poster session will showcase studies that utilize multibeam and sidescan sonar along with other acoustic techniques that characterize shallow and deep water settings, as well as work which reviews current research in the acquisition, processing and application of the data. (1, 12)

060: Marine Gas Hydrate Deposits: Research, Monitoring Strategies and Present-Day Knowledge: Schedule

Organizers: Ray Highsmith, University of Mississippi, ray@olemiss.edu; Laura Lapham, Aarhus University, laura.lapham@biology.au.dk; Leonardo Macelloni, University of Mississippi, lmacello@olemiss.edu; Marta Torres, Oregon State University, mtorres@coas.oregonstate.edu

Gas hydrates are the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. Hydrate stability is influenced by temperature and pressure fluctuations. Several deposits have been identified world-wide near the seafloor surface and represent a unique system where stability might be affected also by microbial interactions, very low seismic activity and oceanographic fluctuations (storms, currents, tides). Methane reaching the seafloor from deep reservoirs becomes an important source of carbon for diverse communities of microbes and macrofauna, making these areas ecologically important. The near-surface hydrate sites also sequester large amounts of carbon within associated carbonate deposits, which provide habitat for benthic communities. Therefore, to understand the factors that control hydrate stability or interactions with the surrounding ocean, it is critical to monitor and study the deposits over time. We seek abstracts highlighting recent results on the evolution of geological, biological, or chemical factors based at established research/monitoring stations, such as in the Gulf of Mexico or the Cascadia Margin, or at hydrate sites around the world that have been visited frequently over time. What have we learned about hydrate deposits? How dynamic are they and what are the controlling factors? What is needed for future hydrate research and monitoring? (1, 3, 4, 18)

069: Processes, Preservation, and Potential of High-Resolution Paleoclimate Signals in Marginal Basins: Schedule

Organizers: Gert J. De Lange, University of Utrecht, gdelange@geo.uu.nl; Francisca Martinez-Ruiz, CSIC-University of Granada, fmruiz@ugr.es; Stefano Bernasconi, ETH Zurich, stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch

High-resolution climate records that are continuous and with sufficient time resolution are needed to detect high-frequency variations in paleo-climate. Such records are rare but vital for our understanding of causes and consequences of climate and environmental change at decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast to most deep basin pelagic sediments, near-coastal high sedimentation rate sediments or marginal basins with restricted circulation appear to have great potential for recording and preserving high resolution paleoclimate signals of Global importance. Examples of such basins are Cariaco trench, Californian borderland basins, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Baltic, fjords. In this session we welcome contributions on high resolution climate records that form the basis for the discussion on anthropogenic versus natural factors for short term climate variations in sub-recent and past. In addition, we welcome contributions that discuss processes that lead to preserved paleoclimate records, including residence time, productivity versus preservation, land-, and atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal contrast, and forcings/associations with solar- and Milankovitch cycles. Furthermore, we invite contributions on proxies calibration and validation and multi-proxy interpretation in these high-resolution paleo-climate archives. (1, 8)

075: Optics and Acoustics in Turbulent Sediment Suspensions: Schedule

Organizers: Paul Hill, Dalhousie University, paul.hill@dal.ca; Peter Traykovski, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, ptraykovski@whoi.edu; David Bowers, University of Bangor, oss063@bangor.ac.uk; Wayne Slade, University of Maine and Sequoia Scientific, wayne.slade@gmail.com

The goal of this session is to explore the links between suspended sediment dynamics and observed optical and acoustical properties of sediment suspensions in coastal waters.The session is motivated by the fact that use of optical and acoustical sensors to monitor sediment suspensions is common in coastal waters, yet the physics of acoustic and optical scattering over the complete range of particle characteristics has several outstanding issues. Similarly, as hydrodynamic and sediment models in coastal waters become increasingly accurate, these models are being used to predict optical and acoustical properties, with the same uncertainties regarding conversion of suspension properties into optical and acoustical properties. Topics to be explored include, but are not limited to, how optics and acoustics respond to changes in sediment concentration, size, and composition, and more particularly how optics and acoustics respond to, and can be used to infer, the processes of particle aggregation, particle disaggregation, advection, settling, resuspension, and the interactions of particles, turbulence and bedforms. (1, 2, 12)

080: Coastal Connections: Advances in the Understanding of the Interaction of Fluvial and Marine Systems: Schedule

Organizers: Katie Farnsworth, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, kfarns@iup.edu; Paul Liu, North Carolina State University, jpliu@ncsu.edu; Kehui Xu, Coastal Carolina University, kxu@coastal.edu; James Syvitski, University of Colorado at Boulder, james.syvitski@colorado.edu

Understanding the complex interactions in the coastal zone requires a focus on atmospheric, fluvial and marine processes as well as increasing anthropogenic influences. There has been tremendous growth in our understanding of the flux and fate of water, sediment and dissolved solids from land into the coastal ocean due to an emphasis on collaborative work between both modelers and field researchers. Much exciting and challenging work remains to link the sediment (both siliciclastic and carbonate) origin, transport and depositional processes and the responses at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In this session we hope to bring together researchers in terrestrial and marine sciences studying the coastal zone in diverse regions around the world. Study areas are broadly defined, including rivers, deltas, estuaries, continental shelves and others in the entire source-to-sink system. (1, 6)

108: Biogeochemical and Sedimentological Factors That Influence Physical, Geotechnical and Mechanical Properties of Cohesive Sediments in Riverine and Littoral Zones: Schedule

Organizers: Yoko Furukawa, Naval Research Laboratory, yoko.furukawa@nrlssc.navy.mil; Joseph Calantoni, Naval Research Laboratory, Joe.Calantoni@nrlssc.navy.mil; Allen H. Reed, Naval Research Laboratory, Allen.Reed@nrlssc.navy.mil; Tian-Jian Hsu, University of Delaware, tianjianhsu@gmail.com

This session aims to develop a community-wide understanding of the state-of-the-art for cohesive sediment dynamics in rivers, estuaries, and coastal zones. The physical, geotechnical and mechanical properties (e.g., fluid flow, strength, compressibility, erodibility) of cohesive sediments are profoundly affected by sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes. A quantitative understanding of how these processes interact at nano-, meso-, and field-scales and thereby govern the resulting effects is necessary in order to establish a predictive capability for littoral sediment dynamics and shoreline stability for applications such as coastal optics, engineering and environmental restoration. Topics may include but are not limited to: 1) sediment strength characterization from remotely sensed biological characteristics, 2) sediment resuspension as a function of the micrometer-scale physicochemical properties, and 3) sediment erodibility as a function of either the rapid (< seconds) flocculation pathways or the long-term (> months to hundreds of years) consolidation history. The processes span wide ranges of temporal and spatial scales, and thus abstracts from observational, theoretical, and modeling studies of different spatial and temporal scales are encouraged. The session will provide a forum for researchers to discuss and relate sedimentological, biological and geochemical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. (1, 5, 6, 18)

112: Ocean Spreading Centers: Connecting the Subseafloor with the Open Ocean: Schedule

Organizers: Sarah Bennett, NASA JPL, CalTech, saroban@gmail.com; Jason Sylvan, University of Southern California, jsylvan@usc.edu

Deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide a window into the subseafloor environment and a transport mechanism for fluids sourced deep within the earth’s crust out into the open ocean. At the interface between the seafloor and the ocean, fluids flowing from the crust provide a redox rich environment which is exploited by both micro- and macro organisms. Even up in the water column, chemistry and biology sourced from deep within the crust continues to influence the open ocean on a global scale. This session aims to bring in chemical, biological and geological studies from each of these environments, to provide our audience with perspectives from the hydrothermal system as a whole and the interconnectivities between each locality. We encourage contributions from both field and laboratory studies that investigate the influence of hydrothermal circulation on the subsurface, seafloor and open ocean, as well as how the local environment affects the fluids themselves. The combination of biogeochemical studies in extreme environments such as the hydrothermal system, will enable us understand the limits and constraints on life, which not only has important relevance for our own planet, but also for the extraterrestrial system. (1, 3, 4, 18)