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TOPICAL SESSIONS

SCI-026 Genomic Tools in Marine Ecosystem Monitoring and Sssessment, Within Ocean Policy Legislation and Governance
Convened by: Naiara Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Rusty Brainard and Angel Borja (aborja@azti.es)

The interest in marine ecosystem protection and sustainable use of oceans has developed in national ocean policies (e.g. U.S.), legislation (e.g. Canada Oceans Act) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Europe), focusing on integrative tools for assessing environmental status. The extensive monitoring networks required to cover coastal waters make traditional monitoring and assessment methods unsuitable, because they are slow, expensive and, sometimes, lack standardized procedures. Recently developed genomic technologies, such as DNA barcoding, metagenomics, transcriptomics, etc. come up as an efficient and standardizable alternative. We will explore the advances in the use of these technologies. Special attention will be paid to opportunities of across oceans collaborations to develop powerful standardized tools, for ocean assessment and monitoring.

SCI-027 Unraveling the "Black Box" of Migration with Novel Methods
Convened by: Benjamin Walther (bwalther@utexas.edu) and Karin Limburg

Migrations in the coastal realm are often unquantified and relegated to a “black box” status in life history models. However, advances in novel techniques such as otolith chemistry, stable isotope analysis, satellite tagging, biophysical dispersal models, and population genetics can provide unprecedented insight into movement and population mixing at both small and large spatial scales. We seek presentations that use these and other techniques, preferably in combination, to reveal migratory dynamics of diverse taxa, including vertebrate, invertebrate, diadromous, estuarine, and marine species. Presentations that investigate migration in both basic and applied (e.g. management) contexts are welcome.

SCI-028 Ecological Tracers in Coastal Ecosystems: Path to Sustainability
Convened by: Joel Hoffman (hoffman.joel@epa.gov), Autumn Oczkowski and Jim Kaldy (kaldy.jim@epa.gov)

Ecological tracers are used to discover how coastal ecosystems function, to link upstream human activities to effects in coastal waters, to help unravel food webs, and to follow a contaminant through an ecosystem.  Notably, the types of tracers (e.g., isotopes, hormones, manufactured chemicals), scales at which tracers are used, and kinds of ecological information gained continue to expand. In this session, we will discuss the state of the science and explore how tracer studies can inform decision-making and promote sustainability.

SCI-029 Bio-optical Techniques for In Situ Plankton Research – Where are We Now?
Convened by: Judy Yaqin Li (judy.yaqin.li@noaa.gov) and Chris Melrose (chris.melrose@noaa.gov)

The temporal and spatial scales required to resolve ecological processes in estuarine and coastal environments often call for more rigorous measurements.  The development of various fixed-site, shipboard and underway bio-optical technologies have enabled measurements at finer temporal and spatial scales.  What are the latest developments and applications of these emerging technologies?  What new insights have these technologies provided to our understanding of estuarine and coastal processes?  What are the limitations of these technologies?  This special session welcomes presentations using technologies including but not limited to, automated imaging systems, variable fluorescence, spectrally resolved fluorescence, spectrophotometry, size spectrum analysis, and flow cytometry.

SCI-030 Shifting Technology Paradigms: A Case for Innovation by Way of Collaboration
Convened by: Tony Hale (tonyh@sfei.org)

There is a growing movement in resource management to harness diverse sets of tools and human resources, to create a synergy where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Successful innovations in collaboration technology and the expansive use of open-source software are helping to demonstrate that the merits of collaboration can outweigh the merits of competition. As the technological tide is beginning to change, we must reconsider how we view the role of technology in addressing complex resource management challenges. In this session, we will explore what opportunities exist for bridging persistent divides in information and organizational resources. How might new collaborative paradigms such as online communities, agile software development, and data-as-a-service help to formulate a common purpose?

SCI-031 Trophic Subsidies in Coastal Ecosystems: Implications for Coastal Management
Convened by: James Nelson (jnelson@mbl.edu)

Our understanding of the connections between coastal ecosystems has evolved substantially since the concept of 'outwelling' was first introduced. Recent research has identified trophic/biomass subsidies as an important link between ecosystems. In this symposium we seek to identify common themes in trophic subsidy research, with the aim of understanding how management practices can affect these fluxes.

SCI-033 Can Animal Movements Change Spatially-Explicit Trophic Processes In Seascapes?
Convened by: Martha Mather (mmather@ksu.edu), Linda Deegan (ldeegan@mbl.edu), Jack Finn and James Nelson (jim.nelson@skio.usg.edu)

To understand and predict patterns and processes in ecological systems, we need a framework that will unify what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of animal movement using existing conceptual, empirical and analytical approaches. In this symposium, we seek to integrate empirical movement studies with ecological theory on spatial patterns and trophic interactions to guide movement studies, as well as to ground and test theoretical predictions.

SCI-034 Planktonic Food Webs in an Era of Global Environmental Change
Convened by: Michael Wetz (michael.wetz@tamucc.edu) and David Kimmel (kimmeld@ecu.edu)

Interactions between functional groups of plankton determine a number of important ecological processes in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Our current understanding of these interactions remains incomplete, particularly in the face of rapid, global environmental changes. It is nonetheless important to understand planktonic food web interactions if we are to develop predictive ecological models that offer insight into the future functioning of coastal systems. We invite contributions that are based on field, experimental or modeling studies of contemporaneous or projected future planktonic food webs. Studies focusing on the effects of anthropogenic and climatic environmental changes are particularly welcome.

SCI-035 Numerical Modeling of Estuarine and Coastal Systems
Convened by: Tate McAlpin (Tate.O.McAlpin@usace.army.mil), Robert McAdory, Gaurav Savant and Jennifer Tate

With the widespread use of physics based numerical models incorporating water quality and ecosystem modules, it is essential that experienced, expert modelers provide the best means of applying these tools to real world problems, and that non-modelers have an understanding of these tools.  A mixture of talks concerning model development, case studies, and examples of modeling efforts in which the focus of the modeling changed and the modeling approach had to be adjusted will provide CERF members with a better understanding of numerical model capabilities, applications, and limitations.

SCI-036 Perceptions of Environmental Models and Stakeholder Participation
Convened by: Michael Paolisso (mpaolisso@anth.umd.edu), Kevin Sellner (sellnerk@si.edu) and Raleigh Hood (rhood@umces.edu)

Modeling is critically important in managing watersheds, estuaries, and coastal environments, whether for water quality, living resources, land use, protecting coastal infrastructure and health, or economic productivity. The interactions between scientists and non-scientists can be complex and difficult. Frames of reference differ, as well as cultural, social, and historical belief systems, leading to difficulties in developing models that are accepted by all constituents as well as sufficiently technically sound to satisfy the scientific community. The proposed session will examine some of these difficulties through case studies, insights, and a panel discussion to foster better opportunities for model acceptance in future management programs.

SCI-037 Transferability of Models for Predicting Ecosystem Services
Convened by: Ted DeWitt (dewitt.ted@epa.gov), Marc Russell and Jessica Moon

This session will explore the theoretical and practical considerations underlying the application of ecological production functions in new locations or times other than where/when those models were developed. That is, what are the requirements and limitations for transferring ecological models used to predict production of ecosystem services? The focus will be on those models that are useful for predicting the production of final estuarine ecosystem services, i.e., the goods and processes that are produced in estuaries that people directly use or benefit from.

SCI-038 Enriching Our Coasts: The Past, Present, and Future of Fertilization Studies as a Management Guide
Convened by: Brita Jessen (bjessen@gso.uri.edu) and David Johnson

Population growth and associated changes in land use and fossil fuel combustion has resulted in an acceleration of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) cycling in coastal regions. Controlled nutrient enrichment (fertilization) studies have been conducted in temperate and tropical systems at temporal scales ranging from years to decades. This session will present past and ongoing studies of nutrient enrichment in coastal systems, with a special emphasis on translating the results of these studies to useful management implications. Relevant topics include: common responses to nutrient enrichment across different coastal systems (salt marsh and mangrove); assessing vulnerabilities or resilience capacity of coastal ecosystem functions under excess nutrient input; identifying information gaps. The session will end with a discussion of the future of fertilization studies and relevance to management strategies.

SCI-039 Synthesis Research in Estuarine and Coastal Science: Focus on Process and Application
Convened by: Mike Kemp (kemp@umces.edu), Walt Boynton (boynton@umces.edu), Jeremy Testa (jtesta@umces.edu) and Damian Brady (damian.brady@maine.edu)

There has been growing interest in the integration of existing ideas and data to produce new synthetic models and hypotheses, leading to discovery and advancement in estuarine and coastal science. Presentations will provide diverse examples of synthetic research across disciplines and topics, applying a range of methods including cross-system comparisons, analysis of time series data, balance of cross-boundary fluxes, and system simulation modeling. Presenters will also describe their underlying thought-processes to help illustrate how synthesis is done, and they will highlight how their synthesis science has advanced basic knowledge and/or addressed resource management problems.

SCI-040 Synthesis Research in Estuarine and Coastal Science: A Session in Honor of Scott W. Nixon
Convened by: Lindsey Fields (lfields@gso.uri.edu), Robinson Fulweiler (rwf@bu.edu), Mark Brush (brush@vims.edu) and Kelly Henry (henry.kellymarie@gmail.com)

Throughout his career, Dr. Scott W. Nixon demonstrated an elegant approach to synthesizing data across scales of space and time.  His analyses of coastal ecosystems around the world forged new insights into the structure and function of these systems, and he generated volumes of data through pioneering studies.  This session will feature synthetic studies that make use of Dr. Nixon’s approach of creativity, clarity, and impact.  We invite presentations highlighting a variety of methods for conducting synthesis that further our understanding of coastal systems and guide sound management of coastal resources, which was a hallmark of Scott’s career.

SCI-041 Resilience in Coastal Ecosystems, Part 1: Impact of Stressors on Resilience, Stability, and Recovery in Communities Dominated by Seagrass or Benthic Algae
Convened by: Benjamin Fertig (fertig@marine.rutgers.edu) and Jessie Jarvis (jessie.jarvis@stockton.edu)

This session explores the impacts of stressors (natural and/or anthropogenic) on community stability and resilience, as well as projections of community trajectory. We are particularly interested in the effects of individual and interactive effects of multiple synergistic stressors on freshwater, estuarine, lagoon, and coastal ecosystems across latitudes, at local, regional, and global scales. Monitoring, fieldwork, experimental, modeling, theoretical, and other approaches (and/or combinations thereof) are welcome. We encourage oral and poster presentations that explore evidence of tipping points of abiotic or biotic stressors which predicate large-scale shifts in community dominance and the implications for management and restoration.

SCI-042 Resilience in Coastal Ecosystems, Part 2: Evaluating and Conserving Resilience in Indo-Pacific Coastal Marine Habitats
Convened by: Robert Coles (robcoles@hotmail.com), Len McKenzie (hq@seagrasswatch.org), Michael Rasheed (michael.rasheed@daff.qld.gov.au) and Marcus Sheaves (marcus.sheaves@jcu.edu.au)

Coastal habitats such as saltmarsh, mangroves and seagrass meadows are not static and when managed properly can recover after impacts. But our understanding of change and recovery processes and the factors that determine resilience are not well understood. We would like to share experiences where science underpinning an understanding of change, recovery and resilience has been used to influence management decisions. We encourage oral papers and posters with a blend of pure and applied science to management and management strategies.

SCI-043 Resilience in Coastal Ecosystems, Part 3: Resiliency of Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and the Services they Provide
Convened by: David Yoskowitz (david.yoskowitz@tamucc.edu) and Jim Morris (morris@inlet.geol.sc.edu)

Coastal and marine ecosystems are subject to both acute natural (droughts and floods) and man-made (oil spills) disturbances. At the same time there are slow changes in the environment (sea level rise) that can potentially compound the impact of the acute events, leading to “regime shifts” in vulnerable systems. Given that humans are directly and indirectly impacted by ecosystem services provided by the environment, dramatic shifts in ecosystem structure and function can have a substantial impact on human wellbeing. This session will explore the connection between ecosystem resilience and ecosystem services resilience. We invite papers that focus on the resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems, the resilience of social systems, and the connection between resilient coastal ecosystems and resilient ecosystem services. We encourage submissions from the natural, social, and policy sciences.

SCI-044 Engineering With Nature: Striving for Sustainable, Multi-Objective Coastal Infrastructure
Convened by: Thomas Fredette (thomas.j.fredette@usace.army.mil), Todd Bridges and Burton Suedel

Engineering With Nature (EWN) is the intentional alignment of natural and engineering processes to efficiently and sustainably deliver economic, environmental, and social benefits through collaborative processes in association with infrastructure development.  Recent investigations have identified a number of case studies around the world that can be used to provide models for use elsewhere.  Although the EWN concept began within the US Army Corps of Engineers, there is a need to reach out to a broader community, integrate the concept more widely with academic research, and look for collaboration opportunities.   This session will provide that opportunity and will seek to scope science and engineering needs for advancing EWN as a part of future practice.

SCI-045 Disturbance and Stressor Impacts on Microbial Communities and Biogeochemical Feedbacks
Convened by: Brian Roberts (broberts@lumcon.edu), Anne Bernhard (aeber@conncoll.edu), Annette Engel (aengel1@utk.edu) and Anne Giblin (agiblin@mbl.edu)

Microbes are critical to cycling and regulating carbon and nutrient fluxes into and through coastal ecosystems, yet little is known about the relationship between microbial community diversity and ecosystem function, and even less about community responses to pollutants or any remediation approaches. This session will examine feedback mechanisms that control and impact microbial communities and the biogeochemical processes they carry out in coastal ecosystems as a consequence of disturbance or stress. Feedback mechanisms could include how disturbance triggers spatial and temporal microbial diversity changes and how these changes alter reaction rates in biogeochemical cycles including greenhouse gas fluxes.

SCI-046 Synergistic Effects of Climate and Land-Use Change on Estuarine and Coastal Systems
Convened by: Michael Williams (williams@cbl.umces.edu) and Raymond Najjar (rgn1@psu.edu)

Climate and land-use change strongly influence estuaries through changes in runoff quantity and quality. This session will focus on current observations and predictions of climate change and potentially synergistic interactions with anthropogenic stressors such as land-use change on estuarine and coastal systems.  Submissions to this session should address how these stressors alter coastal hydrology, the downstream transport of nutrients and sediments, and salinity regimes.  Collaborative research that informs better management practices for mitigating hydrological changes associated with climate and land-use changes and their impacts in the coastal zone will also be considered. 

SCI-047 Drivers and Ecological Effects of Hypoxia in Coastal Upwelling Systems
Convened by: Steve Litvin (litvin@stanford.edu), Larry Crowder and Lisa Levin

Zones of hypoxic water have spread dramatically, most associated with bays and semi-enclosed seas and land-based anthropogenic nutrient inputs. However, open coast systems such as the coastal marine ecosystems in eastern boundary currents are also increasingly experiencing oxygen depletion and hypoxia has recently been documented on the inner shelf of open coasts. Within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) upwelling-related oxygen depletion occurs regularly from Baja, Mexico to Washington State. This session will assess the extent, drivers, ecological consequences and management implications of hypoxia on the inner shelf of the CCLME and other eastern boundary current systems.

SCI-048 Climate Change and Species Interactions: Implications for Ecosystem Functions and Services
Convened by: Walter Nelson (nelson.walt@epa.gov), Erik Bonsdorff and Chris Janousek

The impact of meteorological and nearshore ocean changes arising from climate change will exert stress on estuarine and coastal biological communities. Biological community responses will also be mediated by other stressors such as increased pressure from non-indigenous species and by changes in existing species-species interactions such as competition and facilitation. In particular, foundation or keystone species responses to climate forcing may strongly alter habitat characteristics and associated community assemblages. Such alterations will have major implications for ecosystem functions and services supported by coastal habitats. The session will focus on current results and new approaches to measuring, monitoring and modeling the influence of climate change coupled with biological interactions on estuarine habitat structure and function.

SCI-49 Coastal and Estuarine Carbon Cycling
Convened by: Matthew Kirwan (mlk4n@virginia.edu), Thomas Mozdzer, James Fourqurean and Catherine Lovelock

The emerging realization that coastal and estuarine ecosystems sequester carbon at globally significant rates is driving an explosion in carbon cycling research in tidal marshes, mangroves, and seagrass dominated ecosystems. This session will highlight new contributions to “blue carbon” research in both restored and natural ecosystems. Presentations focusing on the size of carbon pools, rates of carbon burial, and the sensitivity of carbon cycling to anthropogenic factors including land use, climate change, and invasive species are desired. We especially encourage processes-oriented submissions (e.g. transport of carbon through an ecosystem, response of carbon to submergence, erosion, or human development) and contributions that synthesize existing data at regional to global scales.

SCI-052 Assessing Coastal Condition Using National, Regional and State Monitoring Programs
Convened by: Treda Grayson (grayson.treda@epa.gov), Hugh Sullivan (sullivan.hugh@epa.gov), Virginia Hansen (hansen.virginia@epa.gov) and Linda Harwell (harwell.linda@epa.gov)

Large-scale monitoring programs such as USEPA’s National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) are designed to assess the condition of the nation’s estuaries and coastal waters. USEPA partners with states, tribes, federal agencies and other entities to survey estuarine and near-shore coastal waters across the US, and in the Great Lakes. This session presents information on program changes and enhancements, results from the 2010 NCCA survey, federal, regional and state collaboration efforts and plans for the 2015 field sampling effort. Papers on comparable monitoring programs are encouraged.

SCI-053 Changing the MPA Management Dialogue: an Investment Portfolio for the Future
Convened by: Erin Meyer (erin.meyer@calost.org)

Implementation of marine protected areas has increased dramatically in the last decade. However, evaluations of MPA performance remain limited. The question ‘are they working?’ is frequently addressed by considering whether target fish populations have increased in density inside MPAs. This misses the opportunity to evaluate whether MPAs play a role in buffering against episodic events such as harmful algal blooms or providing resilience to the effects of ocean acidification and climate change. This session will draw together experts from multiple disciplines to share new knowledge, tools and approaches for using MPAs as part of an investment portfolio for ocean health.

SCI-054 Exploring Approaches to Understanding Decision-Makers' Science Needs
Convened by: Emily Knight (emily.knight@calost.org) and Ryan Meyer (ryan.meyer@calost.org)

We hear increasing calls for science that informs decision-maker needs. But understanding what those needs are is challenging. Many factors, both practical and political, can drive decision-makers’ demand for and use and of science. While there is no single best approach to understanding user needs, an increasing number are available. This session explores different approaches to understanding user needs for coastal and marine science.

SCI-055 Real World Applications of Ecosystem-Based Management to Ocean and Coastal Challenges
Convened by: Margaret R. Caldwell (megc@stanford.edu), Ashley Erickson (ashleye1@stanford.edu), Melissa Foley (mmfoley@stanford.edu) and Erin Prahler (EPrahler@stanford.edu)

Ocean and coastal practitioners work within existing financial constraints, jurisdictions, and legislative authorities to manage living coastal and marine resources while seeking to promote and maintain a healthy and productive coastal economy. Fulfilling this mandate necessitates incorporation of best available science, including ecosystem based management (EBM) into coastal and ocean management decisions. We will address creative methods for applying EBM principles with particular emphasis on available legal and regulatory authorities. This session will explore how challenging assumptions and incorporating emerging data and methods into decision-making and resource management can improve the overall health of our coastal and marine ecosystems for the benefit of current and future generations.

SCI-056 Science Communication Strategies for Ecosystem-Based Management
Convened by: William Nuttle (wnuttle@eco‐hydrology.com), Heath Kelsey, Caroline Wicks and William Dennison

The strength of ecosystem-based management derives from its holistic approach to solving environmental problems, one which recognizes that each element of the coastal environment is connected to others through a web of interrelationships. This web of interrelationships also connects all the social and economic sectors involved, and success depends on developing effective communications within this network. This session solicits presentations on communications strategies used to support the implementation of coastal EBM. Of interest are strategies for scientists and managers in gathering and disseminating scientific and technical information. Presentations should focus on the challenges encountered, the techniques used, and results obtained in the communications efforts, rather than on details of the scientific and technical information itself. We will attempt a synthesis of lessons learned, best practices and guidelines for implementing an effective science communications strategy.

SCI-061 Comparative Approaches to Horseshoe Crab Ecology and Conservation in North America and Southeast Asia
Convened by: Mark Botton (botton@fordham.edu), Paul Shin (bhpshin@cityu.edu.hk), S.G. Cheung (bhsgche@cityu.edu.hk) and Ruth Carmichael (rcarmichael@disl.org)

There is a growing community of estuarine scientists focusing on the biology and conservation of horseshoe crabs in North America and Asia. Stimulated by our productive interactions at a Special Session at ERF 2005, our group has held International Conferences in 2007 (Long Island, NY) and 2011 (Hong Kong), with a third meeting planned for 2015 (Japan). CERF 2013 is an ideal venue to bring together the key scientists from North America and Southeast Asia to discuss progress in horseshoe crab research and conservation since the Hong Kong workshop.

SCI-062 Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems
Convened by: Hans Paerl (hpaerl@email.unc.edu), Kedong Yin (k.yin@griffith.edu.au), James Cloern (jecloern@usgs.gov) and Paul Harrison (pharrison@eos.ubc.ca)

Phytoplankton biomass and community structure have undergone dramatic changes in estuarine and coastal ecosystems over the past several decades in response to climate variability and human disturbance. These changes have short- and longer-term impacts on global carbon and nutrient cycling, food web structure and productivity, and coastal ecosystem services. There is a need to identify the underlying processes and measure rates at which they alter coastal ecosystems on a global scale. SCOR Working Group 137 (WG 137) has been gathering long time-series data sets from estuarine and coastal systems worldwide in order to examine patterns of anthropogenic and climate-driven change. We encourage participation from investigators with decadal observational data from geographically diverse regions. The wealth of information in these data sets provides an unprecedented opportunity to develop a global analysis and investigation of the dynamics and status of ecosystems where land and sea meet.

SCI-063 ICOL, TOCE and Other Bar-Built Estuaries
Convened by: John Largier (jlargier@ucdavis.edu), Janine Adams and Charles Simenstad

Small coastal lagoons and estuaries with wave-built sand barriers at the mouth (ICOL = intermittently closed and open lagoons; TOCE = temporarily open and closed estuaries) have narrow and shallow channels connecting them to the sea, and the mouth of these systems may close from time to time. Unique and often transient water quality conditions (e.g., dissolved oxygen) and ecological communities are observed in these systems, which also may include essential habitat for species of concern. In many of these estuaries, significant variability in freshwater inflow produces strong seasonal, synoptic, and interannual variability in habitat quality and quantity. How ICOL, TOCE and other bar-built estuary ecosystems have adapted to this unpredictability and retained resilience is the focus of this session. We will bring together researchers from different regions in the world and seek common understanding across diverse studies, including geomorphology, stratification, habitat patterns, connectivity, food web structure, and eutrophication. Conservation and management issues in response to global change will be addressed.

SCI-064 Hydrodynamics and Sediment Dynamics in Estuaries and Coastal Seas
Convened by: Arnoldo Valle-Levinson (arnoldo@ufl.edu), Tim Delapenna (dellapet@tamug.edu), Carl Friedrichs (cfried@vims.edu), Chari Pattiaratchi (chari.pattiaratchi@uwa.edu.au), Henk Schuttelaars (H.M.Schuttelaars@tudelft.nl), Alex Souza (ajso@noc.ac.uk), Parker MacCready and Bob Chant

This session seeks oral and poster contributions on the study of the physics of estuaries and coastal seas, including sediment dynamics and morphodynamics. The session will include studies related to any physical or geological aspect of estuaries and coastal seas, through the use of observations, numerical models, analytical solutions or laboratory experiments. We propose to gather a series of presentations that highlight recent findings on various aspects of along-estuary and across-estuary hydrodynamics; physics of coastal seas; turbulence studies; investigations in low-inflow coastal lagoons; non-cohesive and cohesive sediment transport and sedimentation; as well as research on morphodynamics.

SCI-065 Recent Advances to Understand the Continuing Evolution of the San Francisco Bay Ecosystem
Convened by: James Cloern (jecloern@usgs.gov), Tara Schraga and Frederick Feyrer

CERF returns to California for the first time since the 1991 meeting in San Francisco. Estuarine-coastal systems around the world have changed, in some places remarkably, over the intervening two decades as a result of species introductions, altered pollutant loadings, water diversions, habitat transformations (including restoration), environmental policies, landscape transformations that alter sediment supply, and climate variability including the 1998-99 climate shift across the Pacific. This session will highlight changes occurring in California’s largest estuary. Prospective talks will address recent findings from studies of: fish communities; sediment transport; Bay-Ocean exchanges; nutrient and algal bloom dynamics; bird use of marsh habitats; long-term trends of contaminants; outcomes of the largest tidal wetland restoration project in the western US; algal toxins; historical ecology; projected responses to climate change and implications for adaption.

SCI-066 Integrating Science and Management to Benefit Estuarine and Coastal Ecoystem Restoration
Convened by: Lynn Wingard (lwingard@usgs.gov), Frank Marshall, Patrick Pitts, and David Rudnick

This session will focus on projects that have integrated scientific research with management objectives for restoration of estuarine and coastal ecosystems.  We encourage both scientists and resource managers to participate in this session, and ideally would like to see paired sets of talks or joint talks presented from both the management and the science perspective.  Issues to be addressed are what are the management issues that have directed science efforts and how has research contributed to the solution of these issues?  What are the lessons learned? Issues covered may include development of performance measures and targets, sustainable management practices, incorporating sea level rise and climate change into planning, invasive species, eutrophication, and identification of ecosystem services among other issues.

SCI-067 Interactions of Bivalve Aquaculture and Estuarine Biogeochemical Processes
Convened by: Iris Anderson (iris@vims.edu), Mark Luckenbach, Pier Viaroli and Mark Brush

Bivalve aquaculture is often seen as a means of enhancing water column filtration and mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient loading, yet it also has the potential to contribute to localized eutrophication through amplification of dissolved nutrient releases to the water column from bivalve excretion and shifts in benthic microbial metabolism in response to nutrient enrichment from bio-deposits. We welcome submissions addressing impacts of bivalve aquaculture on water and sediment quality, the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon, the potential to mitigate eutrophication, the importance of scale in determining ecosystem impacts, and the development of models of coupled bivalve-estuarine systems.

SCI-068 Estuarine Shallows, Part 1: Biophysical interactions
Convened by: Jessie Lacy (jlacy@usgs.gov) and Heidi Fuchs

Many estuarine habitats, including subtidal and intertidal flats, seagrass meadows, and marshes, occupy shallow water. Shallows differ from deeper estuarine water in many ways, including the relative importance of bed friction, waves, and tidal inundation. These physical factors affect habitat type and ecosystem function. In turn, ecosystem-engineering species may modify the physical environment, enhancing ecosystem function or providing services by reducing flooding or erosion. Many such interactions remain poorly understood, and predicting change due to anticipated sea-level rise and anthropogenic alterations creates additional challenge. This session will focus on mechanistic linkages between the physics and ecosystems of shallow estuarine habitats.

SCI-069 Estuarine Shallows, Part 2: Monitoring, Modeling, and Managing
Convened by: Carl Cerco (carl.f.cerco@usace.army.mil)

Shallow-water regions (depth < 2 to 3 m) of deep, expansive estuaries are emerging as “hot spots” for water quality management. These regions typically form a ribbon between the shoreline and open-water expanses. Impairments include harmful algal blooms, poor water clarity, and intermittent hypoxia. The nature and origins of these impairments can differ from similar impairments in deep, open water. We solicit contributions that describe monitoring programs, observed water quality impairments, modeling approaches, and management programs in the shallow-water regions of deep, expansive estuaries.

SCI-070 Microbial Ecology: Processes, Linkages and Ecosystem Feedbacks
Convened by: Leila J.Hamdan (leila.hamdan@nrl.navy.mil), Robert B. Jonas (rjonas@gmu.edu) and Jennifer F. Biddle (jfbiddle@udel.edu)

Microbial processes influence water quality, shape benthic and pelagic environments and mediate biogeochemical cycles.  Microbiomes are shaped by past events and change in the contemporary environment.  The metabolic roles of coastal and estuarine microorganisms are being probed through investigations of newly discovered processes (eg: ANAMOX, AOM) and uncultivated lineages.  Their impact on environmental issues (e.g., hypoxia, oil spills, eutrophication, climate) and settings (hydrocarbon seeps, high latitudes) is important and can affect entire trophic webs.  This session will highlight new discoveries of microbial processes, lineages and environmental feedbacks and explore how these discoveries can inform understanding of whole ecosystem function. 

SCI-071 Geological and Biogeochemical Processes in the Sediments and Soils of Coastal Wetlands
Convened by: Zhanfei Liu (zhanfei.liu@utexas.edu), Alexander Kolker and Kehui Xu

Coastal wetlands are biogeochemically one of the most important categories of coastal sediments. They play an important role in filtering pollutants, regulating biogeochemical cycles, preserving biodiversity, and reducing the impacts of storm surge. Many of these ecosystem services are controlled by the sediment, thus understanding subsurface processes is critical for protection and management of the wetlands. Despite the importance of coastal wetland sediments, their geology and biogeochemistry has been relatively understudied. This session aims to bring together researchers examining physical, geological and biogeochemical processes occurring in coastal wetland sediments, such as sediment delivery and transport, sediment deposition in response to river diversion, carbon and nitrogen cycles, preservation of sedimentary organic matter, and coastal protection and wetland restoration. This session seeks to synthesize current knowledge and develop new models of coastal wetland geology and geochemistry. We invite both field observations and theoretical studies from coasts around the world.

SCI-072 Mangrove Expansion into Salt Marsh Habitats: Causes and Consequences
Convened by: Candy Feller (felleri@si.edu), Dan Gruner (dsgruner@umd.edu), John Parker (parkerj@si.edu), Rick Osman (osmanr@si.edu), Steve Pennings (spennings@uh.edu) and Anna Armitage (armitaga@tamug.edu)

The mechanisms behind the encroachment of mangroves into salt marshes remain obscure and are thought to involve multiple interacting factors, e.g., global warming, changes in rainfall patterns, land-use change, and increases in nutrient levels and sedimentation. Given that these shifts entail the replacement of one critically important foundation species with a dissimilar though equally important foundation species, there are likely to be large though relatively unstudied consequences. Thus, this session will focus on the mechanisms driving the current and future displacement of salt marsh species along coastlines around the world by invading native and non-native mangroves and will examine the implications for coastal management. This session will also include studies that focus on the ecology of shifting wetland ecotones, such as the effects on community composition, food web dynamics, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and buffering capacity against shoreline erosion.

SCI-073 Marine Debris Monitoring and Assessment: Research to Guide Prevention
Convened by: Sherry Lippiatt (sherry.lippiatt@noaa.gov) and Shelly Moore

Anthropogenic marine debris is widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Assessment of the quantity, composition, and spatial extent of marine debris is necessary to understand the drivers of debris movement and impacts on wildlife and habitats. Observational research and monitoring supports and evaluates efforts to mitigate marine debris, and leads to more effective policies to reduce impacts on the environment and coastal communities. This session will examine efforts to monitor and assess marine debris, including discussion of how these data may be used to better understand debris movement and evaluate the chemical, biological, physical, and/or socioeconomic impacts of marine debris.

SCI-074 South and Central American Estuaries and Coasts
Convened by: Paulina Martinetto (pmartin@mdp.edu.ar), Osmar Möller, Robert Christian (christianr@ecu.edu) and Sharon Herzka (sherzka@cicese.mx)

This session will build on the Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation’s Inaugural Conference of the Americas, held in Mar del Plata, Argentina in November 2012. Estuaries within the region exhibit a high level of diversity in their geomorphology, hydrodynamics, dominant ecological processes, interaction with the coastal environment and the interaction with regional climatic conditions. Estuaries are also subject to different types of anthropogenic pressures, including nutrient inputs, habitat loss and modification due to development, fishery related activities and changes in freshwater inflow, among others. We welcome studies in Central and South America estuarine and coastal systems within the general theme of a changing environment. In particular, we encourage presentations that utilize a broad comparative approach between Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We also promote the presentation of case studies that exemplify the link between the science used to assess anthropogenic impacts and understand ecosystem function and the development of management strategies oriented toward the sustainable use and conservation of estuarine and coastal ecosystems.