Complete Session List

001. ASLO Multicultural Program Student Symposium


Organizers: Benjamin Cuker, Hampton University,; Deidre M. Gibson, Hampton University,

The student symposium provides undergraduate and beginning graduate students with the opportunity to orally present research findings and well developed research proposals. The symposium is designed primary for participants in the ASLO Multicultural Program, but is also open to other students. The symposium stresses constructive feedback from members of the audience.

002. Coastal Processes and Features With Synthetic Aperture Radar

 [P, N, I]

Organizers: Paris W. Vachon, Defence Research and Development Canada,; Brian G. Whitehouse, OEA Technologies Incorporated,

Since the launch of the first civilian spaceborne synthetic aperture radar sensor on NASA's SeaSat satellite in 1978, it has been recognized that such sensors detect aquatic fronts, eddies, water mass boundaries, upwelling zones, waves, plumes and current gradients, at synoptic scales and spatial resolutions of tens of metres. And synthetic aperture radar is not impeded by clouds or the absence of natural light. This session recognizes the potential impact of new Canadian (RADARSAT-2) and German (TerraSAR-X) spaceborne synthetic aperture radar sensors, both of which will be launched in 2007, by inviting presentations that further our understanding of coastal processes and feature detection through the use of synthetic aperture radar. Presentations may involve new or mature sensors and the session welcomes investigations that provide additional insight through blending synthetic aperture radar data with data collected by other types of environmental sensors, whether they be mounted on satellites or other platforms.

003. Ocean Acidification: Causes and Impacts on Biogeochemical Processes, Biota and Climate

 [B, C, X]

Organizers: Victoria J. Fabry, California State University San Marcos,; William M. Balch, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences,; Richard A. Feely, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory/NOAA,

Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 changes seawater chemistry and can have significant impacts on marine biogeochemical processes and organisms. Increasing the amount of dissolved CO2 in oceans decreases the pH and the CaCO3 saturation state of seawater. The pH of surface oceans has dropped by 0.1 units since the industrial revolution and, if fossil fuel combustion continues at present rates, the pH of the world’s oceans will probably drop another 0.3 to 0.4 units by 2100. As the world’s oceans become more acidic, many calcifying marine organisms will be negatively impacted, which could lead to cascading effects throughout marine food webs. The goal of this session is to discuss recent advances in the field of ocean acidification. All spatial and temporal timescales will be included, from molecular to global and from paleo-environmental studies to models of future impacts. Topics of interests include, but are not limited to: (1) effects on nutrient and elemental cycles; (2) estimates of calcification and dissolution at the organism, community and global scales; (3) physiological effects on calcifying and non-calcifying organisms; and (4) feedback mechanisms and decadal to centennial projections of future ocean acidification impacts.

004. Ocean Microbial Fuel Cells and Low-power Instrumentation for Ocean Observing

 [B, C, T]

Organizers: Clare E. Reimers, Oregon State University,; Peter Girguis, Harvard University,

The production of electricity with microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that are supplied organic matter or inorganic mediators from the environment is a new and exciting area of research and technology. MFCs are being tested in an increasing number of marine environments and generally produce power levels of tens to hundreds of milliWatts at less than 0.8V. Substrate consumption by MFCs gives insight into competition for electron donors by marine microorganisms. This session will examine advances in different types of ocean MFCs, the phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms that can contribute to electron transfer to or from an electrode, approaches to utilizing power produced at less than 0.8V, and new power-thrifty ocean sensors and communication devices that may be able to broaden ocean observing by taking advantage of MFCs serving as long-term power sources.

005. Role of the Oceans in Climate Variability Over the Americas

 [P, X]

Organizers: Chunzai Wang, NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory,; Gabriel A. Vecchi, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory,

Variability in the global oceans greatly influences (and is influenced by) the climate variability over the Americas. Our understanding of this influence has been greatly advanced by work performed in many previous and present programs, such as Pan American Climate Studies (PACS), national/ international CLIVAR programs, and Climate Prediction Program for the Americas (CPPA). This special session offers a forum for discussion of recent progress in our knowledge and understanding of climate variability over the Americas including observational, numerical modeling, and theoretical studies. The main session focus is on climate variations associated with ocean-atmosphere-land interactions, particularly on the climate impacts of the Pacific ENSO, tropical Atlantic variability, Western Hemisphere warm pool, North Atlantic oscillation, Indian Ocean variability, and ocean meridional overturning circulation.

006. Watersheds to the Global Ocean: Spaceborne Measurements of Water Surfaces and Modeling Flows

 [P, F, N, T]

Organizers: Doug Alsdorf, Ohio State University,; Lee-Lueng Fu, JPL,; Eric Lindstrom, NASA HQ,; Ernesto Rodriguez, JPL,

Radar altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing global measurements of ocean surface topography. These same spaceborne measurements are also now routinely used to measure water elevations of large lakes and rivers. We envision usage of the wide-swath technique to enhance the coverage and resolution of radar altimetry for studying oceanic and terrestrial hydrological processes at spatial scales previously unexplored. This session invites presentations that use spaceborne measurements of water surface elevations toward better understandings of a variety of processes pushing the limit of current observations such as oceanic eddies, fronts, boundary currents, coastal upwelling, hurricanes, terrestrial water storage changes, river discharge, estuary processes, etc. Model based assessments of these processes, particularly those that incorporate the spaceborne measurements, are very much encouraged. This session includes radar altimetry, as well as any other spaceborne measurement of water surfaces (e.g., SRTM, interferometric SAR, etc.). Through this session, we further build the joint community of physical oceanography and terrestrial hydrology with a special emphasis on wide-swath altimetry. Thus, we also invite presentations that highlight possibilities of future technologies for measuring water surfaces.

007. Geology and Geophysics: General


008. Decadal Variations in Ocean Interior Circulation, Water Masses, and Biogeochemistry - Results From The CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program

 [P, X]

Organizers: Richard A. Feely, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory/NOAA,; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; Rik Wanninkhof, Alantic Oceanographic and Meterorological Laboratory,

The U.S. CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program, begun in 2003, along with similar efforts in many other countries, which occur against the background of the successful completion of the WOCE/JGOFS global surveys in the 1990s, now permits scientists to examine decadal time-scale climate-related variations in the ocean physics, chemistry, and biology in unprecedented detail. One of the major challenges for analyses of these oceanic data is to distinguish between natural variability and long-term trends due to anthropogenic changes. This session invites contributions that approach such variations and changes in multiple ways, including but not limited to, physical, biological, biogeochemical, and carbon cycle perspectives. We encourage submission of abstracts that use of a broad palette of tools, i.e. including observational and modeling approaches. Particular emphasis will be placed on abstracts that address ocean interior changes from an interdisciplinary perspective.

009. Hydrogeological Systems, Natural Gas Flux in Dissolved and Gas Phases, and Formation of Oceanic Hydrate Deposits

 [G, N]

Organizers: Michael Max, MDS Research,; Arthur Johnson, Hydrate Energy International, Inc.,; Warren Wood, Naval Research Laboratory,

Recent drilling results on the Cascadia margin of North America and elsewhere confirm that high concentrations natural gas hydrate (NGH) are confined to porous and permeable strata rather than being solely associated with proximity to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. This conforms to economic geological models for NGH in strata-bound, high-grade mineral deposits, whose development is primarily a function of crystallization processes acting in percolating mineralizing solutions saturated with dissolved natural gas. Although there are other types of NGH deposits, strata-bound high-grade deposits are the most likely to be exploited economically and are thus is important to understand in detail. This session invites submissions to bring together earth scientists with experience in the field of oceanic NGH and assess the genesis of concentrated NGH deposits by applying hydrogeological system analysis.

010. Physical Oceanography and Limnology: General


Organizers: Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; Ed Dever, Oregon State University,

011. River-dominated Ocean Margins in the Context of Climate Change

 [C, N, X]

Organizers: Christophe Rabouille, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France,; Brent MacKee, North Carolina University, USA,; Minhan Dai, Xiamen University, China,

Material fluxes from rivers have a profound impact on the biogeochemistry of coastal seas and they represent an important component of global biogeochemical cycles. This is particularly true for world major river systems, whose dominant role may extend into the ocean margin. Our understanding of major river systems remains, however, incomplete due to the size, diversity and the temporally and spatially variable nature of these systems. Our knowledge of the sources and sinks of bio-relevant materials is inadequate, as is our understanding of rates of production, transport, transformation, and storage among these sources and sinks. Even less understood are the complex interactions between physical, biological and chemical processes within major river-shelf systems. As a consequence, the response of River-dominated Ocean Margins to climate change is largely unknown. In this session, we encourage abstracts that study the functioning of the river-sea interaction for bio-relevant elements (e.g., C, N, P, micronutrients). While we encourage a "whole system" approach that recognizes the complex feedbacks between sub-systems (e.g., lowlands, floodplains, deltas, margin plumes and benthic environments), we welcome papers emphasizing individual processes, sub-systems, and models. Climate change impact on river-shelf systems from polar, temperate to tropical systems will also be favourably considered.

012. Implicit and Adjoint Techniques and Their Application to Ocean Circulation and Biogeochemical Problems

 [P, X]

Organizers: Samar Khatiwala, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University,; Wilbert Weijer, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Recent advances in computational and applied mathematics have led to the introduction of implicit and adjoint techniques to the field of oceanography. These numerical methods allow scientists to address problems not easily amenable to conventional time-stepping techniques, and have thus opened up new avenues of research. Applications include: computationally efficient ocean general circulation models for paleoclimate studies; bifurcation and (linear and generalized) stability analysis of the thermohaline circulation; data assimilation; parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization of ocean biogeochemical models. The emerging availability of these new computational tools and methods are likely to lead to a deeper understanding of ocean dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. For this session, we invite contributions that highlight the application of implicit and adjoint methods in any area of oceanography.

013. Ridge-To-Reef: Impacts of Watershed Change on Tropical Coastal Ecosystems

 [G, C, F, N, X]

Organizers: Michael Field, US Geological Survey,; Matthew Larsen, US Geological Survey,; Jonathan Stock, US Geological Survey,

Accelerating landscape changes in tropical watersheds are supplying increasing amounts of fine sediment to nearshore ecosystems. Agriculture, feral grazing, fires, and urbanization are altering the ecology, hydrology, geomorphology of tropical watersheds, resulting in drastic changes in the character, transport processes and volume of sediment delivered to coastal reef and nearshore environments. It is well accepted that reefs and other nearshore ecosystems in the US and globally are declining from a number of poorly understood impacts, and that sedimentation and nutrification are major contributors to that decline. Addressing these threats requires a coupled understanding of watershed and nearshore processes, including transport pathways through hillslopes and channels, the fate of sediment and nutrients in the nearshore, and ecosystem responses (e.g., coral reef or mangrove ecological response to sediment loading). This session will focus on new advancements in understanding the causes, sources, and transport of sediment, pollutants and nutrients from altered tropical coastal watersheds and their fate and impact on adjacent tropical coastal ecosystems. Contributions of case studies, development of new technologies, and application of models that provide improved understanding of the linkages between watershed change and tropical coastal ecosystem health are especially encouraged from ecologist, hydrologists, geomorphologists, and coastal marine scientists.

014. Polar Biogeochemistry

 [G, B, C, H]

Organizers: David Thomas, University of Wales-Bangor,; Kevin Arrigo, Stanford University,

In recent years there has been an emphasis on studying biogeochemical processes in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. To date there has been little opportunity to compare and contrast the findings from these quite different systems, which is a major aim of this session. It is anticipated that processes determining major biogeochemical dynamics in both the Arctic and Southern Ocean will be presented, including processes associated with sea ice, the water column, sediments, particle flux and land-ocean interactions. The scope is a broad one on purpose and it is anticipated that by covering all aspects of the systems pertinent to large-scale biogeochemical cycles within a single session a wider appreciation for the similarities, differences and gaps in our knowledge of high latitude biogeochemistry will be evident. The session should highlight the true multidisciplinary nature of biogeochemistry and be a session where biologists, chemists, geochemists, geologists, modellers present their work. It is anticipated that this should be a forum where both pertinent fine scale processes can be discussed alongside larger-scale ocean wide processes.

015. Interactions Between the Kuroshio and Marginal Seas of China and Their Environmental Impact


Organizers: Dongliang Yuan, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,; Fan Wang, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,; Dongxiao Wang, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS,

The marginal seas of China, including the South China Sea, the East China Sea, and the Yellow Sea, are subject to strong influence of the western boundary current of the north Pacific subtropical gyre—the Kuroshio. The water exchange between the Kuroshio and marginal seas is of great importance to the environment of these marginal seas. In this session, scientific results that focus on ocean circulation east of Luzon, in the vicinity of the Luzon Strait, and over the continental shelf and slope in the East China Sea are presented to encourage discussions on subjects like the South China Sea throughflow, mesoscale circulation in the Luzon Strait area, shelf circulation related to the South China Sea Warm Current, the Taiwan Warm Current, the Tsushima Warm Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current, cross-shelf sediment transport, and the bio-geochemical impact of the circulation, etc.

016. How Does the Subtropical North Atlantic Transfer Heat, Cycle Nutrients and Uptake Carbon?

 [P, B, C]

Organizers: Ric Williams, Liverpool University, UK,; Susan Lozier, Duke University, USA,; Elaine McDonagh, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, UK,; Andy Watson, University of East Anglia, UK,

Even though the North Atlantic is relatively well observed, there are major problems in our knowledge of its present state and how it might evolve. At present, it is unclear as to the extent of subtropical warming and how heat content is changing, how phytoplankton growth and nutrient budgets are sustained over the subtropics, and how the ocean uptakes and transports carbon dioxide. This session aims to discuss these related questions of heat, nutrient and carbon transfer in a co-ordinated manner for the subtropical North Atlantic. Contributions are welcomed which address any of these themes and controlling processes through a variety of approaches including synthesis studies, large-scale observational surveys, time-series studies, and process-orientated modelling experiments.

017. Biophysical Interactions at Inertial and Dissipation Scales

 [P, B, F, N]

Organizers: Joe Ackerman, University of Guelph,; Pete Jumars, Darling Marine Center, University of Maine,

This session emphasizes how the inertial and dissipation scales of turbulent flows interact with aquatic organisms in diverse aquatic environments of upper mixed layers and bottom boundary layers of rivers, lakes, estuaries and oceans. The intent is to compare and contrast responses and adaptations to turbulent flows in the fixed reference frame of sessile, benthic organisms and the Lagrangian frames of drifting and swimming organisms of upper mixed and bottom boundary layers, emphasizing interactions with sensory, locomotor, particle-capture and nutrient-uptake systems and processes from feeding and predator avoidance to fertilization and dispersal.

018. The Aquatic Gel Phase, Its Role in Biogeochemical Cycles

 [B, C]

Organizers: Pedro Verdugo, University of Washington,; Peter H. Santschi, Texas A & M University,

This session will focus on the complex interaction among biological, physical and chemical processes that result in the formation and cycling of gels in fresh and ocean water. Aquatic gels represent one of the most critical, complex and yet least explored subjects in marine sciences. Regardless of their source, size, or composition, gels resulting from decomposed tissue of marine biota or from exopolymer released by bacteria or from phytoplankton, play critical roles in the water. Their unique ion exchange properties allow them to concentrate trace metals, to form organo-crystanline complexes or to nucleate hydrates among other properties. However, their most important feature is that aquatic gels can be rich source of microbial nutrient. Although the scale of the role of gels in marine carbon cycling had not been fully appreciated the discovery that moieties found in the DOM pool can spontaneously self assemble forming microscopic gels has far reaching implications. This process follows a second order kinetics, it is reversible, and at equilibrium it exhibits a thermodynamic yield of about 10% -20% (Chin et al, Nature 1998; Kerner et al, Nature 2003). Considering the magnitude of the DOM stock (~7 x 1017 gC), this DOM-derived gel pool could reach up to up ~7 x 1016 gC. Within the scales of “size-related bioreactivity” gels could represents one of the richest and most readily accessible pools of bioreactive carbon and the largest volume of distributed “patchiness” available for microbial degradation. These findings introduce a fundamental change in the way that oceanographers think about processes linking the microbial loop and biological pump to the rest of the biosphere and the geosphere (Wells, Nature 1998). The main goal of this session will be to attract an interdisciplinary panel of investigators from geochemistry, polymer physics, and marine microbiology to present their work and discuss the multiple implications of this emerging field, particularly in regard to global carbon cycling.

019. Mixing in the Ocean

 [P, M]

Organizers: Robin Muench, Earth & Space Research,; Louis St. Laurent, Florida State University,; Mary Louise Timmermans, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Jody Klymak, University of Victoria,

This session responds to increasing community recognition of the need to better understand and quantify ocean turbulence and mixing in terms of their dynamics, energetics and parameterization in numerical models. Turbulent mixing impacts ocean processes ranging over scales from the global meridional overturning circulation to feeding behaviour in planktonic ecosystems. The session is intended to emphasize, but not to be limited to, diapycnal as compared to lateral mixing. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: generation of turbulence through internal wave interactions; conversion of tidal energy to turbulence; turbulence generation through current-topographic interactions; double-diffusive and other small-scale processes associated with the seawater equation of state; geographical distribution of turbulence including mixing "hot spots"; parameterization of turbulent processes in numerical models; turbulent interactions with marine ecosystems; and instrumental issues. Results are anticipated from analytical, numerical, laboratory and field research.

020. Underrepresented But Not Forgotten: How to Increase Student Diversity in Marine Science


Organizers: Deidre M. Gibson, Hampton University,; Kam Tang, Virginia Institute of Marine Science,

Why are there so few Underrepresented Minority (UM) students pursuing careers in marine science? What have we been doing to change the situation, and what more can be done? Between 1995 and 2005, less than 10% of all terminal degrees in marine science have been granted to UM students. As clearly stated in the report Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology, until our scientific workplace reflects the diversity of the people, the US’s ability to compete in the global marketplace is threatened. Therefore, it is not only a moral obligation, but also a necessity to enhance student diversity and nurture talents among UM populations in order to secure the nation’s leadership in science and engineering enterprises in the 21st century. History does not change course overnight; likewise, enhancing student diversity in marine science is a great challenge that requires enormous resources, efforts and commitment from our society. Over the years funding agencies, scientists and educators have been working together to create many innovative projects and programs to increase enrollment and retention of UM students of all levels in marine science. This session will bring these people together to share their experience and insights, their struggles and triumphs. We particularly encourage UM students to come share their experience. Presenters are invited to a round-table discussion after the session. Student presenters may contact session chairs for financial aid information.

021. Biological Oceanography, Marine Biology: General


Organizers: John Reinfelder, Rutgers University,; Senjie Lin, University of Connecticut,

022. Trace Metal Biogeochemistry - Interactions Between Atmosphere and Ocean

 [B, C]

Organizers: Philip W. Boyd, University of Otago,; Mark L. Wells, University of Maine,; Peter Sedwick, Bermuda Biological Station for Research,; Benjamin S. Twining, University of South Carolina,

It now is evident that trace metals have entered the biogeochemical mainstream through their pivotal role in the cycling of carbon, silicon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. The field of trace metal biogeochemistry is rapidly evolving, in part through international programs like GEOTRACES, SOLAS and CLIVAR, but a series of major challenges limit our abilities to incorporate trace metals into models of major element cycling. Trace metal supply to the upper ocean from both underlying waters and atmospheric aerosol transport is poorly constrained, as is trace metal incorporation into biological processes and their export to the deep ocean. An earth system approach is required to fully comprehend the elemental cycles of trace metals, and the increasing use of stable isotopic tracers likely will be an important stepping stone to meet this challenge. These and other trace metal studies are needed to underpin modeling efforts aimed at understanding how ocean biogeochemistry impacts global climate in both the past and into the future. We encourage submissions from the cellular to the ocean basin scale that address these critical issues.

023. Space-Based Measurements of Ocean Climate Change

 [P, X, I]

Organizers: Carl Mears, Remote Sensing Systems,; Richard W. Reynolds, National Climate Data Center,

Continuous, space-based measurements of a number of oceanic variables have been ongoing for over two decades. These variables include both basic variable measurements, such as sea surface temperature, surface wind speed, and total column water vapor, as well as estimates of other parameters that can be derived from basic measurements, such as fluxes of water vapor and surface heat, carbon dioxide, trace gases or momentum. The satellite record is now long enough that these measurements can be examined for evidence of climate change. The global coverage of satellite measurements enables large-scale analysis techniques such as trends in global and basin-wide scale averages, global-scale changes in spatial structure, as well as comparison of the results with climate models. This session welcomes papers on the construction and assessment of climate quality satellite-based datasets, climate change analyses based on satellite data, and comparison of results with model predictions and hindcasts.

024. Coastal Ocean Processes: Integration and Synthesis of Interdisciplinary Shelf Studies

 [B, C, N, T]

Organizers: Richard A. Jahnke, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography,; Oscar Schofield, Rutgers University,

Continental shelves play a major role in global marine biogeochemical cycles, support most commercial living marine resources and are the interface zone between the human-inhabited terrestrial and open ocean environments. Because of the proximity of the land and seafloor interfaces, numerous biological and transport processes are either unique to or intensified within shelf ecosystems, differentiating them from their oceanic counterparts. The mix of major forcing factors such as winds, tidal magnitude and frequency, and buoyancy input in conjunction with geomorphology determine the local ecosystem characteristics and dynamics. Amongst the considerable challenges that limit advancing understanding of this complex system is the interdependence of processes and the extreme range of temporal and spatial scales of variability. Recent technological advances and focused interdisciplinary studies, however, have made considerable progress. This session will provide a framework for the synthesis and interdisciplinary integration of results of recent coastal ocean studies. We especially encourage papers that 1) synthesize results across diverse environmental settings, 2) integrate disparate disciplinary observations, 3) synthesize remotely-sensed and in situ observations, 4) report results employing innovative coastal observing technologies, and 5) combine observations and modeling.

025. Taxon-specific Biogeochemistry in Aquatic Systems – Who does what?

 [B, C]

Organizers: Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences,; Margaret R. Mulholland, Old Dominion University,; Deborah A. Bronk, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences,

Environmental genomic analyses have revolutionized our understanding of phylogenetic and metabolic diversity in microbial communities. Yet, linkages between microbial diversity and particular processes mediating aquatic biogeochemical cycles remain entangled because there are complex interactions and feedbacks among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Knowing which groups of organisms are responsible for different fractions of carbon and nitrogen flow has important implications, both in determining the fate of these elements and for parameterizing fluxes in models. Combinations of developing technologies (e.g., high speed cell sorting, stable isotope probing, quantitative PCR) and more established techniques (e.g., radioactive and stable isotopic tracers) now allow researchers to directly explore the role of microbial diversity and individual microbial groups in biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. For example, recent evidence suggests that phototrophic organisms, despite pre-conceived notions, readily compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the uptake of dissolved organic nutrients. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers who are employing new techniques and methodologies to explore nutrient interactions between microbial populations, and the implications for these interactions on global biogeochemical cycles.

026. Research Experiences of Undergraduates in Aquatic Sciences


Organizers: Russell L. Cuhel, UWM Center for Great Lakes Studies,; Carmen Aguilar, UWM Center for Great Lakes,

Undergraduate research has become a reliable component of many laboratory projects, and respect for its potential quality has risen dramatically during the last 10 years. Scientists now regularly support undergraduates to present material at national society meetings. Undergraduate attendance at interdisciplinary meetings improves scientific vision and personal networking for the students, and allows scientist-mentors to view students at a far more informal yet detailed level when searching for graduate students or technicians. Quality undergraduate work reflects positively on the mentor and contributes awareness of the mentor's broader impacts on scientific communities. This poster session is specifically for undergraduates to present their research.

028. Nearshore Processes

 [G, P, N]

Organizers: Jack Puleo, University of Delaware,; Q. Jim Chen, Louisiana State University,

Nearshore processes research over the last several decades has often focused on sandy beaches where many of the signals from waves and wave processes are large and visually obvious. There has been more recent emphasis to more thoroughly investigate other coastal regimes including those with heterogeneous sediments features as well as tidal flats where waves are not always the dominant forcing mechanism. Thus, in this session we invite abstracts that focus on the dynamics of waves, tides, currents, turbulence, and sediment transport from the beach face to the shelf break along sandy, muddy or mixed sedimentary coastlines. However, abstracts covering all aspects of nearshore processes research are welcome. Topics of particular interest include: 1) sediment transport processes and bottom boundary layer dynamics, 2) waves and wave-driven circulation, 3) hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes in tidal flat environments, 3) coastal morphodynamics, 4) swash zone processes, and 5) nearshore turbulence. Abstracts of an observational, theoretical, or modeling nature are welcome.

029. Ecology and Oceanography of Thin Plankton Layers

 [B, I]

Organizers: Percy Donaghay, University of Rhode Island,; Tim Cowles, Oregon State University,; Van Holliday, University of Rhode Island,; Margaret McManus, University of Hawaii,

Planktonic layers are a common feature in a variety of coastal and offshore environments. They can also occur in lakes. These layers can be persistent in time and extensive in space, with vertical scales ranging from several centimeters to a few meters and horizontal scales of kilometers. Such layers, which affect optical and acoustical properties of the water column, are often associated with gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients and may be loci of intensified biogeochemical processes and ecological interaction in these aquatic environments. The distribution and ecological significance of these features is just beginning to be examined. This session intends to provide a state-of-the-art perspective on the formation and maintenance of thin layers and similar structures and the ecological processes occurring within and around them. Papers from field, laboratory, and modeling studies are invited; those with an interdisciplinary focus are particularly encouraged.

030. Environmental Records of Anthropogenic Impacts On Coastal Ecosystems

 [C, N, X]

Organizers: Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza, International Atomic Energy Agency,; Ellen Druffel, University of California,,

Increased awareness of environmental values has led policymakers worldwide to develop and implement national and international legislation aimed to protect ecosystems. However, it is in most cases unknown or uncertain if the implemented actions have had positive impacts in the environment. In most developing countries, anthropogenic impacts are likely increasing. Coastal zones, the natural interface between watersheds and the oceans, are especially valuable ecosystems and are usually under intense anthropogenic pressure. Many pollutants accumulate in these sensitive ecosystems. In this session we wish to adopt a wide definition of pollutants, including all substances present in the environment that result from human activity, including metals, organic pollutants, nutrients, anthropogenic radionuclides, sediments and others. Dated environmental archives such as sediments, corals and shells, are used to reveal the history of anthropogenic impacts in coastal ecosystems. Analysis of these records reveals past changes produced in these ecosystems and show overall pollution trends. The objectives of this session are to: • Describe and revise methodologies used in the retrospective assessment of coastal ecosystems through dated environmental archives such as sediments, corals and shells. • Provide critical reviews of published data. • Present new research on the reconstruction of the history of pollution in coastal ecosystems. • Discuss the role of geochemistry in the interpretation of coastal records of pollution. • Propose new future research needs, such as internationally coordinated projects and databases.

031. Global Ocean Holozooplankton Diversity: Assessment, Analysis, and Prediction


Organizers: Ann Bucklin, University of Connecticut,; Shuhei Nishida, University of Tokyo, Japan,; Laurence P. Madin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Sigrid Schiel, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Ocean Research,

Challenges in the assessment, analysis, and prediction of holozooplankton biodiversity include the huge spatial dimensions of the global ocean, short temporal scales of environmental variability, and fragmentation of the taxonomic community. Until recently, some pelagic holozooplankton taxa (e.g., foraminifers, copepods, euphausiids, and chaetognaths) were thought to be well known taxonomically, but the advent of molecular genetics has altered this perspective. Morphologically cryptic, but genetically distinctive, species of zooplankton are being found with increasing frequency, especially among species with widespread and/or disjoint oceanic ranges and those occupying coastal environments. Significant numbers of species remain to be discovered, especially for taxa and environments that have never been properly sampled, including fragile gelatinous forms, those living in unique and isolated habitats (e.g., the deep sea and waters surrounding hydrothermal vents and seeps), and those associated with biodiversity hotspots. A variety of models now enable prediction of species distribution and diversity based on biological and environmental data in global data and information management systems. Complete top-to-bottom and pole-to-pole assessment may never be possible, but new observational, analytical, and predictive approaches are yielding a clearer view of global patterns of species diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine holozooplankton.

032. Oceanic Flows Past Sea Mountains and Islands and Their Marine Environmental Impacts


Organizers: Changming Dong, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics,; Christian Mohn, Martin Ryan Institute,; Pablo Sangrà, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,

Recent years have witnessed the increasing interests in understanding the oceanic currents past sea mountains and islands. Though there are significant differences between the flows past a sea mountain and an island given the wind field change and the lateral boundary presented around an island, there are similarities in flows past a sea mountain and an island when a sea mountain can be considered as a sunken island when a geostrophic constraint is applied. Eddy formation and evolution in the lee side of a sea mountain or an island have significant input into biological products and other environmental issues. Recent advances in remote sensing technologies help clarify the role of sea mountains and islands as generators of the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in the ocean. Resolving sub-mesoscale eddy activities is a challenge to numerical modeling. Contributions to this session are welcome that deal with all aspects of the topic, for instance: physical mechanism of formation and development, eddy variability, flow instabilities involved, biological, geochemical and sediment transport processes relevant to sea mountain and islands. Both modeling and observational studies are encouraged, and studies of both the open ocean and coastal seas are encouraged.

033. Unresolved Problems of ENSO Dynamics: Past, Present, Future


Organizers: Alexey Fedorov, Yale University,; Jaclyn Brown, Yale University,

Several topics related to El Nino will be discussed: El Nino in the past, including a permanent El Nino in the early Pliocene and the state of the tropics and interannual variability during the LGM and the mid-Holocene; stability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the tropics and the role of the atmospheric noise; limits on El Nino predictability; conceptual models of ENSO versus observations; decadal modulations of El Nino and changes in teleconnections to mid and high latitudes; and the effect of global warming on ENSO. Relevant theoretical, modeling and observational studies are welcome.

034. Climate Impacts on Sub-polar Seas: Mechanisms of Change and Evidence of Response

 [B, H, X, E]

Organizers: George L. Hunt, Jr., University of Washington,; Ken Drinkwater, Institute of Marine Research,; Jeff Napp, NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science center,; Erica Head, Bedford Institute of Oceanography,

Some of the world’s most important fisheries are in the sub-polar seas. These regions are experiencing profound changes under present warming and are predicted to be even more highly impacted under future global change. To understand how warming and associated changes, such as the loss of seasonal sea ice cover, do and will affect marine ecosystems in these areas, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that link the physical characteristics of the ocean and the biological systems. One important goal is to understand how fisheries will be affected and how fisheries themselves may influence ecosystem structure under environmental change. This session will focus on evidence of how the present warming is altering the structure and function of ecosystems in the sub-polar seas and on the mechanisms whereby climate change is likely to affect them. We welcome contributions from all sub-polar regions. Papers comparing multiple geographic regions, those linking multiple trophic levels or biology and physics are especially relevant. All taxonomic groups from bacteria to whales are potentially of interest.

035. Biogeochemistry of Northern Watersheds in a Climate Change Perspective

 [C, F, N, X]

Organizers: JoLynn Carroll, Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center,; Professor Dag Hessen, University of Oslo,

Climate models predict significant warming in the 21st century, particularly in the north, which will impact the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as alter land-ocean interactions. Global temperature increases will most likely lead to decreased snow cover and decreased albedo with increased heat absorption and permafrost thawing; changes that are expected to lead not only to increased oxidation of tundra peatlands and soils, but also increased export of organic carbon and associated elements. This session invites presentations on recent advancements in our understanding of northern watersheds including biogeochemical cycling processes, supplies of essential nutrients, contaminants, DOC and other reactive elements, and the role of these processes in moderating coastal ocean productivity.

036. Scientific Results from Global and Regional Ocean Syntheses

 [P, X]

Over the past years, many global and basin-scale ocean syntheses have been performed, both for the recent decade and paralleling the atmospheric re-analyses over the last 50 years. Results are used now for a variety of applications, including detection of ocean changes on decadal periods, investigations of sea level changes, climate and ocean predictions, detection and attribution of climate changes, and monitoring of ocean conditions that are important for other applications such as marine ecosystems. Applied techniques, used to combine an ocean model with available ocean observations, range from simple nudging to sophisticated and computationally demanding four-dimensional variational data assimilation approaches, the latter providing dynamically self-consistent estimates of the time-varying ocean circulation and its interaction with other components of the climate system. While most progress to date has been focused on the physical state of the changing ocean, such as ocean temperature, sea surface height, and ocean currents, advances in ocean modeling and assimilation, increased availability of more types of observations (e.g. Argo, current meters, tracers), and a broader multi-disciplinary understanding of the marine environment, has lead to the future promise of a rich set of interdisciplinary ocean analysis products. CLIVAR, in association with GODAE, has been encouraging the development of climate-quality ocean syntheses, including necessary assimilation tools, climate quality data sets, and expertise to perform and evaluate ocean syntheses on basin and global scale that span the recent decades (see http:// This session welcomes contributions that evaluate these products, especially in the context of climate research as well as in describing the evolution of the global marine environment. The interaction of the cryosphere with the ocean is another pressing issue that needs discussion. Future plans for ocean only and coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere syntheses/ analyses, initialization of coupled climate models through ocean syntheses and potential future interdisciplinary uses of global ocean syntheses should be addressed as well.

037. Transport, Biogeochemistry, and Ecology in Permeable Sediments

 [G, B, C, F, N]

Organizers: Markus Huettel, Florida State University,; Joel Kostka, Florida State University,; Alex Rao, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Jan Scholten, Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL-IAEA),

Permeable sediments are abundant along depositional coasts and on the continental shelves, and they form aquifers connecting fresh and marine environments. In such sediments, pore water flows provide a rapid transport mechanism for solutes and particles. Pore water flows are also observed in deep sea environments, e.g. at sites of hydrothermal activity and cold seeps. Research within the last decade has demonstrated the significance of submarine groundwater discharge in the continental shelf, the impact of tides, waves and bottom currents on transport and reaction in sandy coastal sediments and the effect of slow water flows through deep sediment layers fueling the subsurface biosphere. An emerging database indicates that life is abundant, diverse, and highly active in permeable sediments. This interdisciplinary session integrates studies addressing processes in permeable sediments in fresh, brackish and marine environments, from shallow to deep, operating on time scales from seconds to decades. It will include studies of pore water transport and geochemical reactions, methods development and modeling, and highlight the characteristics and effects of biological communities living in permeable sediments.

038. Progress in Mechanistic Modelling of the Ocean Carbon Cycle

 [B, C, X]

Organizers: Curtis Deutsch, UCLA,; Katsumi Matsumoto, University of Minnesota,

As observations of the ocean carbon cycle proliferate, numerical models of the ocean carbon cycle provide an important tool for synthesizing, testing, and clarifying our understanding of fundamental processes. This session invites presentations of recent work that advances the mechanistic representation of carbon cycling in regional and global ocean models from seasonal and interannual through geological time scales. Of particular interest are studies that explore the sensitivity of and feedbacks between carbon cycling, nutrient dynamics, and climate, and that use observations to both evaluate and improve model skill. Research emphasizing ecosystem functioning, respiration and remineralization in the water column, and the fate of benthic carbon and carbonate deposition are welcomed.

039. Real-Time Forecasting of Winds, Waves, and Storm Tides: From the Deep Ocean to the Watershed

 [P, F, N]

Organizers: Scott C. Hagen, University of Central Florida,; Hans C. Graber, The Rosenstiel School - University of Miami,

The estimation of tropical-cyclone-generated waves and surge in coastal waters and the nearshore zone is of critical importance to the timely evacuation of coastal residents, and the assessment of damage to coastal property in the event that a storm makes landfall. The model predictions of waves and storm surge in coastal waters are functionally related and both depend on the reliability of the atmospheric forcing. While there are no perfect predictions of the time and location of landfall and the intensity and size of the storm, this session will focus on improved capabilities to forecast wind strength, storm-wave height, and storm tide levels that are expected along a given tropical storm/hurricane track.

040. Ecosystem in Sea Ice Influenced Areas

 [B, C, H, X]

Organizers: Meibing Jin, University of Alaska Fairbanks,; Clara Deal, University of Alaska Fairbanks,; Sang H. Lee, Korea Polar Research Institute,

Polar and sub-polar marine ecosystems are experiencing rapid changes under the polar-amplified global climate warming. A changing sea ice cover can dramatically alter light availability, water temperature and salinity, water column stability, circulation, timing and magnitude of primary and second production, carbon, DMS and nutrients cycling etc. It is essential to understand how resilient the marine ecosystem is to the changing sea ice cover, and what is the threshold of these changes that can cause a major marine ecosystem shift. All topics addressing the above mentioned issues are encouraged to present in this session. The session will focus on observations and modeling studies of the marine ecosystem in seasonally and perennially ice-covered areas. Interested topics cover researches on primary and second production, carbon, DMS and nutrients cycles in sea ice, in water column under sea ice and after ice retreat. Any study of the broad influences of changing sea ice-associated ecosystem on fisheries, marine mammal and human dimensions is also welcome.

041. Juvenile Copepods in Planktonic Communities


Organizers: Gustav Paffenhofer, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography,; Don Deibel, Memorial University of Newfoundland,

Although the copepod nauplius is the most abundant multicellular animal on earth (Fryer 1987), Björnberg's (1986) title “The rejected nauplius” indicates that these abundant organisms have rarely been included in marine studies. Copepod nauplii occur abundantly in every part of our oceans, are found in far larger numbers than are copepodid and adult stages, and a species’ persistence depends on their survival. Nauplii’s behavior/performance have been rarely studied in the laboratory, and not in situ. Recent papers have shown that interest in early juvenile stages of planktonic copepods is increasing. This session builds on this momentum by focusing on factors that may control the behavior and survival of early copepod juveniles. A prime question concerns factors controlling the survival and abundance of nauplii and copepodites in nature: To what degree is abundance regulated by predation vs. food limitation? Recent results have revealed that late-stage nauplii metabolize nearly 30 % of their body weight daily, requiring high feeding rates and/or food abundances to grow. What adaptations have been made by juvenile copepods to increase survival rates? For example, do they accumulate energy reserves or possess anti-predation characteristics? These and other questions should lead to interesting talks, dynamic discussions, and new research initiatives.

042. Outreach in Ocean Sciences - Taking the Ocean to the Classroom


Organizers: Joachim Dengg, Institut f. Meereswissenschaften,; Teresa Greely, College of Marine Science,

As the awareness for the need for outreach programs grows within the scientific community, many researchers find themselves on unfamiliar terrain when faced with the task to develop appropriate concepts. Yet, many successful activities already exist that can be used as case studies. Particularly in ocean sciences, the innate fascination of the oceans offers the chance to combine outreach and science education, thus increasing scientific literacy and environmental awareness in the next generation of researchers and decision makers. By working with schools, the impact of this outreach effort is multiplied to a larger audience of teachers and parents. This session is aimed at researchers looking for ways to engage in outreach, as well as educators who want to share their approaches of communicating ocean sciences to students. Contributions are invited that demonstrate successful outreach projects in ocean sciences, in particular activities that address or interact with schools. Programs by research institutions are just as welcome as outreach activities associated with particular research projects, science museums, school labs or indeed schools.

043. Techniques to Implement Real-time Scientific Concepts and Data in the K-12 Classroom and Assessing Its Sustainability


Organizers: Marcianna P. Delaney, Univ. MD, Baltimore County & NASA GSFC,; John P. Leck, NASA GSFC Office of Education,

As members of the scientific and education community, the pressure to produce K-12 educational materials with current scientific content increases year to year. Furthermore, the content we do produce must stay within the boundaries of state and national standards, otherwise, products will be ignored by teachers who must meet the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act. The scientific and educational community is often mandated to create new material on a regular basis and ensure that material is utilized in the classrooms. Though we are successful in production, often classroom examination is ignored and we are unaware of whether the science content we do provide is being implemented and adapted to a school’s curriculum on a regular basis. Nor have we regularly assessed students’ retention of the information taught within these new programs. This session encourages presentations by educators and scientists who have created curriculum based upon current data or missions/objectives in the marine, limnologic, or oceanographic sciences, and monitored its sustainability in a classroom. We further encourage presentations on innovative techniques for teacher professional development as a mechanism to implement new curricular products.

044. Interrelations Among the Chemistry, Geology and Biology of Hydrocarbon Seep Communities in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

 [G, B, C]

Organizers: Charles Fisher, Pennsylvania State University,; Harry Roberts, Louisiana State University,; James Brooks, TDI Brooks International,; Gregory Boland, Mineral Management Service,

Extensive salt evaporites, shales rich in hydrocarbon deposits and active sedimentary processes make the southern continental slope of the USA in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) one of the most geologically complex and active continental margins in the world. Chemosynthetic communities associated with hydrocarbon seeps were first discovered on the upper Louisiana Slope and numerous research expeditions and cross-disciplinary research projects over the past 2 decades have resulted in well-supported models of the geological, geochemical, and biological processes that structure these intermediate depth communities. In more recent years hydrocarbon seep communities have been discovered in other parts of the world, and at greater depths in the GoM. These include communities associated with gas and/or oil seepage, brine seepage, methane hydrates, authigenic carbonate deposits, and asphalt flows. An update on the status of this research is especially timely as energy exploration and production activities are proceeding rapidly into deeper waters. This session will highlight recent interdisciplinary research addressing the relations among geochemistry, animal communities, microbiology, and geology at deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps, focusing on, but not be limited to findings from sites at depths greater than 1000 meters in the GoM.

045. Marine Aquaculture - What are the Burning Environmental Issues and Solutions?

 [B, X, R]

Organizers: Dror Angel, University of Haifa,; John Marra, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory,

Marine aquaculture (mariculture) encompasses the cultivation of algae, invertebrates and finfish in the coastal zone where it often conflicts with other uses and interests. Finfish rearing involves feeding with nutrient-rich feed and farm effluents may impact local water quality and the benthos if farm sites are not properly selected or if husbandry is not efficient and environmentally-aware. In comparison, cultivation of macroalgae and shellfish results in the removal of naturally occurring dissolved nutrients and plankton/particulate organic matter, respectively, and water column or benthic impacts are generally quite small. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture combines finfish, macroalgae and invertebrates to recycle waste products within the farm system and may reduce some of the environmental impacts. Although the cultivation of aquatic and marine organisms has been practiced for thousands of years, there are many gaps in our understanding of how modern, intensive mariculture affects such issues as environmental assimilative capacity, marine food webs, exotic species, epidemiology, etc. These and related topics will be discussed in this session.

046. Operational Oceanography: Assimilation, Modeling, and Applications in the Global Ocean

 [E, I, T, P]

Organizers: Eric Bayler, NOAA,; Robert Miller, Oregon State University,; Chris Mooers, University of Miami,; Ruth Preller, Naval Research Laboratory,; Roger Samelson, Oregon State University,

With the growing development of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), operational ocean observations will enormously expand. The IOOS program, as well as federal agencies, recognize that modeling and associated data assimilation form a core required capability for optimizing the value and benefits of observing system investments. Data assimilation will be an essential component of the associated nowcast and forecast circulation and ecosystem modeling systems, and offers unique opportunities for combining data with models to gain scientific insight. Assimilating ocean data into ocean ecosystem models enhances their forecast/prediction accuracy, and their diagnostic utility in ocean state estimation through hindcasts (i.e., re-analyses), and, in turn, the use of their results in Society’s decisions. Submissions are invited that describe new results on data assimilation methods, circulation and ecosystem modeling, and scientific applications of these methods. Research results leading to new or improved techniques for the assimilation of existing or future observations are sought. Assimilation methodologies and techniques that foster community approaches to challenges are also of interest. Disciplines can range from physical (e.g., waves, currents, the thermohaline structure, and related fields) to biogeochemical (e.g., inherent optical properties, chlorophyll concentration, primary production, nutrient cycling).

047. Ocean Processes in the Western Tropical Pacific

 [P, B, C]

Organizers: James W. Murray, University of Washington,; Zachary Johnson, University of Hawaii,

The Western Tropical Pacific Ocean is a physically, chemically and biologically dynamic area that plays a significant role in the circulation and biogeochemistry of the larger Pacific Ocean. Although there are some on-going efforts, this region has historically been less studied than the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. To begin to fill this gap, several recent oceanographic studies in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean have produced a wealth of zonal and meridional observations of the physical, chemical and biological properties of this important region. In addition, new modeling studies are providing frameworks for integrating and interpreting these results to provide a comprehensive view of the whole tropical Pacific Ocean. This session will highlight the results from both on-going and more recent studies with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the unique oceanographic features of this globally important region.

048. Chemical Oceanography, Marine Chemistry: General


049. Open Ocean Time-series Data: A Tool to Observe Temporal Variability of Biogeochemical Processes

 [C, T]

Organizers: Juan Carlos Miquel, IAEA - Marine Environment Laboratories,; Laurent Coppola, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer,

Long-term observation is fundamental to understand natural environmental variability as well as the changes induced by human activities. Although most of the critical biogeochemical and physical processes have strong seasonal and interannual signals, direct temporal examination of most oceanic regions is extremely difficult to carry out. Therefore the goal of open ocean time-series stations (e.g. HOT, BATS, DYFAMED,...) has been to produce long-term datasets of physical, chemical and biological variables in the water column in order to observe the impact of global change on marine ecosystems. These long-term time series data from open ocean stations can be exploited to: 1) detect and describe temporal variability of physical and biogeochemical processes, 2) quantify and interpret changes, and 3) develop a capability to predict future responses of the oceans to oceans to climate forcing. The rapid changes observed over the past two decades have highlighted the relevance of long-term data series acquisition. The data provided by the open ocean time series stations have significantly contributed to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles in the sea. However, some changes in oceanic environment are still unresolved due to the lack of data with sufficient temporal resolution. The session seeks to bring together recent research-based studies on time-series observations in the open oceans, with preferably a significant (but not exclusive) focus on biogeochemical processes in the upper ocean.

050. Dynamics of Estuarine Circulations and River Plumes: From Process Studies to Predictive Models

 [P, C, F]

Organizers: Ming Li, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science,; Parker MacCready, University of Washington,

Estuaries and river plumes provide an important pathway of nutrients and carbon between the continent and ocean. Due to the complex geometry and inter-dependence of motions at different time and spatial scales, it is challenging to develop predictive hydrodynamic models that can be used to examine circulation dynamics, contaminant transport, water quality and ecosystem productivity in these coastal regions. However, exciting advances have recently been made in understanding estuarine and river plume processes and in developing the state-of-art numerical models. Observations have yielded new insights into circulation dynamics and mixing processes while numerical models have been validated against observational data and shown considerable hindcast capability. It is timely to discuss the recent progress, identify critical gaps in our current understanding and assess the predictive skills of estuarine and shelf models. We are particularly interested in contributions on: • Observational and modeling studies which provide new insights into estuarine and river plume physics such as circulation dynamics and turbulent mixing. • Development of novel numerical methods and physics parameterizations for use in estuaries and shelf seas. • Application and validation of numerical models to estuaries and their adjacent shelves, and evaluation of the predictive skills.

051. Watersheds, Lakes, Rivers, Estuaries: General


Organizers: JoLynn Carroll, Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center,

052. Synthesis of Coupled Physical-ecosystem Dynamics and Linkages to Environmental Forcing On Event to Climate Scales

 [P, B, E]

Organizers: Enrique Curchitser, Rutgers University,; Hal Batchelder, Oregon State University,; Eileen E. Hofmann, Old Dominion University,; Cabell Davis, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,

Understanding biological-physical interactions controlling marine ecosystem dynamics has been the focus of multidisciplinary research programs undertaken during the past two decades in a variety of regions, such as the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Ocean. Observational and modeling results from these regions, and others, have provided new understanding of the processes that control marine population variability within and between the study regions. The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for the presentation of synthetic results arising from studies of coupled physical-biological systems with the goal of highlighting differences and similarities in different oceanic systems. Papers that address the following are especially relevant to the session: 1) Linkages between climate-scale phenomena and regional physical and biological variability; 2) Modeling and observational studies of processes that affect coupled physical-biological systems (e.g., topographic controls, mesoscale variability, turbulent mixing); 3) Event-scale, seasonal, interannual and longer-term changes in population structure in relation to variability in the physical environment; 4) Comparison of the structure and dynamics of lower food-web and zooplankton and fish populations within and between the regions and ocean basins; 5) Connections between trophic levels. Observational and modeling studies that integrate biological and physical processes and make connections to the climate system are particularly encouraged.

053. Arctic Marine Communities and Biodiversity

 [B, H, X, E]

Organizers: Rolf Gradinger, University of Alaska Fairbanks,; Russ Hopcroft, University of Alaska Fairbanks,; Bodil Bluhm, University of Alaska Fairbanks,

This session is intended for presentations on recent findings relating to Arctic marine biodiversity in an ecological context, including results from the ‘Arctic Marine Biodiversity’ cluster endorsed by the International Polar Year. The Arctic Ocean is the area where the effects of climate change are expected to be most rapidly expressed. The ongoing changes make an effort to identify the communities and diversity of life in the major three realms of the Arctic (sea ice, water column and sea floor) an urgent issue. Changes in the environmental conditions will have direct effects on the marine biota on multiple levels, from communities to populations to individuals. Processes are critically impacted by the composition of biota involved in them. Species level information is, therefore, essential to discussions about climate change or anthropogenic impact, their expressions and effects. Recent efforts within and beyond the Census of Marine Life and in the framework of the International Polar Year have greatly advanced our understanding of arctic marine biodiversity and its relation to ecosystem functioning. We invite contributions that look at either new collections, or long-term monitoring of species and communities.

054. Sediment Transport in Lakes, Estuaries, and Shallow Shelves

 [G, F, N, E]

Organizers: Nathan Hawley, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory,; Courtney K. Harris, Virginai Institute of Marine Science,; Barry M. Lesht, Argonne National Laboratory,; Larry P. Sanford, Horn Point environmental Laboratory,

The physical characteristics of many lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves - relatively small volumes of water, shallow water depths, relatively long coastlines, and high loadings from rivers and shoreline sources - make them particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. In recent years human population pressures have increased the demands on these regions, and in many cases have resulted in an increase in the frequency and severity of unwanted effects, such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, excess turbidity, and high rates of sedimentation. The importance of sediment transport has become increasingly recognized since not only are many nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants transported by sediments, but sediment-induced turbidity also may limit the amount of light available for photosynthesis and visual predators. Recent advances in theoretical, observational, and numerical modeling techniques have led to increased understanding of these complex systems. The session encourages submissions covering any aspect of sediment transport in lakes, estuaries, and shallow shelves, including field observations, laboratory experiments, and modeling studies. Studies of physical forcing, sedimentary response, different modes of transport, biogeochemical feedbacks with sediment, and particle behavior are all welcomed.

055. Fidelity and Metrics of Ocean Models in Climate Simulations

 [P, X]

Organizers: Julie McClean, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; LuAnne Thompson, University of Washington,; Steven Jayne, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Anastasia Romanou, Columbia University/NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies,

Our ability to understand and project planetary climate change largely depends on the fidelity of the simulations produced by numerical models of the interacting components of the Earth system. In this session, we seek presentations that address the representation of key physical ocean processes that must be explicitly simulated and/or parameterized in order to reduce uncertainty in the climate’s response to anthropogenic forcing. In this regard, we welcome analyses of the ocean from coupled climate simulations conducted for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as comparative analyses from stand-alone ocean simulations using the same models. Additionally, analyses of stand-alone ocean simulations whose resolutions are finer than the AR4 one-degree class ocean models that can help us understand improvements resulting from enhanced resolution are encouraged. Questions that this session addresses include: What types of resolution are needed to satisfactorily depict key processes? How well do current parameterizations represent the key processes in the one-degree class models? Metrics presentations using ocean data to assess the fidelity of ocean simulations are strongly encouraged, particularly innovative techniques using newly emerged in-situ and satellite-derived observations such as those from ARGO floats and the GRACE mission.

056. Ecosystem Research Informing Management Decisions

 [N, E]

Organizers: Felix A. Martinez, NOAA,; Elizabeth Turner, NOAA,; Mike Dowgiallo, NOAA,

Traditional coastal resource management has focused on individual resources and stressors. Coastal science and management institutions in the US and internationally are increasingly calling for regional ecosystem approaches to management. An ecosystem approach to management is adaptive, takes into account ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties, considers multiple stressors, and strives to balance diverse societal objectives. Ecosystem-level research is required to support an ecosystem approach to management. Such research focuses on assessment, monitoring, and prediction of ecosystem interactions (including human drivers and outcomes) to evaluate alternative policy and management options. The purpose of this session is to provide a forum to highlight and explore model ecosystem studies supporting coastal management. We are particularly interested in studies that (1) provide predictive tools for evaluating management strategies, 2) inform multi-stakeholder decision-making processes establishing regional goals and measurable indicators, and/or (3) have informed management or policy decisions resulting in significant environmental or societal benefit. We also encourage presentations that explore the challenges and opportunities that generally apply to an integrative ecosystem research approach.

057. Ocean-atmosphere Exchanges and Meridional Transports in Global Water and Energy Cycles

 [P, I, T]

Organizers: W. Timothy Liu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,; Mark A. Bourassa, Florida State University,

A new generation of active and passive spaceborne microwave sensors has improved the estimation of ocean atmosphere exchanges in momentum, heat, and water. From the surface fluxes, ocean mixing and meridional heat and water transports in an ocean basin have been derived. Ocean current, temperature, and salinity measured by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Climate Variability (CLIVAR) programs could be used to quantify errors and examine the overturning in the ocean. Ocean general circulation model simulations, combined with satellite and in situ observations, can also be used to study processes that govern changes in the storage and transport of heat and salt. Spaceborne observations have been used to estimate atmospheric moisture transport, which links the ocean to terrestrial and cryospheric water and energy balance. The divergence of atmospheric transport and the top-of-atmosphere radiation are complementary to oceanic data in the study of global energy and water cycle. Results from these and related studies are most welcome for submission.

058. Oceanic Observations and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

 [P, T]

Organizers: Robert Bruce Scott, UT Austin,; Joseph Henry LaCasce, University of Oslo,

Studies of oceanic observations addressing the fundamental principles of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) are sought. Previous such comparisons have stimulated theoretical work and have led to novel methods of data interpretation. Traditional topics include Rossby wave propagation, eddy-mean-flow interaction, topographic effects, energy cascades, zonal jets, turbulent dispersion and the general circulation. Creative new uses of data are also encouraged, as are modeling studies that involve the application of GFD to realistic flows and idealized studies that make observable predications.

059. Eddies, Fronts and Sub-Mesoscale Processes In The Upper Ocean

 [P, T, M]

Organizers: Raffaele Ferrari, MIT,; Amala Mahadevan, Boston University,; Amit Tandon, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth,; Leif Thomas, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,

Eddy transports of large-scale momentum and material tracers exert a profound influence on the oceanic general circulation, and on the exchange of heat, freshwater, and biogeochemical tracers between the ocean and the atmosphere. Recent observational and theoretical work has shown that eddy variability in the surface layers strongly differs from that in the interior. Sub-mesoscale eddies and fronts develop where isopycnals outcrop in the surface mixed layer driving vigorous exchange of properties between the ocean surface and interior with implications for the global ocean stratification and biological productivity. Our goal is to bring together experts in the observation, theory and modeling of eddy variability and biogeochemistry in the upper ocean, with the aim of assessing the current state of our understanding and defining important outstanding questions. Topics of particular interest include: 1) interactions of mesoscale eddies and surface mixed layers, 2) frontogenesis and sub-mesoscale dynamics in the upper ocean, 3) transition from sub-mesoscale dynamics to turbulent mixing through loss of balance, 4) eddies and high latitude convection, 5) surface eddies and lateral mixing at the equator, 6) impact of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy variability on ocean biogeochemistry. Submissions from the Climate Process Team on Eddy-Mixed Layer Interactions) are welcomed; contributions outside these programs are strongly encouraged as well.

060. Assessing the Effects of Submesoscale Ocean Parameterizations

 [P, M]

Organizers: Shaun Johnston, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; Jody Klymak, University of Victoria,

The overall goal of the Assessing the Effects of Submesoscale Ocean Parameterizations (AESOP) is to evaluate the impact of submesoscale ocean parameterizations on synoptic predictions of the ocean state using numerical models. The field program took place near Monterey Bay, California in August 2006. The observations and models investigate dynamics at an offshore front, bottom boundary layer dynamics, turbulence on the continental shelf and slope, and internal tides. The primary focus of this effort is to develop metrics and methods for assessing existing parameterizations. Contributions from within AESOP and from other investigators which address the above processes and related parameterizations are especially encouraged.

061. From Transcripts to Transcriptomes: RNA Abundance, Persistence and Degradation in the Marine Environment

 [B, T]

Organizers: Ian Hewson, University of California Santa Cruz,; Pia H. Moisander, University of California Santa Cruz,

Over the past 20 years an explosion in our understanding of the phylogenetic and potential metabolic diversity of marine microbial assemblages has resulted from application of molecular tools of amplification, hybridization, and sequencing of deoxyribonucleic acid. More recently, application of reverse transcription has allowed examination of active processes and identification of RNA-based organisms (i.e. viruses) in the marine environment. Current approaches utilizing RNA-based technologies span from examining transcripts by microarrays and quantitative PCR, through sequencing of mRNA transcript libraries and whole assemblage transcriptomes. The purpose of this session is to bring together researchers employing RNA-based technologies to allow exchange of ideas on techniques and approaches. How fast does RNA degrade, is silenced or interfered with in the environment? What can we learn from community transcriptomics and gene-based libraries? How could novel RNA-based approaches be used to examine fundamental questions of marine ecology? What does gene expression tell us about ecosystem function over environmental gradients? We welcome submissions from all corners of ocean science, including whole community and single-organism transcriptomics, analysis of transcript libraries, degradation, silencing and interference of RNA in marine organisms, and studies of RNA viruses in open ocean, coastal and estuarine waters.

062. Interaction of Riverine-Marine Systems

 [F, N]

Organizers: Faiza Al-Yamani, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,; Igor Polikarpov, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,; Valeriy Skryabin, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,

The session will deal with the subject of interdependence between riverine and marine systems. It will focus on the significance of the freshwater influx into the marine environment, as well the effects of damming rivers, and destroying wetlands that are associated with rivers on the health of the downstream marine ecosystem. Examples of effects include changes in: water quality, biodiversity and community structure, bio-optics, biological productivity including coral reefs and other benthos, fisheries and recruitment. Scientists working in biological, chemical, physical, and geological oceanography, as well as in remote sensing and bio-economics are encouraged to participate.

063. A Changing Coastal Arctic: Distinguishing Human Activities from Natural Processes in the Face of Global Climate Change

 [N, H, X]

Organizers: John H. Trefry, Florida Institute of Technology,; Kenneth H. Dunton, Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin,

Human activities on both local and global scales have the potential to adversely impact the coastal arctic. On local scales, oil exploration and production, which have largely been focused in shallow coastal regions, are rapidly expanding onto the Arctic Shelf, especially in the western arctic. The coastal arctic also is experiencing rapid change in response to a warming global climate, as reflected in longer ice-free summers, increased shoreline erosion, and significant increases in freshwater discharge. The proposed multidisciplinary session will be open to presentations that consider both natural processes and human activities that influence coastal arctic environments. These processes and activities include inputs of nutrients, organic substances and trace metals from rivers and coastal sources. The session also will welcome papers that consider physical and biogeochemical exchanges and linkages between the terrestrial and coastal reservoirs and the susceptibility of arctic coastal systems, including the human environment, to change. A diverse mixture of scientists is encouraged to participate and provide an opportunity for scientific exchange in this important and dynamic area.

064. Linkages Between Climate, Upwelling and Anoxia: The Cariaco Basin and Similar Systems

 [N, X]

Organizers: Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida,; Larry Peterson, University of Miami - RSMAS,; Laura Lorenzoni, University of South Florida,; Mary Scranton, Stony Brook University,

Continental margins are highly productive areas, which experience significant carbon fixation by photosynthesis, supporting in turn abundant and diverse pelagic and benthic fauna relative to the deep ocean. A record of surface ocean climate signals can be preserved in continental margins and adjacent settings, particularly when the vertical flux of particulate matter is protected from degradation by hypoxic or anoxic waters in nearby coastal upwelling regions. Understanding present conditions and relating them to water column processes occurring near the surface, within the water column (particularly at the oxic/anoxic interface), and on the seafloor can help interpret the geological record stored therein. This requires an interdisciplinary research effort and comparison of results from comparable settings around the world's oceans. The Cariaco Basin is one example of such a marine anoxic laboratory. Here, past and present climate signals are preserved in the sediment and an interdisciplinary, international time series program (CARIACO; US and Venezuela) is focused on understanding modern focusing processes to decipher the sediment record. We invite researchers working in the Cariaco Basin or on similar processes occurring along continental margins around the globe to share results and experiences.

065. Advances in the Application of Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

 [C, T]

Organizers: Thomas S. Bianchi, Texas A&M University,; Elizabeth A. Canuel, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary,

Applications of chemical biomarkers have become widespread in limnology and oceanography. Chemical biomarkers have provided numerous insights about present and past aspects of Earth history including: (1) food and energy sources available to microbes and higher organisms, (2) microbial chemotaxonomy, (3) sources of fossil fuels, and (4) evolution of life on Earth. These biomarkers offer the potential to provide insights about the biogeochemical sources, transformation, and fate of organic matter, which are critical for understanding the effects of natural and human-induced environmental change. Approaching aquatic sciences from a biogeochemical perspective requires a fundamental understanding of the composition of organic matter. However, despite new analytical advances in aquatic geochemistry, a significant fraction of the organic matter remains uncharacterizable. Nevertheless, recent advances have been made in the analysis of polar molecules, “finger-printing” of complex organic matter using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), protein chemistry (e.g., proteomics), and multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), to name a few. In this session, we hope to explore some recent advances that allow us to break through this “analytical window” and more fully understand the molecularly-uncharacterized component (MUC) of aquatic organic matter.

066. Linking Ecosystem Health to Marine Animal Health

 [B, X, E]

Organizers: Nathalie Valette-Silver, NOAA/NOS/NCCOS,; Teri Rowles, NOAA/NMFS/PR,; Cheryl Woodley, NOAA/NOS,

Over the past decades, marine animal diseases and die-offs are becoming more frequent and are observed in most coastal states. In addition, specific marine populations are showing evidence of obvious responses to environmental changes. This trend parallels the increase in human population using coastal and ocean resources as well as observed environmental changes (including climate change, temperature rise, increased nutrients and contaminants concentrations, etc). For example, Harmful Algal Bloom(HAB) biotoxins may cause human illness and death, result in beaches or waters being closed to recreation or seafood harvesting, alter habitats and adversely, impact the health and survival of fish, endangered or protected species (such as marine mammals, sea turtles and corals), as well as other marine organisms. The session will identify major stressors, their potential impacts on marine animal or coral health, and evaluate the risks to specific vulnerable populations or ecosystems.

067. Variability and Mixing Near Topography


Organizers: Georgi G. Sutyrin, GSO, University of Rhode Island, USA,; Gordon E. Swaters, DMSS, University of Alberta, Canada,

Irregular, rough topography is a prevalent ocean feature, appearing in the shape of the ocean bottom and coastline, and the shelves and slopes that connect the shores to the abyss. Strong currents, jets, ocean variability and enhanced mixing are also often observed near topography, arguing that continental shelves, ridges and seamounts exert a strong dynamical oceanic influence. Accurate modeling of baroclinic flows interacting with steep topography remains a challenging problem. This session provides a forum for observational, numerical, theoretical, laboratory studies of topographic effects at global, mesoscale, and small-scale processes.

068. Oceanic Overflows and Dense Gravity Currents: Observations, Modeling and Parameterization


Organizers: Sonya Legg, Princeton University,; Arnold Gordon, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University,; Tamay Ozgokmen, University of Miami,

Dense oceanic overflows and gravity currents are the source of much of the ventilation of the ocean. These energetic features are governed by small spatial and temporal scale processes, difficult to observe and to model. The ongoing Gravity Current Entrainment Climate Process Team is bridging the gap between climate model development and observational, theoretical, laboratory and numerical process studies, to improve global climate model representation of overflows and dense gravity currents. This session will provide a forum to present progress over the last few years in the development of observational and theoretical understanding of these features, and in their representation within global models. Presentations describing the impact of overflow representation on simulations of the larger scale ocean circulation and the climate are encouraged.

069. Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Invasive Species

 [B, N, X]

Organizers: Stephanie Glenn, PhD, Houston Advanced Research Center,; Lisa Gonzalez, M.S.,, Houston Advanced Research Center,

Global climate change is expected to alter many variables of coastal ecosystem health in the coming decades. Scientists around the world are already documenting impacts of global climate change such as changes in global ocean temperatures, sea level, distribution and quantity of precipitation, estuarine salinity regimes, and biogeographic ranges of flora and fauna. Also being documented are increasing numbers of introductions of nonnative, invasive species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. The successful establishment of a nonnative, invasive species in a coastal ecosystem is largely dependent upon the presence of favorable environmental conditions at the time of the introduction such as temperature, salinity, food availability, and the existence of predators and disease. Climate-induced changes to factors such as these may facilitate the successful invasion of aquatic species previously introduced, but unable to establish, due to the prior incompatibility of estuarine conditions. This session will investigate the extent to which global climate change has the potential to exacerbate the spread of invasive species in coastal ecosystems.

070. Microbial Associations With Marine Invertebrates


Organizers: Anthony Moss, Ph.D., Biological Sciences, Auburn University,; Russell Hill, Ph.D., Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland,

The session will explore the relationship between microbes and invertebrate hosts, ranging from sponges to plankters, to arthropods and platyhelmiths. Microbes may use the invertebrate as a life-cycle host, or may confer advantage on the host with regard to nutrient uptake or with adaptation to extreme environments. Microbes have been shown to have a critical impact on the ability of invertebrates to assimilate energy sources that they otherwise could not access, such as the Osedax/Oceanospirillales symbiosis, which aids with the recycling of carbon in whale falls. Microbes can therefore play a critical role in global carbon processing at many different levels.

071. Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on Marine Population Connectivity

 [B, X]

Organizers: Iliana B Baums, Pennsylvania State University,; Claire Paris, University of Miami - RSMAS,

Marine species often can be described as metapopulations with varying levels of subpopulation connectivity across time and space. Evolutionary studies aim at exploring long-term processes such as, speciation, biogeography, historical exchanges events, and population persistence. Low dispersal rates are sufficient to shift the metapopulation distribution pattern over time by turnover of local populations: some go extinct and are re-established elsewhere. Ecological studies focus on the larval fluxes required to sustain a population (e.g. design of MPAs to protect a fished stock, exploration of recent or current genetic population structure). Such demographic connectivity usually implies that a substantial number of individuals are exchanged each generation. Dispersal at all scales is influenced by the physical and chemical environment dispersive stages encounter due in part to behavioral responses of migrants to their dispersal environment. Increasing sea-surface temperatures, changing water chemistry and shifts in marine community structure are likely to influence reproduction and dispersal patterns. This session invites papers that integrate multiple disciplines to understand the influence of climate change on connectivity and survival of marine populations.

072. Nearshore and Coastal Regions: General


Organizers: Lyle Hibler, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,

073. Applications and Technological Developments of High Frequency Radar for Coastal Oceanography

 [N, T]

Organizers: Libe Washburn, University of California, Santa Barbara,; Jeffrey D. Paduan, US Naval Postgraduate School,; Lynn K. Shay, RSMAS/MPO University of Miami,; Scott Glenn, Institute of Marine and Coastal Studies, Rutgers University,

High frequency (HF) radar is becoming increasingly important in coastal oceanographic research. Surface currents obtained from HF radars are a backbone measurement in evolving coastal ocean observing systems. HF radars provide nearly continuous time series observations over grids with spatial resolution from 1 to 6 kilometers and temporal resolution of the order of minutes to a few hours. Maximum ranges of HF radars now extend to about 180 km offshore. Process oceanographic studies in the coastal ocean often rely on real-time current patterns from HF radars for opportunistic sampling and for interpreting local observations within the larger scale velocity field. Surface current observations from HF radars are now being used operationally by government agencies such as the US Coast Guard for search and rescue operations. This session seeks presentations covering the wide range of applications and technological developments related to the use of HF radars in coastal oceanography. These include studies of coastal current dynamics, larval and pollutant dispersal, statistical description of the surface gravity wave field, and dispersion of river discharge. Presentations on technological advances related to HF radar are also welcome including hardware innovations, algorithm development, and accuracy and error characterization.

074. Influence of Recent Changes in the Arctic

 [N, H, X, B, P]

Organizers: Andrew Pershing, University of Maine,; David Mountain, NOAA Fisheries,; Igor Belkin, University of Rhode Island,; Charles Greene, Cornell University,

Arctic and subarctic regions have experienced considerable warming over the last ~30 years, and climate models suggest this trend will continue. Major consequences of high- latitude warming include distributional changes of freshwater and ice. There is emerging evidence that changes in the export of low-salinity water from the Arctic over recent decades may have influenced coastal marine systems as far south as the Middle Atlantic Bight. The intent of this session is to provide a forum for the presentation of results from regional physical, biological and/or ecosystem studies that explore the nature and extent of Arctic influences on lower latitude systems. Of particular relevance to the session will be results from: 1) observational and modeling studies investigating the timing and pathways of freshwater export from the Arctic, and 2) studies investigating the physical and biological changes in sub-arctic and mid-latitude ecosystems in which an Arctic influence has been documented or suggested.

075. Biogeography of the Ocean Interior


Organizers: Les Watling, University of Hawaii,; Elva Escobar-Briones, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico,

Marine biogeography is an old discipline, founded to study patterns of distributions of organisms throughout the world’s oceans. For the most part this field has focused its attentions on organisms of the continental shelves and upper reaches of the open sea. These patterns have been admirably summarized in books published in the last two decades. However, as exploration of the deep sea has progressed, especially involving the use of new tools such as submersibles, remotely operated vehicles, and trackable ocean drifters, new knowledge about the oceanography and biogeography of the ocean interior is being accumulated. This session will present many of these new findings, and will promote an interchange among physical and biological oceanographers.

076. Watersheds and Coral Reefs: Science, Policy and Implementation

 [X, R]

Organizers: Robert Richmond, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa,; Felix Martinez, NOAA,; Michael Dowgiallo, NOAA,

Coral reefs worldwide are being degraded by human-induced disturbances, resulting in ecological, economic and cultural losses. Runoff and sedimentation are among the greatest threats to coastal reefs surrounding high islands and adjacent to continental landmasses. Scientific data exist that identify key stressors, synergisms, and outcomes at the coral reef ecosystem, community and population levels. These data demonstrate that marine protected areas alone are insufficient for coral reef protection and that integrated watershed management practices in upland areas are also needed. Gaps in the effectiveness of environmental policy, legislation and regulatory enforcement have resulted in the continued degradation of U.S reefs. Several Pacific Islands, with intact resource stewardship and traditional leadership systems, have been able to apply research findings to coral reef management policies relatively quickly. Case histories in Micronesia and elsewhere provide insight on how biophysical data can be applied to manage human behaviors responsible for coral reef destruction, through the social sciences.

077. Education and Outreach Using Ocean Observing Systems.

 [S, T]

Organizers: J. A. Yoder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; E. L. Rom, National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences,; J. McDonnell, Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, Rutgers,

Ocean observing systems are being designed, developed and deployed to support ocean research and marine operations. The technological challenges to be overcome to bring these systems to full operation make interesting stories, and the real-time data streams available now and in the future provide great opportunities to engage many different audiences in the excitement of exploring the coastal and open ocean and seafloor. Our session seeks papers that illustrate: (1) the challenges that need to be overcome to bring environmental data to novice users; (2) pilot projects that demonstrate how ocean observing data can be used in formal and informal classroom or other settings; (3) ideas/examples from researchers as to how they believe their experiments and data using ocean observing systems are useful for education and outreach; and (4) the role of cyber infrastructure for collecting and disseminating data from remote locations for use in education and outreach. This session encourages exemplars including those from other fields (e.g. meteorology, environmental science) that model and discuss how observing systems and cyber infrastructure can meet the increasing need for ocean awareness and understanding through improved formal and informal education serving a broad range of audiences.

078. Northern Gulf of Mexico Landscape Change and Natural Hazards

 [G, X, R]

Organizers: John C. Brock, USGS,; Dawn Lavoie, USGS,

Following the devastation wrought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August –September 2005, a better understanding of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coastal system is a basic requirement for sustainable restoration, redevelopment, and sound natural resource management strategies. Further impetus for investigations of the geomorphological structure, ecological function, and hazard vulnerability of the northern Gulf Coast stems from global climate projections that suggest more intense Atlantic hurricanes over the next several decades. Moreover, dramatic landscape change in the NGOM region during the last century has reduced the level of hurricane protection afforded to NGOM human populations by coastal wetlands and barrier islands. This interdisciplinary session will present research on 1) the reconstruction of Holocene geologic stratigraphy, paleoenvironments, climate, and sea-level histories, 2) the historical period evolution of the NGOM landscape, 3) forecasts of change in this landscape, and 4) the susceptibility of NGOM ecosystems and human communities to severe storms throughout the coming century.

079. Photobiogeochemistry: Shedding Light on Biogeochemical Cycles from Rivers to the Sea


Organizers: Gregory A. Cutter, Old Dominion University,; Richard G. Zepp, US EPA,

Aquatic photochemistry is a relatively young field, but has taken on increased significance due to its roles in the cycling of radiatively-important and greenhouse gases, and effects on the degradation and bioavailability of organic and inorganic compounds. It is also tightly linked to photobiology and thus it is a crucial component to many biogeochemical cycles; “photobiogeochemistry” could be an appropriate and all-encompassing term. This session will feature papers that explore the frontiers of aquatic photobiogeochemistry from fresh to ocean waters, including field and laboratory-based studies.

080. Delta Environments Under Threat

 [F, N, X, R]

Organizers: James Syvitski, INSTAAR U Colorado,; Chris Paola, NCED, U Minnesota,; Yoshiki Saito, Geological Survey of Japan,

The world's coastal delta systems are made vulnerable and placed into risk as a consequence of anthropogenic forces, involving both climate and land use change. Delta environments reflect both changes upland, along the coast, and from the ocean. This session will bring to bear an analysis of the individual and conjunctive impacts of climate variability, water engineering and river regulation, consumptive freshwater abstractions, land management, coastal zone development and human occupancy, as well as sea level rise and hurricane intensity. Hundreds of millions of people occupy deltas and human engineering is now a major influence on the growth and evolution of many deltas, through control of the flow path of distributary channels, and mitigation of the seasonal flood wave with concomitant change in the delivery of sediment load. More and more deltas are moving away from their pre-Anthropocene morphology, as influenced by pristine sediment supply and sediment dispersal. This session reaches out to all environmental scientists, from eco-hydrologists to sedimentologists to coastal oceanographers.

081. Ocean Salinity in Climate and Ocean Dynamics

 [P, X]

Organizers: Gary Lagerloef, Earth & Space Research,; Ray Schmitt, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,

This session will highlight new insights on the influence of ocean salinity on climate and ocean dynamics, and looking ahead to satellite salinity data. Ocean salinity variations trace climatologic changes in the water cycle and its connections from the watershed to the global oceans, which harbor 97% of the planet's free water. Salinity variations affect the buoyancy driven oceanic circulation and heat transport in the climate system. Satellite missions are nearing launch which will provide pioneering globally synoptic measurements of the surface salinity and its variability. Recent autonomous systems are yielding a wealth of new in situ data. This session welcomes contributions related to all aspects of the problems and recent results of salinity measurements, remote sensing, modeling, forcing, analysis and interpretation of its influence on ocean circulation and climate on seasonal to decadal time scales.

084. Harmful Algal Blooms: Interactive Influence of Nutrient Competition, Differential Grazing, and Other Causative Factors

 [B, X, E]

Organizers: Christopher J. Gobler, Stony Brook University,; William G. Sunda, National Ocean Service, NOAA,; Edna Graneli, University of Kalmar,

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years and many of these blooms severely alter or degrade ecosystem function. These blooms are often caused by toxic or otherwise poorly grazed species that decrease grazing rates by planktonic and benthic herbivores, and thereby disrupt the transfer of nutrients and energy to higher trophic levels, and decrease nutrient cycling. Many factors, such as nutrient availability and herbivore grazing have been proposed to separately influence HABs dynamics, but interactions among these processes have less frequently been considered. For this session, we invite presentations which examine the effects of resource supply (nutrients and light), algal growth, mortality processes (herbivore grazing and viral lysis), and nutrient cycling on HAB dynamics. We particularly welcome presentations which explore feedback interactions among these processes. For example, a reduction of herbivory and grazer-mediated recycling of nutrients may favor HAB species which are well-adapted to nutrient-stressed environments and which increase toxin production under nutrient limitation, which may further reduce grazing rates. Talks on how such processes and feedbacks interact with other regulating factors such as benthic/pelagic nutrient coupling, physical forcing, climate change, anthropogenic alterations of ecosystems, and life cycles of HAB species are also encouraged.

085. The Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic's Subpolar Gyre: Similarities, Differences, and Interconnection

 [P, E]

Organizers: Fiammetta Straneo, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Jonathan Lilly, Earth and Space Research,; Anna Wåhlin, Göteborg University,; Tor Eldevik, Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Research Center,

The North Atlantic's subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas together account for the principal downwelling branch of the northern meridional overturning circulation, a key element of the climate system. While distinguished by substantially different bathymetry, these two regions nevertheless share many dynamical features: extreme surface fluxes, strong topographic control of currents, and the juxtaposition of freshwater of Arctic origin with warm, salty subtropical waters. Current research is evolving from considering various physical processes in isolation, to viewing them as elements of one, interconnected, dynamic system. For example, the boundary current, once viewed as a mere conveyor of water masses, has now been shown to play a highly active role --- in modulating interior convection, as the location of direct ventilation and sinking, and in the rapid transport of modified waters. Still, there are many open questions. Examples include the dynamical role of freshwater, transport and mixing by eddies, and the mechanisms of heat and freshwater transport in general. By combining expertise from these two distinct but dynamically similar regions, we hope to better understand their joint role in the climate system. Submissions which address the coupling of phenomena across scales are particularly encouraged.

086. Nonlinear Internal Wave Observations, Dynamics, and Acoustic Impacts

 [P, T]

Organizers: Steven R Ramp, Naval Postgraduate School,; James Lynch, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Oliver Fringer, Stanford University,

Recent comprehensive surveys from space indicate that highly nonlinear internal waves, also called solitons or solitary waves, are ubiquitous in the world ocean. Common generators include open ocean ridges, sills and straits near the entrances to marginal seas, and abrupt topography near the continental shelf breaks. The waves maintain their form and transport energy over large distances, and are therefore important in understanding the global energy budget. They also have a demonstrable impact on acoustic propagation in the ocean. Shoaling solitary waves may transform into multiple packets, morph from depression to elevation waves, reflect or refract, and ultimately break and induce turbulence and mixing. In this session we invite papers discussing all aspects of nonlinear internal wave dynamics ranging from generation to final dissipation. Papers which synthesize both space-borne and/or in-situ observations with theoretical studies and numerical models are especially encouraged. Papers which integrate internal wave characterizations with their acoustic impacts, both theoretical and observed, are also strongly encouraged.

088. Characterization and Modeling of Ocean Features

 [P, N]

Organizers: Avijit Gangopadhyay, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth,; Alex Warn-Varnas, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center,; Pierre Lermusiaux, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,; Lou Goodman, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth,

Sessions will focus on different aspects of characterizations and modeling of ocean features related to (i) their applications for dynamical studies, nowcasting, forecasting and assimilation; (ii) Interdisciplinary applications including biogeochemical and acoustical processes; (iii) shallow water processes; (iv) large-scale climate related applications; (v) applications for model skill metric; (vi) relevance to lagrangian (AUV and Gliders) observations; (vii) applications to OSSEs; and (viii) complex systems and lagrangian coherent structures.

089. Groundwater Inputs to the Ocean

 [B, C, F, N]

Organizers: Evgeny A. Kontar, Illinois State Geological Survey,; Giovanni Barrocu, University of Cagliari, Piazza d'Armi, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy,; Georges L. Weatherley, Florida State University,

The process of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as significant for water and material pathways from the land to the ocean. The study of the chemical and ecological effects of SGD in the coastal zone is an emerging science. This session will focus on physical, chemical and biological aspects of SGD and will be hosted by the International Commission on Groundwater-Seawater Interactions. Papers are invited on relevant topics, including submarine groundwater discharge, environmental, and ecological effects in estuaries and coastal zones, as well as other subjects related to groundwater-seawater interactions.

090. UV Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems: Integration at Multiple Trophic Levels

 [B, X]

Organizers: Wade H Jeffrey, University of West Florida,; Robert Sanders, Temple University,; Craig Williamson, Miami University,; Sandra Connelly, Miami University,

Solar ultraviolet radiation may cause direct damage to cellular macromolecules (e.g. DNA damage) or indirect effects by altering both cellular components (e.g. free radical formation and oxidative damage) and environmental chemistry including the photooxoidation of dissolved organic material. While studies of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on aquatic organisms have been underway for over a decade, much of what we know has been limited to investigations focused on one group of organisms or trophic level. Obviously, the ecological impact of solar radiation is more complex than revealed by isolated experiments. The direct effects of UVR on one trophic level may result in both direct and indirect effects on other parts of the food web including changing grazing rates and shifts between net heterotrophy and autotrophy. These affects maybe further influenced by environmental physico-chemical parameters such as temperature and nutrient availability. This session will focus on how ultraviolet radiation and other environmental parameters impact more complex trophic interactions and ecosystem processes to begin to understand the effects of UVR on food web dynamics.

091. California Current Ecosystem Dynamics – The Role of Climate Variability

 [P, X, B, C, E, T]

Organizers: Mark Ohman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; Nick Bond, University of Washington,

This session will address the impacts of climate variability on ecological processes in the California Current System (CCS). In addition to decadal-scale influences of climate forcing on pelagic and benthic assemblages, in recent years there have been strong interannual variations in the timing of onset of upwelling, episodes of hypoxia, frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms, and breeding success of top predators. Recent developments in observational technologies, experimental techniques, and data-assimilating models have also markedly enhanced our ability to resolve such changes. We encourage papers that assess the current ecosystem state in relation to the climate record, evaluate the influence of different scales of forcing on ecological processes, and identify specific mechanisms that lead to transitions to different ecosytem states or to the resilience of systems to such changes. We also solicit papers comparing ecosystem structure and function in the CCS with other upwelling systems. A variety of approaches are appropriate for this session, including process-oriented investigations that evaluate the role of specific mechanisms in governing the variability of marine populations and biogeochemical fluxes, coupled biophysical modeling, and innovative technological approaches for resolving the co-variability of ecological phenomena with the physical-chemical environment.

092. Nitrogen Supply in the Oligotrophic Ocean

 [B, C]

Organizers: Cliff Law, NIWA,; Joe Montoya, Georgia Tech,; Doug Capone, USC College,

Nitrogen is considered to be the main nutrient limiting community primary production in the oligotrophic ocean. The recent identification of diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacteria and eddy pumping, and improved estimates of nitrogen deposition in dust, suggest that new nitrogen supply to these systems requires re-evaluation. For example, temporal and spatial variation in diazotroph community, dust supply, physical forcing, and the factors that limit nitrogen fixation will result in regional variability in nitrogen supply and availability. This session will bring together biological, chemical and physical oceanographers to examine variability in nitrogen supply and its impact on ecosystem composition, productivity and export in different oligotrophic regions.

093. The Ocean Science, Technology, and Operations Workforce

 [S, T]

Organizers: Tom Murphree, Naval Postgraduate School,; Deidre Sullivan, Marine Advanced Technology Education Center,; Leslie Rosenfeld, Naval Postgraduate School,; Melbourne Briscoe, The Oceanography Society,

The workforce that supports ocean science, technology, and operations (OSTO) is large, diverse, and critical in societal affairs (e.g., environmental management, economic development, international security). However, relatively little is known about the OSTO workforce and its occupations (e.g., educational preparation; knowledge and skill requirements; certification requirements; number of workers per occupation; characteristic career pathways; movement of workers within the OSTO workforce, and between the OSTO workforce and other science, technology, and operational (STO) workforces; and factors affecting the supply of and demand for workers). Studies of OSTO and other STO workforces have indicated that educational programs are not preparing a sufficient number of graduates with the knowledge and skill sets needed to work in many scientific and technical occupations. At the same time, the demand for workers in many ocean-related occupations is growing (e.g., ocean observing systems, resource extraction, environmental monitoring and analysis, resource management). To address these workforce issues, we invite presentations on all components of the OSTO workforce (e.g., research, operations, industry, government, military, education). We especially encourage presentations on: the present state of the OSTO workforce; its future evolution; OSTO educational, certification, and professional development programs; and comparisons of OSTO and other STO workforces.

094. Coastal Ocean Modeling and Prediction

 [P, N]

Organizers: Ruoying He, North Carolina State University,; John Wilkin, Rutgers University,; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University,

Our capability to simulate and predict coastal ocean states has improved dramatically in recent years due to emerging ocean observing systems, increases in computing power, and advances in model numerics, data assimilation techniques, and the parameterization of sub-grid scale processes. This session will feature hindcast, nowcast, and forecast simulations of coastal regions from estuaries to the shelf break and adjacent deep ocean. Contributions related to the development of regional circulation models, coupled ocean-atmosphere models, biological/biogeochemical models, model validation and skill assessment, and data assimilation techniques are welcome.

096. Trace Metal Cycling Along the Ocean-continent Boundary: Benthic-pelagic Coupling

 [C, N]

Organizers: James McManus, Oregon State University,; Silke Severmann, University of California - Riverside,; Maeve Lohan, University of Plymouth,

The continent ocean boundary is a region where many trace metals are actively cycled either through organic-metal associations or through metal oxidation–reduction transitions. This cycling plays a vital role in the supply of biologically essential metals to the highly productive coastal regions. This session invites submissions that target the different pathways of metal delivery to the coastal and open oceans, the significance of benthic-pelagic coupling, and the impact of rivers and upwelling on coastal ocean biochemistry. We anticipate contributions to this session to be central to the goals of the GEOTRACES program, which emphasizes trace metals and trace metal isotope delivery and distribution processes.

097. Tsunami and Storm Inundation and Sediment Transport


Organizers: Bruce Jaffe, USGS,; Vasily Titov, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research,; Guy Gelfenbaum, USGS,; Pat Lynett, Texas A&M,

The tragedies of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005 reminded us that there is still much to be learned about tsunamis and storms. A promising approach to improving our understanding of these events is to through increased knowledge extreme wave hydrodynamics, which effects damage and destruction, and sediment transport. Abstracts covering all aspects of tsunami and storm inundation and sediment transport (field or laboratory studies of events, modeling studies of inundation and sediment transport, studies on coastal geomorphic change caused by extreme events) are invited. Abstracts describing modeling efforts, quantitative prediction and field studies of modern events that establish the relationship between flow and sedimentary deposits, as well as coastal response to extreme waves, are especially encouraged.

098. Contribution of Data Assimilation to Ocean Modeling

 [P, T]

Organizers: Kazuyuki Nakamura, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics,; Daisuke Inazu, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics,; Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht,

Data assimilation has become more and more important for understanding and predicting the ocean circulation. Reliable prediction of the ocean state needs realistic oceanic initial conditions, which are estimated by data assimilation. Furthermore, data assimilation can improve boundary conditions and various parameters of ocean model, such as atmospheric forcing and surface fluxes, bathymetric data, and coefficients of bottom drag, viscosity and diffusivity. It can also point to areas in which the model formulation itself is inconsistent with the observations, and guide ocean modelers to possible solutions. These improvements will result in more realistic simulations of the ocean circulation. This session invites researchers who study improvements of ocean modeling with data assimilation. Both small-scale process studies as well as large-scale studies in open or marginal seas are welcomed.

099. Susceptibility to Coastal Flooding: Effects of Changes in Near Shore Bathymetry, Topography, Habitats and Sea Level, On Daily to Decadal Scales

 [N, X]

Organizers: Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology,; Tom Malone, Ocean.US,; Hans-Peter Plag, University of Nevada, Reno,; Robert R. Christian, East Carolina University,

Increases in coastal populations and land-use practices in coastal watersheds and flood plains are causing changes in coastal habitats and bathymetry-topography across the land-sea interface that affect the susceptibility of coastal communities and ecosystems to storm surge and flooding. Risks are increasing and are likely to be compounded by increases in sea level and extreme weather events as a result of long-term global warming. This session focuses on (1) how changes in the nearshore environment are likely to influence the spatial and temporal extent of coastal flooding, (2) how sea level rise may exacerbate the effects of such changes, and (3) how scenario-based models of changes in coastal flooding hazards can be improved.

100. Operational Oceanography: Observing System Design & Implementation

 [I, T]

Organizers: Keith Alverson, IOC/UNESCO,; Frank L. Bub, Naval Oceanographic Office,; Paul DiGiacomo, JPL,; Ed Harrison, NOAA,; Allan Robinson, Harvard University,

An integrated Global Ocean Observing System of systems ( has been built up under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the World Climate Research Program and Global Climate Observing System of the World Meteorological Organization and is accepted as a key component of the GEOSS. Great progress has been made in implementing an internationally agreed plan, building on individual in situ and satellite observing components of this system. Research and operational groups now carry out ocean forecasting and reanalysis. The ocean and climate research communities have used all of these to improve our understanding of the ocean, serving as both a primary provider and user of climate-related ocean data. As such, incorporating research-derived capabilities and knowledge into observing system design and implementation, and likewise designing operational components of the system to help address research (as well as end-user) needs, is absolutely crucial in ensuring that we can accurately and effectively monitor the global oceans. This session invites submissions on all aspects of physical, biogeochemical and biological global ocean observations, focusing on climate-related results derived from these observations and analyses, as well identifying those that might emerge from potential new observing system components (e.g., new platforms and sensors).

101. Towards Improved Predictive Modeling of DOM Cycling: From the Watershed to the Coastal Ocean

 [C, F, N]

Organizers: Maria Tzortziou, University of Maryland College Park,; Patrick J. Neale, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center,

Dissolved organic matter (DOM), a major reservoir of organic carbon in the ocean, plays a key role in a broad range of processes and climate-related biogeochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystems. Despite the significance of DOM in marine ecological functions, many questions remain about the composition, optical quality and degradability of the dissolved organic compounds exported from watersheds and wetlands. These issues need to be addressed if we are to develop a predictive understanding and accurate modeling of the processes that affect DOM transformation during transport from the watershed to the coastal ocean. This session is intended to bring together scientists from a wide range of disciplines to exchange information, understanding and ideas, highlighting: (i) the role of upland watersheds and freshwater and saltwater wetlands as sources of DOM, (ii) the implications of climate and land-use change on DOM fluxes and cycling, and (iii) the interplay between microbial and photochemical processes that affect DOM quality (both optical and chemical) and bioavailability during transport from the watershed to the coastal ocean. Contributions that address the above issues through field or laboratory studies and, particularly, integration of measurements and modeling approaches are welcome.

102. The Gulf of Maine: Biogeochemical and Ecosystem Dynamics, Land-Water Interface Exchanges, Physical and Biological Coupling, and Human Induced Change

 [P, B, N]

Organizers: Cynthia H. Pilskaln, UMass Dartmouth School for Marine Science and Technology,; David W. Townsend, University of Maine School of Marine Sciences,; James Manning, NOAA/NMFS,

The Gulf of Maine is a large, semi-enclosed, temperate continental margin sea bordering the northeastern continental US and Nova Scotia and is home to some of the world’s most productive fisheries. The region has been the focus of numerous research programs over the past decade such as the NOAA Regional Marine Research Program (RMRP), the NSF Global Ecology (GLOBEC) Program, the ongoing Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS), several NOAA Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) Programs, and a NASA Land-Sea Carbon Coupling Project all of which provide a wealth of information on the biogeochemical and physical processes occurring in this economically significant and environmentally sensitive shelf system. Contributions are invited that address all aspects of Gulf of Maine research, including but not limited to: physical and ecosystem modeling, shelf/slope water interactions, satellite observations, water column and boundary layer particle optics, sedimentary processes and elemental cycling rates, nutrient budgets and fluxes, estuarine inputs and chemical exchange, seasonal phyto- and zooplankton dynamics, biophysical coupling, harmful algal blooms, human-induced benthic habitat alteration, and living resource management.

103. Physical and Biological Research Efforts to Evaluate the Use of Offshore Sand for Louisiana Coastal and Barrier Island Restoration

 [G, B]

Organizers: Colleen Finnegan, U. S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service,; Gregory Stone, Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University,; Richard Condrey, Coastal Fisheries Institute, Louisiana State University,

Offshore sand in Federal waters under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) will serve as a primary source of material for Louisiana coastal and barrier island restoration. Immense sand volumes will be required as a result of coastal damage following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. MMS is cooperatively working with the State of Louisiana on geologic and geophysical studies to locate new sources of material suitable for large-scale coastal restoration efforts. Numerous physical and biological environmental studies have been conducted to ensure that large-scale removal of material from the Louisiana OCS is accomplished in an environmentally sound manner. Studies include field investigations and sampling, both physical and biological, as well as numerical wave modeling, and real-time wind and wave observations from oceanographic buoys in the vicinity of likely dredging operations. The physical investgations have revealed Ship Shoal, targeted as a primary source of sand, to be different than expected, with a dynamic fluid mud layer periodically forming. This session will highlight the efforts to provide an information base supporting a major source of restoration activity for the Louisiana shoreline, as well as by highlighting the most recent physical and biological studies information for offshore central Louisiana.

104. Coastal Sensor Networks and Ocean Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

 [N, T]

Organizers: Robert F. Chen, UMassBoston,; Kim Frashure, UMassBoston,

With an ever-increasing number of people moving to coastal areas worldwide, human populations are increasingly impacting coastal habitats, while coastal dynamics are increasingly affecting human activities. Therefore, an increase in information retrieved through coastal observatories, analyzed by information scientists, and delivered to decision-makers in these dynamic areas is clearly needed to support sustainable development of coastal areas for the foreseeable future. This session will focus on the integration of needs for data, observational capabilities, cyberinfrastructure, and educational outreach related to coastal sensor networks. Presentations are sought that clearly articulate data needs, describe new developments in information processing, provide examples of coastal sensor networks and observatories, and use real-time data for engaging students and the public. This session, will seek to build capacity to measure, monitor, and manage important coastal resources.

105. Diurnal Variability in the Surface Ocean and in Air-Sea Interaction

 [P, I, T]

Organizers: Chris Merchant, University of Edinburgh,; Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University,

The diurnal cycle of solar irradiance drives diurnal variability in the surface ocean. The most obvious examples are the diurnal cycles of near-surface thermal stratification and of photosynthetic activity. In turn, physical (radiative, turbulent heat, momentum) and material (gas and precipitation) fluxes are diurnally modulated by processes that often interact. Progress is being made in understanding these processes via improved observation (both in situ and from satellite) and modelling. The implications are increasingly appreciated across a number of areas: e.g., physical oceanography, numerical weather prediction, ecosystem dynamics. This session is being organized to bring together, in a multi-disciplinary forum, researchers whose expertise touches on diurnal variability in a variety of ways. The goal is a session where diurnal variability and its interacting components are the focus, not merely a factor, to stimulate new and fruitful networks within the ocean sciences. The scope is therefore drawn rather broadly: * Diurnal variability in ocean, ecosystem and coupled models * New in situ and satellite observations of diurnal variations * Diurnal variability in sea surface temperature analysis, assimilation and climate data * Diurnal modulations of air-sea interaction and boundary layer evolution * Mean (aliased) effect of diurnal variability in air-sea interaction and climate

106. Operational Applications of Ocean Satellite Observations

 [I, T]

Organizers: Margaret Srinivasan, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory,; Robert Leben, University of Colorado, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research,

Contributions on operational applications utilizing ocean satellite data are invited for this session. Of particular interest are studies and methods that highlight the practical uses of altimetry, scatterometry, ocean color, ocean temperature, salinity and gravity data with real-world or potential commercial applications. The combination of data between two or more sensors, or between multiple satellites producing same sensor data, can be a powerful tool in analyzing ocean circulation and climate effects, can contribute to operational optimizations, and can even have significant contributions to issues of safety at sea. Operational applications may include, but are not limited to, offshore oil and other marine operations, near-real-time (NRT) data streams, NRT coastal monitoring, operational processing, blended satellite data for operational use, marine mammal studies, fisheries management, recreational boating, and climate/hurricane studies. We strongly encourage topics in marine forecasting and those with potential industry or commercial applications.

107. Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms: Regional and Comparative Studies of the GEOHAB and ECOHAB Programs

 [B, E, T]

Organizers: Pat Glibert, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science,; Danielle Luttenberg Meitiv, NOAA, Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research,

Comparative studies of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that occur in similar ecosystems around the world can further the understanding of HAB dynamics by establishing the existence of recurrent patterns and revealing fundamental processes governing population development and toxin production. The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Programme (GEOHAB) has the mission to foster international cooperative research on HABs in ecosystem types sharing common features, comparing the key species involved and the oceanographic processes that influence their population dynamics and to apply enhanced observational and modeling approaches in these studies. The U.S. Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) Program pursues similar goals through long-term regional studies in U.S. waters. This session will focus on synthesis papers that report on large scale regional HAB projects, or which apply comparative approaches for HABs in upwelling, eutrophic, coastal lagoon or highly stratified systems.

108. Controls on Carbon Biogeochemistry and Fluxes and Their Associated Scales of Variability in Ocean Margins

 [C, F, N]

Organizers: James Bauer, VIMS, School of Marine Science, College of Wm & Mary,; Charles S. Hopkinson, Jr., Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory,; Wei-Jun Cai, Department of Marine Science, University of Georgia,

Continental shelf and slope systems are increasingly recognized as disproportionately important regions of the world ocean in terms of their productivity, elemental fluxes and biogeochemical cycles. However, to date these regions have received relatively little study, and their inclusion in global flux models has been limited. Key to both the dynamic and variable nature of ocean margins are their landward and seaward interfaces, and the exchanges of materials and energy across these boundaries that ultimately help control the balance between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in margins. The spatial and temporal biogeochemical complexity of margins is further complicated by the landward presence of associated wetlands, estuaries, and bays, and by the growing impact of human activities in the forms of coastal urbanization, energy development and watershed and river basin modification. This session invites contributions that relate fluxes and processes occurring at the land-ocean margin and ocean margin-open ocean interfaces to biogeochemical cycles and carbon balances in different margin systems globally. Of particular interest are contributions emphasizing historical or comparative approaches for assessing changes or differences in these fluxes and linkages over time and space in order to constrain natural vs. human-induced alterations in material and elemental balances.

110. Transport and Mixing in Flows Through Aquatic Vegetation

 [G, P, N, F]

Organizers: Anne Lightbody, MIT,; Evan Variano, Cornell,

Effects of vegetation on the hydrodynamics of coastal and fluvial systems are examined, with an emphasis on transport and mixing processes. Because aquatic vegetation and periphyton impact sediment transport, water quality, contaminant dispersal, and nutrient budgets in varied and complex ways, this session solicits results from field studies, laboratory models, and numerical simulations of flows in all portions of submerged and emergent canopies. We consider mixing in both the horizontal and the vertical, including fluxes at the bed, at the air-water interface, and between patches of vegetation and areas of open water. Topics of particular interest include erosion and deposition under aquatic canopies, air-water exchange, and the effects of spatial heterogeneity and short-circuiting.

111. Environmental Change: General


112. Natural Iron Fertilization in the Southern Ocean, and Implications for the Biological Carbon Pump

 [B, C, X]

Organizers: Peter J. Statham, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, UK,; Mike Lucas, NSRD, National Oceanography Centre, UK,; Stéphane Blain, Laboratoire d’Oceanographie et de Biogeochemie, CNRS, Université,

Much of our knowledge of the impact of iron limitation in HNLC areas of the ocean on primary production, carbon drawdown via the biological pump and on the Si cycle relies on short term iron release experiments. While we have learned much from this approach, it provides a frustratingly short term view of longer- term impacts and processes, particularly with respect to deep carbon export and Si cycling. Enhanced deep carbon export as a result of Fe-fertilization remains equivocal. A much better approach may be to observe the longer term impacts of iron fertilization from natural island sources. This approach is the basis of two major and recent European programes, Crozex (UK, Crozet Islands, see ) and KEOPS (France, Kerguelen Islands, see ). Given the importance of the Southern Ocean to the global climate system, and its sensitivity to climate change, this is a highly topical area of study. Contributions are invited on all aspects of natural island fertilization, including sources of Fe and nutrients, the carbon pump and nutrient cycles, physical oceanography, modelling studies and organism succession.

113. Ecosystems: General


114. New Directions for Funding and the Future of US Oceanographic Institutions

 [S, R]

Organizers: D. James Baker, Consultant,; Ray Schmitt, WHOI,; Carl Wunsch, MIT,

This session will cover the topic of finding substantial new sources of funding to augment traditional oceanographic institution support. We note specifically the critical need for stable funding for researchers so that they spend more time on science and less time on writing proposals, and for subjects that are critical but under-funded, such as long-term measurements. New endowments, on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars are required. How can these be achieved? Are there good lessons from the medical research community, which has blended government and private support smoothly? How can existing institutions come together to create a new funding stream from private donors? Proposed speakers will be representative of oceanographic institutions and we hope will include at least one person who is familiar with how medical research has built its support.

116. Confronting Marine Biogeochemical Models With Data: Approaches to Quantitative Evaluation and Calibration


Organizers: Raymond Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University,; Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University,; Chuck McClain, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,

We’ve all said it - "My model does a good job at simulating the observations." While such qualitative statements may be helpful at the first stage of model assessment, more quantitative techniques are required in order to determine if model development efforts truly result in greater model skill. Similarly, model calibration, historically a subjective activity, must have a quantitative basis in order for robust parameter estimates to be made. Evaluation and calibration of marine biogeochemical models are particularly difficult because the fundamental governing equations are not known, model complexity is high, and observational data bases are extremely limited. In this session, presentations are invited that discuss various quantitative methods, such as model-data comparisons, statistical approaches, and inverse methods, for evaluating and calibrating the full hierarchy of marine biogeochemical models, ranging from site-specific studies to the global ocean, from box models to three-dimensional circulation models, and from simple biogeochemical formulations to multi-element and multi-trophic level ecosystem models.

117. Turbulence, Mixing, and Multi-scale Interactions in Estuaries and Nearshore Environments

 [P, F, N]

Organizers: W. Rockwell Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst,; Stephen Monismith, Stanford University,; James A. Lerczak, Oregon State University,

This session will highlight recent advances in the measurement and modeling of turbulence, coherent structures and secondary flows in estuaries and nearshore environments. There is increasing recognition that the important momentum and scalar fluxes involve the interaction of a diverse range of scales, including turbulence in addition to coherent structures such as wakes of obstacles, fronts, hydraulic transitions, as well as secondary flows induced by topography, density gradients, flow curvature, and planetary rotation. Observations, modeling studies, and theoretical examination of the impacts of these processes on the time-averaged dynamics are all welcome.

118. Ecological Forecasts for the Ecological Observing Needs of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS): Tracking Factors that Influence Living Marine

 [E, T]

Organizers: Jonathan Phinney, NOAA, Fisheries, La Jolla, CA,; Hein- Rune Skjoldal, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway,; Jason Link, NOAA, Fisheries, Woods Hole, MA,

The ecological observing portion of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) is arguably the least developed area of the fledging system. Yet many of the benefits of IOOS are associated with high value, high profile ecosystem services such as fisheries, coastal zone use, ecotourism, and even human health. As such, ecological forecasts are a critical product of the ecological observing system. There are important Living Marine Resource (LMR) management needs requiring ecological forecasts such as fish recruitment, hypoxic events, marine mammal distribution (for sonar tests), and HAB’s, among others. Ecological forecasts to date have been primarily based upon limited statistical and process models that general focus on coupling ocean physics with ecology. Routine ecological model forecasts are greatly needed to better LMR management, and should be seen as analogous to routine weather forecasts. New ecological model forecast development is well underway and this session will highlight the state of the science and management application. The session will explore a wide range of topics impacting LMRs associated with fisheries, marine mammals, coastal eutrophication, and invasive species.

119. Operational Oceanography: Assimilation, Modeling, and Applications in Coastal/Estuarine Ecosystems and Living Marine Resources

 [N, E, I, T]

Organizers: Frank Aikman, NOAA,; Robert Arnone, Naval Research Laboratory,; Vittorio Brando, CSIRO,; Guoqi Han, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,; John Pereira, NOAA,; Woody Turner, NASA,; Cara Wilson, NOAA,

The continuity, global coverage, and high temporal and spatial resolution of satellite data make it an important tool for monitoring and characterizing marine ecosystems. Satellite measurements, such as sea-surface temperature, sea-surface height, ocean color, ocean winds and sea ice, characterize critical habitat of living marine resources, and most of the spatial features that are important to ecosystems, i.e. ocean fronts, eddies, convergence zones, river plumes and coastal regions, cannot be adequately resolved without satellite data. Similarly, satellite data is crucial for resolving the timing of processes such as upwelling, harmful algal blooms, seasonal transitions and El Niño events. The utility of satellite data to help characterize the global ocean has been demonstrated through many years of research. However, assimilation of coastal observations into biogeochemical models is still in an early stage of development. For example, the low accuracy of global ocean color products in coastal systems (e.g., chlorophyll and suspended solids) make assimilation challenging. Hence, satellite data are still underutilized for operational coastal applications and management of living marine resources. In this session we invite contributions on the modeling, assimilation, and applications of satellite data in the assessment and management of coastal/marine ecosystems and living marine resources.

120. Oceans and Human Health: Identifying and Understanding Ocean Health Benefits and Threats

 [E, R]

Organizers: Paul Sandifer, NOAA, National Ocean Service,; Ed Laws, Louisiana State University,; Stephen Brandt, NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab,; Sharon Smith, University of Miami,

Growing awareness that wise stewardship of ocean resources can have a positive impact on human nutrition, health, and well-being and that misuse and abuse of ocean resources will likely have serious long-term consequences for mankind has led to the creation of federal “oceans and human health” (OHH) programs in NSF, NIEHS and NOAA. These programs, in collaboration with numerous federal, state and academic partners, have supported the development of OHH technologies and tools to discover new beneficial ocean products and identify, measure, and predict ocean health threats. The latter include, inter alia, (1) genomics, aquatic biomedical models, and sentinel species and habitats; (2) epidemiologic tools, indicators, and biosensors; and (3) oceanographic models and pilot warning systems. The session will highlight progress on (1) discovery and understanding of ocean health benefits derived from seafood, identification and characterization of marine pharmaceuticals and natural products, and the use of marine organisms as models for biomedical research, and (2) on understanding, tracking, and predicting ocean health threats such as pathogens, harmful algal blooms, and chemical pollutants and the processes that drive human exposure to these health threats. Papers reporting transition of research results to application are also welcome.

121. Sunlight Effects on Dissolved Organic Matter Bioavailability

 [B, C, F, N]

Organizers: Kristopher McNeill, University of Minnesota,; James B. Cotner, University of Minnesota,

Photochemical and microbial processes are well-recognized as important sinks for dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems. For example, the large-scale loss of terrestrial DOM during and after riverine transport into marine systems is thought to be due to both its photochemical and microbial degradation. Many recent studies indicate that these processes are not independent, such that photochemical processing affects DOM availability for microbial processing and vice versa. Analytical tools are enabling greater precision in deciphering the importance of these two processes in different environments, from shallow freshwater to open ocean systems. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers working on the ‘photo-biogeochemistry’ of lakes, rivers and oceans. Paper topics on this theme are expected to span a range from photochemistry-focused to microbiology-focused and from laboratory studies to field studies.

122. Warming of the Intermediate Water Layer in the Eurasian Arctic: Causes and Consequences

 [P, H]

Organizers: Igor Dmitrenko, International Arctic Research Center University of Alaska Fairbanks,; Leif Anderson, University of Goteborg, Sweden,; Louis Fortier, Laval University, Quebec-Ocean Departement of Biology,; Vladimir Ivanov, International Arctic Research Center University of Alaska Fairbanks,

Recent observations suggest that hydrographic conditions in the Arctic Ocean are changing rapidly. First of all these changes are manifested in substantial increase of temperature in Atlantic Water layer. The beginning of the present temperature increase dates back to 1999, when the warm anomaly was detected in the Fram Strait. In 2004 it reached the Laptev Sea slope having propagated along the continental margin of the Nansen Basin. Observations in summer 2006 have shown further warming of Atlantic Water in the Fram Strait and north of Svalbard, clearly indicating that anomalous warm conditions in the Eurasian Basin will remain during the nearest years. What remains unclear is to what degree this warming may be attributed to long-term trends, or to multi-decadal fluctuations? What are possible implications of this warming for the Arctic ice cover? Does this warming affect the marginal seas through the cross-margin exchange? What is the impact of this anomalous temperature regime on biogeochemical cycling and Arctic ecosystems? To address these and other related issues, this session invites presentations focused on new oceanographic, ice, and biogeochemical observations, historical data analysis and modeling in the Eurasian Basin and adjoining marginal seas.

123. Molecular Approaches to Study Interactions Between Organisms in Aquatic Environments: Current Progress and Future Directions


Organizers: Jens C. Nejstgaard, Univ of Bergen, Dep of Biology, Bergen, Norway,; Marc E. Frischer, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA, USA,

Development of molecular approaches have opened possibilities to study interactions between aquatic organisms at taxonomical and individual levels both in the field and lab that has not been possible before. In order to stimulate further development, cooperation and usage of such approaches within aquatic biology, this session welcomes both oral and poster presentations on various aspects from method development to examples of successful applications. Emphasis will be given to novel and promising approaches within all fields including (but not limited to) trophic interactions, parasitology, ecology, ecotoxicology, molecular biology, behavioral biology, physiology, and genetics.

124. Influence of Tropical Rivers on Oceanic Biogeochemical Cycles

 [B, C, F, N]

Organizers: Patricia L. Yager, University of Georgia,; Ajit Subramaniam, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University,; Jeffrey Richey, University of Washington,

This session aims to connect the biogeochemistry of tropical rivers to the oceanic waters influenced by their plumes. Five of the ten largest rivers in the world by discharge are tropical and their plumes extend hundreds to thousands of km offshore. Dissolved and particulate material introduced by these rivers impact the marine ecosystem and their associated consequences may include eutrophication and carbon sequestration. Some of these rivers drain watersheds severely impacted by anthropogenic activity while others drain relatively undisturbed lands. Future global climate projections include changes to hydrological cycles in the tropics, thus changing the discharge of these rivers. Changes in either land use or hydrology will no doubt impact biogeochemical cycling offshore. This session solicits presentations that cut across disciplinary boundaries of terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, and marine sciences to inspire a more holistic approach for studying the river-ocean continuum in low latitudes.

125. Collaborative Partnerships in Ocean Science Education


Organizers: Linda Duguay, University of Southern California,; Sue Cook, CORE, Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education,; Blanche Meeson, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center,

Ocean Education in the 21st century is increasingly being done by educators and scientists who belong to networks with a common mission, audience or funding source. This session will highlight partnership efforts both within and between such networks and encourage providers to focus on opportunities for cross-linking efforts with other networks. Papers will be solicited from key individuals within the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education network, the Sea Grant Educators network, the National Estuarine Research Reserve, National Marine Sanctuaries and Integrated Ocean Observing System networks as well as networks from the Earth System Education Universe. Presenters are encouraged to focus on cross-cutting questions such as ‘How can networks best align and work together to share ‘best practices’, resources and involve ocean scientists both efficiently and effectively? How can efforts become more sustainable in an increasing competitive Federal funding climate? What advantages are there to collaborating with organizations from different cultures (ie. informal and formal education providers)?

126. Coastal Region Dynamical Variability and Effects on Acoustics

 [P, N, I]

Organizers: Alex Warn-Varnas, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529,; Stanley Chin-Bing, Chin-Bing,; Kevin Lamb, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario,Canada N2L 3G1,

The session is concerned with coastal region dynamical variability including along shelf currents, upwelling and internal waves. The shelf, shelf break and off shelf regions are all considered. Topics of interest include instabilities of along shelf currents and on the generation and propagation of large internal waves. Contributions addressing the effects of these phenomena, e.g., on acoustic propagation, and their inter-relationships, are particularly encouraged.

127. Ocean Policy: From Stratton to the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, and the U.S. Ocean Action Plan


Organizers: Marta Rodriguez-Lopez, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida,; Warner Ithier-Guzman, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida,; Frank Muller-Karger, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida,

The recommendations of the Stratton Commission led to the creation of NOAA and other major steps that define where we are today in how the U.S. conducts ocean research and resource management. The U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy provided a new visionary blueprint for the 21st century, and the Administration has released an Ocean Action Plan and has started to define how to address the nation's research priorities. Of great importance is to find ways to understand and better manage ecosystems that lead to a vital coastal economy while sustaining human and environmental health. This session will focus on ocean policy and governance issues, initiatives, trends and education strategies needed to better assess, protect and restore our oceans.

128. Comparing Aquatic Ecosystems

 [B, E]

Organizers: Jason Link, NOAA NMFS NEFSC Woods Hole,; Anna-Stiina Heiskanen, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre,; Bernard Megrey, NOAA NMFS AFSC Seattle,; Angel Borja, AZTI - Tecnalia Marine Research Division,

The ecosystem approach to management requires a basic understanding of important processes controlling ecosystems and their productivity. A necessary first step toward understanding ecosystems is appreciating the fundamental features of ecosystem structure and function. This session will focus on descriptions of diverse aquatic ecosystems, paying particular attention to common features, unique features, fundamental features, and important drivers. This session will emphasize integrative studies that contrast and compare across a diverse range of aquatic ecosystems. This session will also emphasize the practical application of these comparisons in an aquatic resource management context. We will propose a common, generic set of descriptors that will span a wide range of physical, chemical and biological features to facilitate comparisons among ecosystems. The benefit of the comparative analyses presented during this session will allow the opportunity for a broader ecosystem perspective and permit the ability to draw generalizations important to successful ecosystem approaches to management.

129. The Ecosystem of the Beaufort Sea

 [F, H, E]

Organizers: Patricia Ramlal, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Freshwater Institute,; Tom Weingartner, Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, Fairbanks,

The Beaufort Sea provides unique habitat for invertebrate fauna, resident and migratory fish, marine mammal populations and birds. The productivity of the nearshore area is critical to the regional ecosystem. Many of the migratory species inhabit both the Alaskan and Canadian Beaufort Sea at various seasons or life stages, although, both shelves are drastically different with respect to the phasing and magnitude of terrestrial river discharges. Both shelves serve as estuaries by processing terrestrial contributions that are eventually delivered to the Arctic Ocean. The need to understand the basic physical, chemical and biological structure of the Beaufort Sea is imperative as changes in the environment occur from: climate change, increased oil and gas exploration and increased marine traffic. These changes will have direct effects on the Beaufort Sea ecosystem and coastal communities, as will changes that occur in the adjacent watersheds. In this, the first year of the International Polar Year, we are expecting that this session will address all aspects of the marine ecosystem of the Beaufort Sea. This session will be interdisciplinary and international, bringing together scientists from multiple disciplines from the United States, Canada, and other countries who have research interests in the Beaufort Sea.

133. Ocean Modeling in the Eddying Regime

 [P, X, M]

Organizers: Mathew Maltrud, Los Alamos National Laboratory,; Matthew Hecht, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Ocean modeling in the eddying regime has led to new understandings of eddy-driven transport and mixing in the large-scale momentum and buoyancy budgets, of frontal stability and structure, and of oceanic response to changes in forcing, particularly to that of wind stress. Explicit diagnosis of fluxes which must be parameterized in ocean climate models at lower resolutions has proven useful, and yet the underlying physical processes which give rise to a number of prominent features of the mean ocean circulation have thus far resisted attempts at parameterization. Recent progress has come to bear on the description of adiabatic mixing in overflows, on zonal jets and, more broadly, the cascade of turbulence in the oceans, and on venerable topics such as dominant control of western boundary current separation and development of the subsequent free jet. The importance of explicitly resolved eddies to climate is just beginning to be explored. Contributions are solicited related to ocean modeling in an eddying regime, and particularly those that explore the physical role of eddies in establishing large scale circulation and climate.

134. Toward Integrating Source-to-Sink Field Studies of Sediment Dispersal Systems

 [G, F]

Organizers: Clark Alexander, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography,; Andre Droxler, Rice University,; Alan Orpin, National Insitute of Water and Atmospheric Research,; John Swenson, University of Minnesota,

Scientists around the world are examining the processes within and linkages between the components of individual siliciclastic, carbonate, and mixed dispersal systems from uplands and to the sea, including erosion and transport processes in highlands, processing of material along river courses and within floodplains, discharge from land, neritic carbonate production in areas flooded within the photic zone, and redistribution and accumulation on the continental margin from the inner shelf/lagoons to adjacent basins and abyssal plain. In many cases, these studies have reached a point where field observations are sufficient to drive conceptual and/or numerical model generation for all or parts of these systems. This session will focus on results coming out of dispersal system studies and will illustrate the characteristics of modern dispersal systems with a global perspective. Contributions that explicitly integrate one or more components of an individual dispersal system are particularly encouraged.

135. What is Being Done in the Caribbean? Who, How and Why, Should We Be Partners?

 [N, R]

Organizers: Warner Ithier-Guzman, University of South Florida,; Ashanti J. Pyrtle, University of South Florida,; Marietta Mayo, University of South Florida,; Nekesha Williams, University of South Florida,

The Caribbean region comprises several unique tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems containing a variety of ecological and geological formations, a wide spectrum of endemic species, volcanoes, and one of the deepest trenches in the world. The presence of coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds and their associated communities, offer a range of recreational and educational opportunities. These ecosystems sensitive to fast changing conditions; offer economic resources that are becoming limited and the intense anthropogenic impact can accelerate environmental changes. There is a need to document and exchange information on current and past efforts to understand the environmental interactions of these important and unique ecosystems within the Caribbean region. Understanding the relationships between terrestrial, coastal and marine environments is a critical step towards efficiently and effectively managing these resources. This session is intended to bring together researchers, institutions, land and coastal managers and decision makers with diverse training conducting research in the Caribbean. The key aims of the session will be to: (1) share experience and expertise, (2) discuss and develop future plans for sustainable development in the Caribbean Region and (3) integrate science knowledge to increase our understanding on Caribbean tropical ecosystems.

136. Past as Key to the Future: Using Late Holocene History to Predict the Future Response of Coastal Environments to Global Warming and Sea-level Rise

 [G, N, X]

Organizers: Ai Ning Loh, Florida Gulf Coast University,; Michael Savarese, Florida Gulf Coast University,

This session hopes to bring together investigators from a variety of scientific and managerial disciplines, working within coastal environments throughout the world, with interests in coastal geomorphology and ecological and geochemical evolution in response to climate change and sea-level rise. The late Holocene history (last 5000 years) of coastal environments holds clues to the diversity and magnitude of potential coastal response to warming and sea-level rise. Additionally, that same history provides a record of the pre-anthropogenic conditions of estuaries to guide environmental management and restoration planning.

137. Oceanic and Meteorological Measurements From Voluntary Observing Ships and Other Platforms of Opportunity

 [X, T]

Organizers: Rod G. Zika, University of Miami RSMAS,; Franciscus Colijn, Institut für Küstenforschung, GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht,; Lisa Beal, University of Miami, RSMAS,; Peter Minnett, University of Miami, RSMAS,

In recent years an expanding number of programs have been collecting observations through volunteer observing ships (VOS) and other platforms of opportunity, such as buoys, offshore platforms, and lighthouses. Many of these programs are producing data sets of unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, which could not have been feasible using more conventional research platforms. This session is intended to bring together scientists, technicians, and engineers to present and discuss recent developments and results from VOS programs. We seek to stimulate discussion about the opportunities and difficulties in using VOS systems for ocean observation, with an emphasis on sustained measurement programs. We also seek to invite presentations showcasing scientific results and discoveries made using VOS measurements. On the engineering side the range of topics can include specific scientific objectives, development of new technologies or instrumentation, automation of measurements, software and communications issues, etc. For the scientific side topics might include time series of upper-ocean currents, assimilation of VOS measurements into models, patterns of climatic change, etc.

139. Applications of Remote Sensing Data for Assessing and Monitoring Coastal and Inland Water Quality

 [N, R, I]

Organizers: Paul M. DiGiacomo, NOAA/NESDIS,; Steven Greb, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,; Arnold Dekker, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research,; Nikolay P. Nezlin, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP),

Water is an increasingly threatened resource, particularly in terms of the quality of nearshore coastal marine and inland waters due to population growth, urbanization and other factors. As such, timely, accurate, and widespread assessments and monitoring of water quality are a crucial need. However, existing measurement capabilities have significant logistical, technical, and economic challenges and constraints, impacting both developed and developing nations. To address these problems, the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) has identified water resources as a key societal benefit area and seeks advances in Earth observation capabilities. In particular, there is a desire to expand the development and application of remote sensing capabilities, which presently are an underutilized tool for water quality assessments and monitoring. Building on a recent, successful GEOSS workshop on remote sensing of water quality, this session invites submission of papers that use satellite and/or airborne remote sensing data (exclusively or in conjunction with other datasets) to help characterize and monitor the quality of nearshore coastal marine and inland waters and the factors that impact water quality. Papers that address future directions (e.g., new and emerging observing capabilities and approaches) in this area are also welcome.

140. Response to the Ocean Commission Recommendations on Promoting Lifelong Education


Organizers: John W Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Sharon Franks, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD,; Paula Coble, University of South Florida,

The 2004 U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy’s final report “An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century”, Chapter 8, made strong recommendations for formal and informal programs and activities to promote lifelong education about the oceans Numerous activities prior to and since that report have been undertaken within the ocean sciences community to provide lifelong education about the oceans for the public. What can be said or written about the overarching impacts of these activities? This session welcomes contributions that report on lessons learned as they would apply broadly to outreach/education efforts, discuss education-focused recommendations made in the U.S. Ocean Action Plan, and provide perspectives of scientists, formal and informal educators –individually or together - from the government, public, private and non-profit sectors. We especially welcome: a) critical and/or complimentary perspectives from scientists who have been involved in these education/outreach efforts, b) contributions providing overarching syntheses, including methodologies and evaluation results that assess outcomes compared to starting objectives, and c) novel approaches to making "big leaps forward" in advancing public awareness and understanding of the oceans.

141. Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics of Marshes and Shallow Coastal Environments

 [G, P, F, N]

Organizers: Zoe Hughes, Boston University,; Brittina Argow, Wellesley College,; Sergio Fagherazzi, Boston University,

Advances in instrumentation and modeling capabilities are allowing new insights into coastal dynamics. This session focuses on shallow and inter-tidal environments, with special emphasis on interactions between hydrodynamic, ecological, and geomorphological parameters. Suggested topics include: flow over and through vegetation, wave-induced erosion of marsh edges and shallow environments, wave-current interaction, flow across platform marshes and within tidal creeks, modeling of shallow flows and inter-tidal zones, flow impact on tidal channel network initiation and development, and sub-surface hydrology. Studies using laboratory, field or modeling methods, and those detailing interdisciplinary approaches to quantifying and characterizing shallow coastal hydrodynamics are encouraged.

142. Nutrient Cycling at the Sediment-water Interface

 [G, N]

Organizers: Loreto De Brabandere, University of Florida,; Thomas K. Frazer, University of Florida,; Donald C. Behringer, University of Florida,; Thomas J. Saunders, University of Florida,

The aim of this session is to bring together scientists interested in the role of sediments in water column nutrient dynamics. Aquatic systems worldwide are subject to increased nutrient loads which can lead to changes in ecosystem structure and function. Changes in plant and algal assemblages and their production characteristics are typically the first symptoms of eutrophication related impacts and have been the subject of much study. Increased nutrient inputs and associated habitat alterations also induce major changes in the biogeochemical processing capacity of aquatic systems, and the sediments in particular. There is an increasing interest in characterizing the biogeochemical processes at the sediment-water interface because of their role in the transformation and ultimate fate of important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. A major goal of this session is to discuss the state of research on the biogeochemical role of sediments in aquatic systems and to bring together scientist from different disciplines (ecology, microbiology, geology, biogeochemistry, hydrology) to come to a multidisciplinary understanding of the key processes that affect the nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface.

143. Meso- and Smaller-Scale Processes in the Coastal Ocean: Challenges for Monitoring and Prediction

 [P, N, I, T]

Organizers: Jeffrey W. Book, Naval Research Laboratory,; Michel Rixen, NATO Undersea Research Centre,; Tamay Ozgokmen, University of Miami,; Lakshmi Kantha, University of Colorado,

The goal of this session is to present recent results regarding research on multi-scale processes that challenge effective assessment of the coastal ocean and research on methods for handling the problems thus posed. The focus will be on meso- and smaller-scales and we invite scientific contributions on aspects of coastal monitoring and prediction relevant to these scales. The range of possible topics encompasses process studies, observational efforts, and numerical modeling, unified by their application to potential operational oceanography requirements. Within the context of this theme, topics of special interest include studies of eddies and fronts, internal waves and tides, shallow water acoustics, surface drift, air-sea interaction, and turbulence, together with methodologies such as new in situ and remote sensing technologies, atmospheric, ocean, and wave modeling and uncertainty, data assimilation, adaptive sampling, and decision support systems. Both contributions from recent international collaborations and from U.S. coastal experiments are welcomed.

144. Coral Reefs: Impacts of Environmental Alterations and Climate Change on Coral Biology and Biogeochemistry, and Links Between Dissolved Organic Matter

 [B, C, N, X, E]

Organizers: Andrea G. Grottoli, The Ohio State University,; G. Christopher Shank, University of Texas at Austin - Marine Science Institute,; Ralph Mead, University of Miami - RSMAS,; Tamara Pease, University of Texas,; Kimberly Ritchie, Mote Marine Laboratory - Center for Coral Reef Research,

Globally, coral reefs are increasingly exposed to unprecedented levels of stress due to regional and global environmental alterations and global climate change. As a result, incidents of coral bleaching and coral disease have increased substantially in recent years. In addition, these environmental changes degrade water quality surrounding the coral reefs and influence a variety of important biogeochemical cycles occurring within the reef ecosystem including coral-bacterial-zooxanthallae interactions. As the building blocks of tropical reef ecosystems, corals are critical for healthy ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of tropical biogeochemical cycles. This session will explore the following topics: 1- the various ways coral physiology, biology, and ecology are affected by stress conditions such as increases in sea-surface temperature, ultra-violet radiation, ocean acidification, nutrient loading, and sedimentation, 2- organic matter cycling in waters surrounding coral ecosystems including terrestrial influences on dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources to coral reefs, 3- the links between DOM characteristics and the microbial community responsible for a variety of coral diseases and organic matter cycling within the coral-zooxanthallae community, and 4- the connections between the biological/ecological responses and biogeochemical cycles in the past (i.e., proxy records), present, and in the face of future environmental and climate change.

145. Ocean Circulation Using Satellite Gravimetry and Altimetry

 [P, I]

Organizers: Victor Zlotnicki, JPL,; Donald P. Chambers, University of Texas - Austin,

Data from the new gravity missions (CHAMP, GRACE, and the upcoming GOCE) combined with altimetric sea surface heights (JASON-1, ENVISAT) provide new opportunities to measure time changes in heat content, separation of baroclinic from barotropic currents, deep ocean currents, and changes in absolute surface geostrophic current. This session will be devoted to original results using such satellite data, alone or with in-situ data that provide insight into the interpretation of the new satellite data types, or theoretical advances applicable to this class of problems. Estimates of what can be expected from GOCE are welcome. Results based on assimilating global gravimetric data products into general ocean circulation models are especially welcome.

146. Changing Chemistry of Estuaries, Coasts, and the Ocean

 [C, F, N]

Organizers: Christopher M. Reddy, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; John W. Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Donald L. Rice, National Science Foundation,

This session welcomes papers addressing changing chemistry of estuarine, coastal and ocean ecosystems – water, particulates, sediments, air, and biota; recently and over the past several decades. Since the IDOE Programs four decades ago, our ability to detect and measure elements and molecules at the bulk and isotopic level in the ocean has increased dramatically. Results indicate that the ocean’s chemistry is changing (e.g. pH), and that numerous chemicals are involved. New input vectors have been recognized (e.g. groundwater), the interplay between marine chemistry and genomics is in its nascent stage, and new chemicals of environmental concern, such as flame retardants and perfluorinated molecules, have been identified. These data have reawakened concerns about human caused and natural fluctuations in the chemistry of estuaries, coastal areas and the oceans over various time and space scales in the full range of concentrations. Furthermore, the potential roles that emerging nations will have on the ocean’s chemistry have not been fully evaluated. Presentations that (a) synthesize new data on the changing chemistry of the oceans, (b) identify new source terms and processes, (c) employ advanced analytical methods, and (d) consider approaches that explore past conventional theories in the field of chemical oceanography are encouraged.

147. In, Around, and Out: Autochthonous Production, Allochthonous Inputs, and Downstream Transport of Riverine Carbon

 [B, C, F]

Organizers: Heath E. Capello, University of Mississippi,; Clifford A. Ochs, University of Mississippi,

Large rivers are the major conduits of organic carbon "from the watershed to the global ocean." The relative importance of autochthonous vs. allochthonous organic carbon inputs varies among different river systems. Phytoplankton production may be a substantial source of organic carbon in some river systems. In other systems or times of year, organic carbon originating from the floodplain may be the primary driver of river metabolism. The goal of this session is to examine and compare various mechanisms of organic carbon flux in large rivers. Presentations addressing, but not limited to, mechanisms affecting inputs, transformations, and fates of organic carbon in large rivers are welcome.

148. Multi-Sensor Sea Surface Temperature Analyses

 [P, I]

Organizers: Chelle L. Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems,; Gary A. Wick, NOAA/ESRL/PSD,; Craig Donlon, Met Office Hadley Centre,

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the most important variables related to the global ocean-atmosphere system. It is a key indicator for climate change and is widely applied to studies of upper ocean processes, to air-sea heat exchange, and as a boundary condition for numerical weather prediction. Improved satellite infrared (IR) sensors (e.g. MODIS, AATSR) and microwave (MW) sensors (e.g. AMSR-E, TMI), have provided the opportunity for notable advances in SST measurement. International efforts to produce multi-sensor SST analyses have been coordinated through the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High-Resolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP) and, within the US, the Multi-sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature (MISST) project. Significant challenges to combining the data have resulted from the differing retrieval uncertainties, measurement times, and effective retrieval depths of the sensors. Preliminary analyses, however, have resulted in unique opportunities for weather forecasting and ocean monitoring. This session is focused on the production, evaluation, and impact of high-resolution multi-sensor SST analyses. Submissions on all aspects of the multi-sensor production methodology and validation techniques are invited. Presentations on the applications of SST products are particularly welcomed, such as the impact of high-resolution SSTs on operational ocean models, numerical weather prediction, and hurricane forecasting.

149. The Absolute Accuracy of Space-borne Sea Surface Temperature

 [P, I]

Organizers: Gary K. Corlett, University of Leicester,; Peter J. Minnett, RSMAS, University of Miami,; Kenneth S. Casey, NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center,

The sea surface temperature (SST) data sets provided by space-borne radiometers now constitute a critical record for quantifying and understanding global change. The capability of satellites to provide global data offers a unique way to study trends and variability of surface temperatures over many years, and the potential to evaluate and enhance the long-term in situ SST record. Such applications require high accuracy and stability in the space-borne SSTs. However, each satellite SST record has unique features including spatial and temporal resolution, record length, instrumental artefacts, and algorithmic uncertainties. Understanding these differences is essential, and requires a detailed analysis of individual retrieval techniques, methods for merging data sets, and rigorous validation. In addition, assessing the absolute accuracy of the satellite SSTs requires high quality in situ radiometers that are fixed to standards. By establishing conventions for satellite data, international efforts like the GODAE High Resolution SST project have set in place frameworks for more rapidly assessing the absolute accuracy of space-borne SSTs. Submissions are invited that present recent developments in the field, such as retrieval methods and validation, provision of high quality in situ data, methods of data comparison and merging, and the use of space-borne SSTs in various applications.

150. Terrestrial Impacts on Coastal Water Quality

 [C, N, R]

Organizers: Drew Ackerman, SCCWRP,; Eric Stein, SCCWRP,

This session will focus on impacts of both dry and wet weather terrestrial inputs on the coastal ocean. Submissions will likely cover a range of pollutants (e.g. bacteria, metals, nutrients) and their impact on the receiving water quality. It is anticipated that submissions will include empirical analyses as well as modeling.

151. Hurricane-generated Waves, Currents and Storm Surge

 [P, N]

Organizers: Will Perrie, Bedford Institute of Oceanography,; Don Resio, US Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Research,

This session will explore the dynamics of extreme waves, storm-induced currents, and storm surge in severe hurricane conditions. Coupling processes will also be investigated. For example, in a coupled atmosphere – wave – sea spray - current model system, the effects of sea spray and wave drag have impact on storm-generated waves, their height variations, and directional wave spectra, related to the storm location and translation speed. The decrease or increase of significant wave height due to spray and wave drag is most significant in high wind regions to the right of the storm track. These processes are modulations on the maximum wave region, and tend to occur several hours after the peak wind events, depending on the storm translation velocity. The translational speed of the storm is important. The directional variation between local winds and wind-generated waves within rapidly moving storms that outrun the waves is notably different from that of trapped waves, when the dominant waves’ group velocity approximates the storm translation speed. These processes also have impact on ocean currents and storm surge. The net effect of wind-to-wave and wave-to-current momentum transfers reduces the surface current speeds.

152. Lateral Mixing in the Ocean from Meters to Mesoscale

 [P, M]

Organizers: Miles A. Sundermeyer, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth,; James R. Ledwell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Raffaele Ferrari, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,; M.-Pascale Lelong, Northwest Research Associates,

This session focuses on lateral dispersion, and lateral variability of velocity, density and other biological/chemical tracers in the ocean at scales from meters to mesoscale, with emphasis on submesoscale processes. Lateral mixing is among the most basic, yet least understood phenomena affecting the distribution of physical and biological fields in the ocean. However, currently there are no submesoscale parameterizations that correctly handle both biological and physical aspects. Furthermore, observed lateral mixing is frequently much larger than expected from classical models. Numerical models must parameterize subgridscale dispersion at the mesoscale (climate models) submesoscale (regional models), and microscale (LES). Observations exist at all three scales. The goal is to derive theory and parameterizations at different scales, test them with observations, and show what differences emerge. Presentations are solicited addressing key issues related to lateral dispersion, with emphasis on the submesoscale. Fundamental questions include understanding key physical mechanisms of lateral mixing and their relevance in a broader context, biological and physical impacts of lateral mixing at larger and smaller scales, dispersion and transport of natural and anthropogenic tracers, lateral transport of momentum, effects of vertical and horizontal density and velocity fine structure on ocean acoustics, and reconciling large- and small-scale numerical models with observations.

153. Research Ocean Observatories: Progress and Emerging Technologies


The need for ocean observing networks to enable new avenues of research has been a focus of community planning efforts for over a decade. Observing systems in design stages, those in construction phase, and existing observatories will be employing advanced and developing technologies in infrastructure design and sensor instrumentation. Technology to provide a wide range of in situ observations will be needed to meet the demands of research into climate change and ocean ecosystems, coastal processes, mixing dynamics, biogeochemistry, geodynamics, fluid-rock interactions, and the sub-seafloor biosphere. We invite contributions describing emerging technologies in observation platform design, advanced sampling instrumentation, and new or improved sensor development with applications to ocean observatories. Contributions describing progress in existing ocean research observatories and those in planning stages are also encouraged.

154. Forecast, Predictability and Data Assimilation

 [P, C]

Organizers: Gregg Jacobs, Naval Reserach Laboratory,; Emanuel Coelho, University of Southern Mississippi,; Igor Shulman, Naval Research Laboratory,; Germana Peggion, University of New Orleans,

Multiple operational physical-biogeochemical forecasting schemes are available worldwide, offering different nesting and coupling options, from global to regional and local scales. To guarantee consistency, these systems typically use local and remote sensing data via data assimilation, which can lead to different assumptions regarding the uncertainty and predictability of the simulated phenomena. Integration, data interchange and comparison among these different systems is not straightforward and it is usually difficult to agree on detailed and accurate one scene-one forecast and on end-user products. This session aims to provide a discussion floor for these challenging topics in physical-biogeochemical forecasting and prediction. Papers are invited on ocean forecasting systems description and benchmarking, error models, error sub-space decompositions and ensemble approaches leading to predictability and uncertainty analysis and novel data assimilation techniques, using ensemble based and variational methods. In particular, contributions are welcome in the area of modeling systems demonstrating skill assessment and / or error analysis, through the use of objective metrics comparing model simulations with data, or through data assimilation and analysis of error covariances and error distributions in physical-biogeochemical analysis and forecasting.

155. Land-ocean-atmospheric Processes Associated With Natural and Man-made Hazards

 [G, N]

Organizers: Ramesh Singh, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur,; Evgeny A. Kontar, Illinois State Geological Survey,; Frank R. Rack, Executive Director, ANDRILL University of Nebraska-Lincoln,

Recent tsunamis, marine earthquakes, El Nino, hurricanes, floods, landslides, dust storms and coastal erosion have shown strong coupling between land-ocean-atmospheric interaction which is responsible for changing Planet Earth activities influencing human population, marine ecosystem and natural resources. Coastal system sustainability and land-ocean-atmospheric interactions are closely related topics of cross-cutting activities addressing issues of the advancement of coastal typology, data and modeling, as well as capacity building and stakeholder involvement. Coastal zones are becoming major areas of industrial and technological development due to the growing human population and their interest in marine (fish) and natural resources (oil and gas). Therefore, understanding the risks of natural and man-made coastal hazards is important. This session will be chaired by the IUGG Geo Risk commission and will focus on evaluation of risks of saltwater intrusion, contaminated submarine groundwater discharge and their influence on coastal oceanographic processes, submarine earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, dust storms near the coastal zones, cyclones/hurricanes and coastal erosion. Presentations are invited on the scientific aspects of coastal zone marine and man-made hazards, as well as on their risk and sustainability aspects that deal with land-ocean-atmospheric interactions in the coastal zone and interaction of the hazards with human populations, industries and coastal zone infrastructure.

156. Autotrophy in Lakes

 [B, C]

Organizers: Piet Verburg, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia,; Claire Schelske, University of Florida,; Binhe Gu, South Florida Water Management District,

Recent work has supported the view that by far most lakes are heterotrophic. Is autrotrophy in lakes really rare? Which factors determine whether a lake is heterotrophic or autotrophic? Are there more autotrophic lakes at lower latitudes where the growing season is longer? Is vertical mixing and anoxia of bottom water relevant to the trophic status of lakes? Do lakes get more or less autotrophic by anthropogenic impacts such as loading of nutrients and loading of organic carbon from the watershed? These anthropogenic impacts are likely to have opposite effects but which is more important? How do heterotrophic and autotrophic lakes compare in terms of burial of carbon? How does climate change affect trophic status of lakes? Different techniques are available for assessing the tropic status of lakes. There are methods that involve stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen and of inorganic carbon, the estimation of CO2 and O2 gas fluxes across the air-water interface, measuring and comparing photosynthetic productivity and respiration rates, and organic carbon budgets may indicate whether or not more carbon is fixed in a lake than is respired. The session welcomes papers that compare these techniques. Participants are invited to report on aspects of autotrophy in lakes.

157. Arctic Sea Ice Variability Interacted with Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Patterns

 [P, H]

Organizers: Jia Wang, NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab,; Bill Hibler, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks,

Cryosphere is an important component of the global climate system consisting of five subsystems: atmosphere, hydrosphere (hydrology and ocean), cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Particularly in the Arctic Ocean, fate of sea ice not only indicates climate change, but also has direct relation with and feeds back to atmosphere, ocean, and other subsystems. Therefore, future fate of sea ice, such as summer ice free conditions as many IPCC models project at the end of 21st century, may alter the entire picture of present climate in the atmosphere, ocean, and other components. Inspiring from the ongoing research activities of the International Polar Year during 2007-2009, this session invites papers focusing on fate of sea ice in the following scientific driving questions (but not limited to): 1)Similar to global/Arctic warming, what percentage of the Arctic sea ice cap melting, particularly the multi-year (aged) sea ice, is attributed to natural variability and anthropogenic activity caused by the oceanic (Atlantic Water and Pacific Water) and atmospheric warming? 2)What are the differences and similarities between the 1930s and 1990s warming in terms of sea ice melting? Are there any similar phenomena in the 21st century? 3)How can the sea ice-tidal dynamics be implemented to a global model to better represent sea ice deformation and interaction with upper ocean dynamics? 4)What percentage of the Arctic amplification is attributed to sea ice/ocean albedo feedback, cloud radiation feedback, and to the lower latitude atmospheric circulation anomaly? How do the mechanisms compete in the high Arctic? 5)How do we identify the thermodynamic and dynamic effects on Arctic sea ice in terms of depletion and advection of sea ice due to Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Dipole Anomaly (DA)? 6)How do intensified Arctic atmospheric cyclones accelerate melting of the Arctic sea ice during positive phase of AO/NAO and DA? Can the weakened cyclones help produce sea ice during the negative phase of AO/NAO and DA? 7)What percentage does sea ice anomaly contribute to freshwater anomaly in the pan Arctic? Similarly, how important is the residence time of freshwater anomaly in producing new ice although aged ice has been decayed.

158. Time-series Observations of Biogeochemical Processes and Their Long Term Trends

 [B, C, T]

Organizers: Susanne Neuer, Arizona State University,; Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida,; Laura Lorenzoni, University of South Florida,; Michael W. Lomas, Bermuda Biological Station,

The ocean plays a significant role in climate control, storing heat derived from solar radiation, transporting energy between various parts of the globe, and acting as a major source and sink of carbon and other gases. Accordingly, changes in these characteristics have a profound impact on marine ecosystems. Detecting long-term change on a range of time and space scales requires time series observations in a variety of biogeographical provinces. Oceanographic time-series stations are unique platforms that allow measurements of components of biogeochemical cycles and their susceptibility to a changing climate, in addition to providing ground truth data for model and satellite remote sensing studies. This session intends to bring together new insights gained from these long term data sets, and we invite contributions from time series studies which focus on ocean biogeochemical processes and their long-term trends, in the open ocean, on continental margins, and in coastal zones.

159. Estuarine and Coastal Hydrodynamics: Advancement in Observational Technology and Modeling Development

 [P, F, N]

Organizers: Chunyan Li, Coastal Studies Institute, LSU,; Arnoldo Valle-Levinson, University of Florida,; Robert Chant, Rutgers University,

New advancements in observational technology and modeling have revealed to us an exciting new dimension of the estuarine and coastal hydrodynamics, a topic that we propose here as a session for Ocean Science 2008. This session is proposed base on the following rationale. The ever evolving acoustic Doppler current meter technology, the underwater vehicles, undulating flying “fish” equipped with multiple instruments covering physical, optical, and bio-chemical sensors, unmanned automated boats, HF Radars for surface currents and waves, small remotely controlled airplane surveys, coastal observational networks, among many others represent just a few samples of the trend of the 21st Century. These new and evolving technologies will become the routine and norm of the studies of estuarine and coastal hydrodynamics and related bio-chemical, geological, and ecological processes. The advancement of observational techniques is enhanced partially by the computer technology. As a result, numerical modeling activities are further enhanced, especially with the application of parallelized finite volume schemes and unstructured grids that make the resolution of the coastal and estuarine features closer to reality with high resolutions. Modeling has also seen advancement in data assimilations, inclusion of non-hydrostatic schemes, and system integrations with various bio-chemical, and sediment transport modules, and surface waves.

160. Reconstruction of Global Paleoceanic Environments

 [G, X]

Organizers: Amy C. Hirons, Nova Southeastern University,; Maribeth S. Murray, University of Alaska Fairbanks,

Oceanic variability, particularly in paleoenvironments, can include changes in ocean temperature and salinity, sea level, marine productivity and biomineral composition. These variabilities can manifest themselves in a variety of proxy historical data, from foraminifera and tree rings to vertebrate and invertebrate archaeofauna, and provide records of long-term climatic changes. Reconstructing environmental change can be done using biogeochemistry, archaeology, physical and geological sciences. The purpose of this session is to bring together biologists, archaeologists, geochemists and physicists who are involved with paleoceanographic reconstruction to discuss these and similar proxies. Papers are solicited for this multi-disciplinary session that present observations and model results of paleoceanic variability and also projections of their possible effects and consequences.

162. Dynamics of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Global Ocean

 [C, F, N, I]

Organizers: Alison Branco, WorleyParsons,; Collin Roesler, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences,

CDOM is the optically active fraction of the dissolved organic matter pool. It affects both the quantity and quality of light entering the water column and impacts processes such as primary production, surface water heating, and satellite retrieval of ocean color products. Because of its unique fluorescence and absorption properties, CDOM provides a tantalizing proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in general, and certain dissolved organic compounds specifically, and thus can provide a useful in situ tool for investigating carbon cycling. This session will explore all aspects of CDOM in the aquatic environment with emphasis on the linkages between terrestrial and marine systems. Presentations are encouraged pertaining to patterns of distribution and transformations occurring along the continuum from watershed to global ocean including variations in CDOM concentration at different spatial and temporal scales, CDOM observations from a variety of platforms, and evaluations of the potential use of CDOM as a proxy for carbon.

163. Education: General


164. Improving Geosciences Education and Public Outreach: Sharing Strategic and Rewarding Approaches


Organizers: Andrea Thorrold, Woods Hole Oceanographic,; Annette deCharon, University of Maine, Darling Marine Center,; Liesl Hotaling, Stevens Institute of Technology,

Scientists and educators share similar concerns related to education and public outreach: time and money. Knowing this, many in this field are evaluating ways to effectively educate various audiences by going beyond the “face-to-face interaction.” In this session, we invite scientists and others within the academic community to convey their experiences in addressing alternative methods for reaching audiences. Is your facility simply too remote to effectively work with large populations of teachers, students, or others? Do you work in coastal areas, yet you are reaching inland audiences? In your programs, do you have ways to involve researchers who may not be comfortable working directly with non-scientists? Have you used digital media to tackle issues of diversity (e.g., economic, cultural, geographic)? Have these interactions improved your methods of communication with non-expert audiences? Presentations that describe methods for facilitating and improving scientist-educator partnerships, especially when co-presented by a scientist and an educator are also highly encouraged.

165. Advances in Coastal Morphodynamics: From Estuaries and Beaches to Deltas and Shelves

 [G, P, F, N]

Organizers: Art Trembanis, Univeristy of Delaware,; Carl Friedrichs, William and Mary/VIMS,; Andrew Short, University of Sydney,; Jeff List, USGS,

Coastal morphodynamics aims to understand the complex bi-directional coupling between hydrodynamic processes and morphologic responses. The field has experienced tremendous growth and evolution of understanding over the last 25+ years thanks in part to advances in field observations and modeling capabilities. Much exciting and challenging work remains to link processes and responses at all scales, from the micromorphodynamic level (boundary layer scales), to large scale coastal behavior (decadal to century scales), to geological time scales (millennial scales). In this session we seek to bring together researchers in coastal morphodynamics pursuing observational and modeling studies in diverse settings including estuaries, beaches, deltas, and the continental shelf.

166. Potential for Atmospheric CO2 Sequestration in the Ocean

 [B, C, X]

Organizers: Philip Kithil, Atmocean, Inc.,; Wiebke J. Boeing, Ph.D., New Mexico State University,

Given the global ocean area of about 375 million km^2, and its important role in the carbon cycle, what geo-engineering ideas have been put forth to mitigate atmospheric CO2 buildup and related climate change effects? Can CO2 absorption be enhanced by man-made technologies applied to the oceans? What other biogeochemical aspects need to be considered: dimethyl sulfate - methane clathrates - other biochemical effects? What are the known unintended biological consequences? This session invites participants from all disciplines, as well as from the business community, to submit an abstract on how they suggest using the oceans to help solve our massive CO2 problem.

167. Environmental Policy: General


168. Small Mountainous Rivers: From the Watershed to the Global Ocean

 [C, F]

Organizers: Anne E. Carey, The Ohio State University,; W. Berry Lyons, The Ohio State University,

Over the past decade, research has demonstrated that small mountainous rivers have been a source of important insights to our understanding of surficial processes. Small mountainous rivers have also been the field sites which have divulged the important relationship of chemical and physical weathering to tectonics. In addition, rivers in these small, mountainous watersheds deliver quantitatively significant fluxes of sediments and organic carbon to the global ocean. This session invites papers dealing with watershed geochemical and hydrological processes as well as those reports and papers presenting quantitative estimates of the importance of these systems to global fluxes of particles and solutes to the world’s ocean. It is hoped that both terrestrial and oceanographic investigations will be included in the presentations in this session.

169. Global Mode and Intermediate Waters: Their Physics, Biogeochemistry, and Variability


Organizers: Rana A Fine, Rosenstiel School/University of Miami,; Lynne Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD,

Mode and Intermediate waters form poleward of the subtropical gyres around the world’s oceans. By virtue of their large volumes, they play an important role in uptake and equatorward transport of atmospheric constituents. Abstracts are welcome which address the physics and biogeochemistry of Mode and Intermediate waters in the global oceans. This includes their rates of formation, circulation, temporal variability, and role in uptake of atmospheric constituents.

171. U.S. GODAE: Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM )

 [P, N]

Organizers: Eric Chassignet, Florida State University,; Harley Hurlburt, Naval Research laboratory,; George Halliwell, University of Miami,; Jim Cummings, Naval Research Laboratory,

A broad partnership of institutions has been collaborating over the past few years in developing and demonstrating the performance and application of an eddy-resolving real-time global and basin-scale prediction systems using HYCOM. The partnership is addressing the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) goals of three-dimensional depiction of the ocean state at fine resolution in real-time and provision of boundary conditions for coastal and regional models. With GODAE ending in 2008, this session will provide a forum for the users and developers of the HYCOM prediction systems to share their findings as well as to get input from the larger community. Presentations are solicited describing all aspects of the HYCOM nowcast-forecast systems from development to evaluation. Presentations by coastal ocean modeling groups that use and evaluate the boundary conditions provided by the global and basin HYCOM prediction system are especially encouraged.

172. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Decadal Predictability


Organizers: Bill Johns, Rosenstiel Scool of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami,; Martin Visbeck, IFM-GEOMAR,; Rowan Sutton, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading,; Axel Timmermann, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii,

The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to past global climate has been clearly demonstrated by paleo-records and coupled models, and its role in anthropogenic climate change scenarios is presently at the forefront of scientific debate. Increasing evidence is emerging for significant variability in the AMOC on decadal and multidecadal time scales as well, arising from coupled atmosphere-ocean modes or uncoupled oceanic modes driven by internal ocean dynamics. Some models suggest a close linkage of AMOC variability with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), or with longer time scale climate and SST variations also known as the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The prospect of predictability of the AMOC and its climate impacts is now emerging as an important research initiative within CLIVAR and other international programs. The purpose of this session is to bring together researchers involved in AMOC observations, modeling, synthesis, and predictability, and to take stock of activities and initiatives in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere on decadal predictability of the AMOC. Session topics will include: synthesis of decadal AMOC variability, constraining AMOC variability from observations, AMOC observing system simulation experiments, mechanisms and climate impact of decadal/multidecadal AMOC variations, and decadal AMOC predictability.

173. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Larval Dispersion and Connectivity

 [B, N, P]

Organizers: Lisa Levin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,; Stephen Chiswell, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research,; Matthew Hare, Cornell University,; Linda Rasmussen, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,

The need to understand larval dispersion and exchange among populations (connectivity) has grown as scientists tackle problems associated with marine conservation and biodiversity. A number of different in situ approaches are currently used to assess larval connectivity, each with its own limitations on the ideal spatial/temporal scale or dispersion problem it can best address. These methods include genetic or geochemical tagging, field sampling of larvae, and observations of ocean circulation. In conjunction with field efforts it has become practical to use high-resolution 3-D numerical ocean models or hybrid models (employing satellite altimeter data) to simulate larval dispersion. Such models may also be limited by factors such as mixing parameterizations and/or insufficiently resolved forcing data. While there has been some effort made to validate dispersion results by comparison of model statistics with ocean observations, there has been relatively little validation of results by comparing physical model simulations with in-situ larval sampling results. This session will concentrate on the dynamics of dispersion and connectivity at scales ranging from near-shore to open ocean, with an emphasis on multi-disciplinary methods for validating model results or interpreting field data. We invite contributions focusing on interdisciplinary techniques, comparisons of models with observations, and specific case-studies.

174. Sharing Scientific Ocean Drilling's Greatest Hits with Educators

 [G, S]

Organizers: Sharon Katz Cooper, Joint Oceanographic Institutions,; Leslie Peart, Joint Oceanographic Institutions,

Can you name the scientific research program that has provided extensive evidence for the theory of plate tectonics, established historic climate change patterns over 100 million years, revolutionized our understanding of formation of mineral resources, discovered methane hydrates (a potential new energy source), and confirmed the catastrophic impact of a meteorite with Earth 65 million years ago? That would be the scientific ocean drilling program – a project that has nearly 40 years and hundreds of scientific expeditions under its belt. Scientific ocean drilling, today called the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), has greatly advanced our understanding of the ways our planet works. In this session, participants will have the opportunity to see how JOI (Joint Oceanographic Institutions) brings these discoveries to life for students and educators through a number of different methods and examples: on-line materials, presentations, and professional development workshops both on board ship and on shore. JOI will share how it brings real data to educators for exploration of actual evidence for the exciting stories mentioned above and helps educators investigate how we know what we know today, the different types of evidence we gain from ocean cores, and the kinds of questions we are still trying to answer. Participants will have the opportunity to leave with new curriculum resources and materials. Presentations on this topic are welcome.

176. The Inner Shelf: Connecting the Shore to the Coastal Ocean

 [P, B, N]

Organizers: Jack Barth, Oregon State University,; Melanie Fewings, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; Anthony Kirincich, Oregon State University,; Margaret McManus, University of Hawaii at Manoa,

The inner shelf, the region between the nearshore where waves break and the deeper continental shelf, remains a relatively unstudied region. Yet processes on the inner shelf are critical to the connection of shore populations and oceanic processes farther offshore. The inner shelf is forced by wind, buoyancy input, waves, and offshore mesoscale motions. The degree to which each of these contributes varies by location and in time. The resulting temporally and spatially variable circulation and water-column structure are critical to the transport of water properties across the inner shelf. In particular, nutrient supplies to nearshore waters and the delivery of larvae to and from intertidal communities are influenced by inner-shelf processes. The interaction of the supply of young, their dispersal and transport by ocean currents, and their delivery to shore influences patterns of recruitment and diversity along the shore. Many ocean management decisions will benefit from knowledge of inner-shelf processes and their influence on population levels and connectivity. Contributions are welcome on observational and theoretical studies of inner-shelf circulation, especially as it affects biological and chemical processes. Studies that seek to understand biological patterns along the shore in terms of physical forcing, in particular by spatially and temporally varying winds and oceanic flows, flow-topography interaction and the varying influence of waves, are appropriate. Numerical circulation studies of Lagrangian pathways, larval dispersal and connectivity among populations are also welcome. Investigation of the accuracy of circulation and dispersal models by using water-following devices, genetics and microchemistry are appropriate.

177. Energetic Connectivity Between Estuaries and the Coastal Ocean

 [B, F, N]

Organizers: Bryan Piazza, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University,; Megan La Peyre, USGS Louisiana Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,

Estuaries produce more organic matter than they consume, making them a source of terrestrial nutrients which are periodically outwelled to deeper near-shore waters upon flooding (Outwelling Paradigm; Teal 1962), thus enhancing the productivity of near-shore subtidal habitats. Over the last 40 years, numerous studies have investigated this hypothesis, and it is now widely accepted that nutrients are translocated horizontally across habitat boundaries and through the estuarine and near-shore system through a process known as trophic relay (plant material – microbes - invertebrates – fish), resulting in what Odum (2000) termed an outwelling of organisms. This session would investigate this outwelling of organisms by inviting submittals that highlight the energetic connectivity between estuaries and the coastal ocean at any trophic level and especially those that highlight linkages between physical processes and trophic relay to the coastal ocean.

178. Structure and Function of River Plumes in Coastal Margins

 [F, N]

Organizers: Tawnya Peterson, University of California, Santa Cruz,; Alexander Horner-Devine, University of Washington,

River plumes are highly dynamic and productive environments that link land and sea. Through their contribution of chemical constituents (both nutrients and contaminants), microorganisms, sediments, momentum, and buoyancy, they exert a profound influence on coastal ecosystems. This session will explore the complex interactions that exist between river plumes and the coastal ocean, from small-scale mixing processes to large-scale biogeochemical impacts. Contributions that address physical, biological, and geochemical processes within plumes and their surroundings are welcomed. Topics will include, but are not limited to, those describing the physical processes by which river water is mixed with the surrounding ocean, the effects of tidal and wind forcing on plume structure, modifications of coastal biological processes due to river plumes, transformations of plume constituents, and remote sensing of river discharge. Cross-disciplinary contributions that synthesize work from more than one field are particularly encouraged.

179. Marine Predator Hot Spots


Organizers: Steven Bograd, NOAA NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center,; Barbara Block, Stanford University,; Daniel Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz,; Daniel Palacios, Joint Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research,

The ocean environment is heterogeneous over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. This complexity creates a variety of habitats that marine organisms exploit throughout their life histories. Marine populations tend to aggregate for reproduction, foraging, protection, and migration. Locations where organisms concentrate regularly, or where there is high biological activity, are termed “biological hot spots”. Recent developments in electronic tagging now provide information on species aggregations and interactions in the context of the environment they are sampling. The expansion of large-scale biologging programs in recent years is providing unprecedented insight into the physical forcing, ecological function, and biodiversity of biological hot spots in diverse parts of the world ocean. This session will showcase new information on the location of essential habitats of marine predators that comes from the animals themselves by way of satellite telemetry and an increasingly sophisticated suite of instruments carried by the animals. Identification and monitoring of optimal species-specific habitat could constitute an effective approach to marine conservation and resource management.

180. Long-term Ecological Research in the Deep Sea

 [B, E]

Organizers: Henry A. Ruhl, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute,; David M. Bailey, University of Glasgow, University of Aberdeen,

Bathyal and abyssal benthic fauna influence carbon sequestration over most of the Earth’s surface but still have poorly understood ecological and biological characteristics. Beginning in the late 1970’s time series research programs began to illustrate how deep-sea life can respond to changes in surface conditions. Datasets spanning multiple years to decades are now becoming available for a number of deep-sea study sites and fauna from microbes to fishes have been documented to experience shifts in abundance over periods of days to years respectively. Variation in the quality and quantity of the surface derived food supply have clear importance in deep-sea systems, but much remains to be learned about processes such as reproduction and recruitment, spatial distributions, resource partitioning, trophic interactions, and temporal lags between process steps. This session welcomes those studying population or community ecology of deep-sea fauna. We especially encourage descriptions of specific community variations and/or discussions of the processes affecting the abundance and/ or distribution of benthic or benthopelagic fauna to include informative model simulations.

181. Novel Approaches for Improving Ocean Science Literacy in K-12 Classrooms


Organizers: Richard A. Tankersley, Florida Institute of Technology,; John Windsor, Florida Institute of Technology,

Nationwide efforts aimed at utilizing ocean science as a theme for conveying essential scientific principles and fundamental concepts has helped promote the creation of ocean-related curriculum content, instruction, and assessment tools that are aligned with accepted national and state science standards. This session will highlight novel programs aimed at improving ocean science literacy in K-12 classrooms. Sessions will focus on hands-on and inquiry-based activities for students, workshops and professional development activities for teachers, and formal and informal educational outreach programs developed and sponsored by universities and local and state agencies and organizations. K-12 teachers will be encouraged to attend and showcase novel lesson plans and activities. The session will also highlight graduate teaching fellowship programs, including those funded by NSF, that use ocean science as a central theme to demonstrate the connectivity and inter-relatedness of science disciplines.

182. Variability and Trends in Oceanic Oxygen: From a Tracer of Biological Production to a Bellwether of Climate Change

 [B, C, T]

Organizers: Nicolas Gruber, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland,; Arne Körtzinger, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany,; Steven Riser, University of Washington, Seattle, USA,

Measurements of the oceanic oxygen content have a long oceanographic tradition. From the beginning, the observed variations in oxygen were used in a highly interdisciplinary manner, addressing issues as diverse as ocean circulation and ocean interior remineralization rates. In recent years, interest in variations and trends of the oceanic oxygen content has soared. From a technological point of view, major advancements occurred, leading to oxygen sensors that are both stable and accurate, permitting their deployment over extended periods on a range of platforms including gliders and floats. From a scientific perspective, oxygen, among many other useful applications, appears to be a particularly sensitive tracer for detecting climate change. This session aims to bring together scientists who are interested in the study of the temporal and spatial variations of oxygen in the ocean, irrespective of the underlying scientific motivation. Scientists interested in the technological challenges associated with oxygen measurements and the Argo-oxygen program are invited to submit their abstracts to this session as well.

183. Interannual Trends in Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems

 [B, I, T]

Organizers: Thomas C. Malone, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science,; Paul M. DiGiacomo, NOAA/NESDIS,; Franciscus Colijn, GKSS (Germany),; Liana Talaue-McManus, University of Miami/RSMAS,

The frequency and time-space extent of algal blooms appear to be increasing on interannual and global scales in response to nutrient enrichment via terrestrial and atmospheric inputs from anthropogenic sources. In some cases the species composition of these blooms is also changing, perhaps in response to changing N:Si:P ratios. At the same time, hydrographic regimes are changing, perhaps in response to global warming, basin scale oscillation, human modifications or combinations of all. This session invites analyses of long-term (> 10 years) observations of phytoplankton dynamics that will allow an assessment of the causes and consequences of interannual changes in seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and species composition in coastal ecosystem globally. These analyses can be derived from field and/or satellite-based measurements, noting that the SeaWiFS ocean color time series will be over ten years long in early 2008.

184. Enhance Our Vision in Underwater Environments


Organizers: Weilin Hou, Naval Research Laboratory,; Alan Weidemann, Naval Research Laboratory,

Despite numerous instruments and measurement techniques invented and deployed to date in oceanic research, visual observations are still of great importance especially with rapid advances in imaging and computational capability, which allows further improvement in quality by enhancement and restoration. Needless to say, historically many oceanographic topics were introduced by vision, from waves crashing near shorelines, to the visibility range of a Secchi disk, to red tides, and applications such as those related to target detection and identification. This session solicits broad research and application topics covering various aspects of electro-optical system in underwater environments, including but not limiting to: system performance, enhancement and restoration, software and hardware implementations, analog and digital videos applications, stereo vision, image transmission and processing, pattern recognition, robotic vision, super resolution, lucky imaging, as well as basic ocean optics research topics affecting underwater imagery such as scattering.

185. Distribution and Dispersal of Persistent and Bioaccumulative Pollutants in Estuarine and Marine Food Webs

 [B, C, F, N, E]

Organizers: Richard A. Snyder, University of West Florida,; William Patterson, University of West Florida,; Robert K. Johnston, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center,

Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (PBTs) can build up in the marine food webs to levels that are harmful to environmental and human health. PBTs readily move from land to air and water and can be transported over long distances. Their resistance to degradation and tendency to bioaccumulate can result in their dispersal by biota, linking migrations and ontogenetic shifts in habitat utilization with contaminant transport. These processes may result in inshore to offshore transport and accumulation of PBTs in areas of high biological activity in the marine environment. This session would address the inshore to offshore linkages and food web dynamics of PBTs that could result in their bioconcentration to levels causing risk to human and ecological health. Emphasis will be on population, community and ecosystem level processes.

186. Science at Aquarius: Multidisciplinary Studies of a Tropical Reef

 [B, C, T]

Organizers: Stephen Monismith, Stanford University,; James Leichter, Scripps Institute of Oceanography,

This session would present results from the full spectrum of tropical reef studies carried out at NOAA's Aquarius underwater observatory. Through its support of saturation diving, Aquarius facilitates unprecedented and unique access to the reef offshore of Key Largo. Work carried out at Aquarius spans the full range of biological, chemical and physical oceanography and thus provides a wealth of information about the functioning of marine ecosystems of he Florida Reef Tract. The purpose of this session is to explore what has been learned as well as what can be leaned about reefs using human-manned observatories like Aquarius. Presentations are sought from all investigators who have worked at Aquarius, without regard to specific topic. Thus, we hope to highlight the multi-disciplinary nature of a broad segment of US reef research.

187. Mercury Pollution: Towards a Holistic Appraisal of Sources, Environmental Cycling, Biotic Exposure, Consequences, and Management

 [B, C, X]

Organizers: Chad Hammerschmidt, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,; James Wiener, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse,

Knowledge of the sources, transformations, biogeochemical cycling, exposure pathways, and biological consequences of mercury in the environment has advanced substantially in the past two decades. Atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury have contaminated Earth’s landscapes and aquatic systems on a global scale. The problem is exacerbated by continuing anthropogenic emissions, recycling of a large reservoir of historic mercury pollution, and the microbial transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury—a highly toxic, bioaccumulative compound that can biomagnify in aquatic food webs to levels that may be harmful to fish, wildlife, and humans. Methylmercury is ubiquitous among marine, terrestrial, and freshwater systems, and some natural and managed environments are sites of high methylmercury production, bioaccumulation, and export. Investigations of health effects of human exposure to methylmercury have focused largely on developmental neurotoxicity, yet cardiovascular and other effects may also occur. In addition, the broader ecological and socioeconomic consequences of mercury pollution have received little study. This session will attempt to provide a holistic view of environmental mercury contamination and cycling, the consequences of mercury pollution, and management approaches for addressing the problem.

188. Estuarine Impacts, Resilience and Recovery

 [B, C, F, X]

Organizers: Kedong Yin, Australia Rivers Institute, Griffiths University,; Paul J. Harrison, AMCE Program, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,; Hans Paerl, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina,

With increasing population growth in estuarine areas and its drainage basin, the ecology and biogeochemistry of many estuaries are undergoing dramatic changes. This session will focus on nutrient inputs, and their subsequent impacts such as the loss of biodiversity, algal blooms and hypoxia. It is well known that some estuaries are very susceptible to these impacts while others are more resistant, but the mechanisms are not always well understood. Various government programs are helping to reduce impacts and hence the recovery of some estuaries is underway. Long time series showing this deterioration and recovery process are helpful in providing insight on how estuaries respond to improved management practices.

189. The Census of Marine Life: Discoveries of Diversity, Abundance, and Distribution in the World's Oceans


Organizers: Gail Scowcroft, University of Rhode Island,; Linda Amaral-Zettler, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA,; Kristen Yarincik, Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, Washington,,

The purpose of the Census of Marine Life is to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life. Since its inception in 2000, the Census of Marine Life has grown to be a global scientific collaboration, now consisting of 17 projects, involving more than 2,000 researchers from 80 nations. Census field projects probe the major ocean habitats from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean and from the deep abyss to coastal shores. They are investigating marine species from microbes to large marine mammals. The Census has already described approximately 5000 new species and new discoveries continue to be made. Each year, the Census is also adding to our understanding of species’ distributions and abundances. Through Census research, the perception of what is known, unknown, and ultimately unknowable, is becoming better defined. This session will highlight Census of Marine Life research and discoveries from the Census projects. Presentations will include discoveries related to animals that traverse the seas and that are unique to specific ecosystems as well as those found in previously unidentified locales. Also included will be discussions of new technologies, visualizations and analytical tools that enable the Census, successful outreach initiatives, and future plans for Census research. For this session, we invite papers that highlight Census of Marine Life discoveries. Topic areas can include results from: ·Historical analyses ·Field research to sample and explore marine life ·Predictive and synthetic models ·Analyses of data in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) ·Technologies to survey marine life that can be implemented in a long-term ocean observing system ·Successful Census of Marine Life outreach initiatives

191. In Situ Optical Properties for the Investigation of Particle Dynamics

 [G, B, I]

Organizers: Grace Chang, UC Santa Barbara,

A direct dependence exists between the inherent optical properties and the concentration and nature of optically significant particles of natural waters, e.g., phytoplankton and its co-varying material of biological origin and inorganic material. Within the past two decades, there have been significant advances in the development of optical sensor technology. Namely, in situ spectral and hyperspectral sensors for the measurement of inherent optical properties are now robust and commercially available. These optical sensors can be deployed on a variety of underwater measurement platforms such as shipboard profilers or underway samplers, stationary and profiling moorings or bottom tripods, and autonomous underwater vehicles and gliders. Thus optical measurements provide the capability for characterization of particle properties and dynamics in natural waters at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from seconds to decades and centimeters to kilometers.

192. Human Impact in Large Connected Ecosystems: Watershed-Coastal Coupling

 [F, N, X]

Organizers: Christopher J. Madden, South Florida Water Management District,; David Rudnick, South Florida Water Management District,; Fred Sklar, South Florida Water Management District,

This session examines and compares global aquatic ecosystems that are noted for their large spatial scale and complex architecture as well as for the effects of cultural impact, positive and negative, on their process and function. Including such systems as the Everglades-Florida Bay complex, Chesapeake Bay, San Francisco Bay, the Great Barrier Reef and the Amazon River, these productive systems tend to be the focus of human development and exploitation and have been significantly altered in structure and function by cultural impact. They have in common strong hydrologic connections within the watershed and between watersheds and coastal waters. Their composition by numerous interconnected and identifiable ecosystem units, such as wetland, river, estuary, delta, reef, and shelf yield what are actually ensembles of interconnected ecosystems, integrated most strongly by hydrology. These systems are all undergoing differing degrees of degradation and change by human development, contamination, climate change and sea level rise and are also benefiting, to varying extents, from stewardship and restoration programs that consider the ecosystem as a whole. Papers are invited that will highlight structural and functional aspects of these systems, their hydrologic integration, change in the face of development and the successes and challenges presented by human intervention.

193. Seismic Oceanography

 [G, P, M, T]

Organizers: Richard Hobbs, University of Durham,; Gerd Krahmann, IFM-GEOMAR,; Martin Visbeck, IFM-GEOMAR,

Seismic oceanography applies acoustic imaging techniques developed by both academics and the hydrocarbons industry to map ocean structure. Over the past two years, since the inaugural session at Hawaii, significant advances have been made on acquisition of new data and the use of legacy data that provide new information on stratification, fine-structure and mixing in open ocean and on continental margins at unprecedented horizontal resolution. A key area of research is how to use the seismic images to improve our understanding of ocean fine-structure, internal waves and related processes that provide the scientific basis to improve models of ocean mixing. This session will provide a forum for dissemination of results from dedicated seismic oceanography experiments; reports on developments of techniques for acquisition, processing, and inversion; progress on using legacy seismic data to image ocean structure, monitor change, and transport of sediments by ocean currents.

194. Hypoxia in Estuaries and the Coastal Ocean: Commonalities, Comparisons, Contradictions, Climate Change

 [B, C, F, N, X]

Organizers: Nancy Rabalais, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium,; Jan Newton, Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington,; James O’Donnell, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut,; George Voulgaris, Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina,

The incidence of hypoxia in the coastal ocean continues to increase with changes in freshwater discharge, loads of nutrients, and coastal currents. The interaction of physical, chemical and biological processes that lead to the formation of hypoxia in many coastal waters holds commonalities in the physical structure, water residence time, nutrient enhanced primary production, water column and benthic biogeochemistry, and decay of accumulated carbon. The expression of human-influenced hypoxia has increased over time in developed nations and follows this trajectory in developing nations. Contrary to this paradigm are increasing areas of hypoxia that respond to shifts in coastal currents or oceanic water masses, but with comparable results. The potential for a changing climate to influence the flux of materials and physical oceanography could increase or decrease areas of coastal hypoxia. And complicating these interactions is human society’s influence on the consumption of fuel and food. We solicit presentations that address this complex mixture of physical, biological and human conditions.

195. Engaging Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Oceanography Courses


Organizers: Gisele Muller-Parker, Western Washington University,; Rick Keil, School of Oceanography, Univ. of Washington,

This session highlights innovative approaches to teaching oceanography at the undergraduate and graduate levels for both majors and non-majors, and provides a venue for instructors to share their successes in efforts to engage students in inquiry-based laboratory, field, and data exercises. This session should be useful for faculty wanting to share, develop, and enhance their undergraduate and graduate oceanography courses, including advanced courses in the subdisciplines of oceanography. Approaches that may be used by instructors in land-locked areas or with limited access to oceanographic resources are especially encouraged.

196. Impacts of Everglades Restoration on the South Florida Coastal Marine Environment

 [B, F, N, X, R]

This session provides a venue for the discussion of the impacts of the past, current, and proposed modifications of the freshwater Everglades system on the coastal waters of South Florida. Modern water management practices in South Florida and restoration plans to modify these practices have the potential to drastically influence the nearshore waters and their ecosystems. These waters include Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, the Ten Thousand Islands, the Caloosahatchee, the St. Lucie, Indian River Lagoon, and the Florida Keys. Contributions are welcomed regarding the history of the Everglades system’s impact on the marine environment, possible impacts of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), local estuarine process studies, improvements in monitoring techniques, nearshore modeling efforts in South Florida, ecosystem studies and assessment techniques, and recommendations of best management practices for the Greater Everglades watershed to benefit coastal ecosystems. It is anticipated that the session will include contributions emphasizing the interactions among water management practices, physical parameters, chemical constituents and biological responses using a variety of traditional and novel approaches.

197. New Perspectives in Silicon Cycling; from Rivers to Seas and Sediments

 [B, C]

Organizers: Dick Dugdale, Romberg Tiburon Centers, San Francisco State University,; Mark Brzezinski, University of California Santa Barbara,

Diatoms appear to have a central role in determining the biogeochemistry of some of the most important marine ecosystems. Understanding of the Si cycle in these systems is crucial to the assessment of diatom effects in both the present and the paleoecology settings. Recent field and modeling efforts have linked Si and diatom processes in the remote regions of the ocean, e.g. Southern Ocean and the equatorial Pacific upwelling ecosytems with strong control of surface pCO2. Contributions are invited that address new field and modeling information about Si processes from river origins, through the ecosystem and to marine sediments.

198. Impacts and Interactions of Soft-bottom Benthic Systems

 [B, N, X, E]

Organizers: Doug Miller, College of Marine and Earth Studies, University of Delaware,

Soft-bottom benthic habitats represent important and dynamic linkages between the land and sea, their complexity and multi-scale heterogeneity often leading to extremes in biological productivity and biodiversity. These systems represent sources and sinks of organic matter, energy and biological populations or even critical habitats, and their cross-boundary fluxes and internal cycling are of major significance for many nearshore systems. Furthermore, these systems, from the intertidal to the continental shelf and deep sea floor can be greatly impacted and modified by human activities. This session aims to bring together investigators studying a wide range of benthic systems using a variety of perspectives and approaches. These include, but are by no means limited to: novel observational and experimental methodologies, numerical modeling and simulation, quantification of rates and fluxes of material and food web transfer, importance of recruitment, competition, herbivory and predation, bioturbation and biodeposition, and other physical (e.g., sedimentation, storms or climate change) or chemical (e.g., nutrient cycling, hypoxia or contaminants) forces structuring benthic communities.

199. Other

 [G, P, B, C, F, N, H, X, E, S, R, I, T, M]

200. Committee's Choice


Organizers: Jon Sharp, University of Delaware,

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